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11 A tone produced by the greatest vocal exertion, but not so loud as to injure the qual When a passing note precedes an essential note, on an accented part of the measure, ity, is marked ff, and called fortissimo.

it is called an APPOGGIATURA. A modification of forte and piano, is marked fp. Of mezzo and piano, mp. Of mezzo When a passing note follows an essential note on an unaccented part of the measure, and forte, mf, &c.

it is called an AFTER NOTE. When an unaccented note is connected with the following accented note, it is said to

No. 4.


Written. No. 1.

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the notes.


Performed. Join now with me in this

dy, Sing with firm ac-cent, and slur
A TIE(S) connects notes on the same degree, which are performed as one.
See Exercise above.

A love begun, continued, and ended with the same power, is called an ORGAN
Tone. ==).

No. 5.

A tone begun soft and gradually increased in power, is called a CRESCENDO. (Cres.
or <).

An inversion of the Crescendo is called a DIMINUENDO. (Dim. or
A union of the CRESCENDO and DIMINUENDO is called a Swell.[ -).
A sudden Swell is called a PRESSURE Tone. I< or 1

A very short tone, produced with force and immediately diminished, is called an
Explosive TONE; sometimes FORZANDO, or SFORZANDO. (sf. fz. or >].

The Shake (tr) consists of a rapid alternation of two sounds. It should be much Staccato marks, thus [I I | ), denote that a passage is to be performed in a short, cultivated by those who would acquire smoothness and flexibility of voice. distinct manner.

No. 6.
LEGATO means smooth and connected, the opposite of STACCATO.
A SLUR 1) indicates that certain notes are sung to one syllable. -See Exercise


Performed. above, and tune Siloam. No. 2.




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The TURN consists of a principal sound, with the sounds next above and below it. It should be performed with care and neatness, but not too quick, thus: No. 3.


A figure 3 placed over three notes, thus shows that they are to be sung in the time of two of the same kind-for example, thus:



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2 왔
A double bar, thus

denotes the end of a strain or line in poetry.

Ornamental, or grace notes, are often introduced into a melody, that do not essentially belong to it; they are commonly written in smaller characters, and are called PASSING Notes.

* For more extended instructions on the Graces of Vocal Music, see the “Guide to the Cultivation of the Voice,” by I. B. Woodbury.

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* The author thinks the European system of not changing the vowel sounds, in the chromatic scale,

far preferable to the practice so much in vogue in this country, as many bad habits arise that require

M. S.

C. L. M. 8. O. I.

OM. 8. C. 1.,

M. S. CL

M. S.



с 8 Do


G 5 Sol

F 4 Fa




1 Do

And now




13 M. S.

M.S.C.I. be

No. 4.





good night! Good night, good night, good night!

I See the following tunes for practice: Edmeston, Henry, Paron, Rutgers street, Note.-When naming the chromatic intervals by numerals, say-sharp one, sharp Palestine, &c. two, flat six, flat seven, &c.; but when naming them by letters, C sharp, D'flat, É lat, &c.

The pupil will observe, that from any letter to the same made flat or sharp, the interval is a chromatic one ; and from any letter to the next above or below in the chro

LESSON XIT. matic scale, the interval is a minor second. Questions : What is the interval from C to C# (sharp)? C# to D, &c. ? C to B in descending ? B to Bb (fat)? Bb to A ? A

MINOR SCALE. to Ab, &c. ?' Commence the practice of the chromatic scale something in the following manner—the class sings one, after which the teacher sings sharp one, the class imitating him. Then two, sharp two, &c.

THERE is yet a third scale in music, called the Minor or soft mode. It consists of 7 For the future the class should devote a short time, each lesson, to the practise seven intervals, and has two forms or progressions ; thus, of this scale.

No. 1.
The influence of a sharp or flat extends from measure to measure, until a note in-
cervenes which is on a different degree from that before which it is placed.*
A NATURAL (5) is used to contradict or take away the power of a flat or a sharp.
No. 1.

sol la 4

is called the Harmonic form, and thus,

No. 2.

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is termed the Melodic form. The seconds are as follows in the Harmonic form : from one to two a major second; from two to three, minor; three to four, and four to tive, major seconds; five to six, minor second; six to seven an extended second, and seven to eight a minor second. The same progression is observed in descending.

In the Melodic form of the minor scale, the intervals occur as follows, viz. : from one to two, a major second ; two to three, a minor second ; three to four, four to five, five to six, and six to seven, all major seconds; and seven to eight, a minor second. The descending scale in the melodic form differs, viz.: eight to seven, and seven to six, major seconds; six to five, a minor second; five to four, and four to three, major seconds; three to two, minor second; two to one, major second. Question as follows on the harmonic form : How many major seconds has the harmonic form, and between which numerals do they occur? How many minors? Between which numerals does the extended second occur? Is the form the same descending as ascending, &c. ?

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Day is gone,

Night is come:

When the day of life has flown, Heaven be our home.

much after practice and instruction to eradicate. Those who choose, however, can still use the old plan by simply changing the vowel sound of the syllable, in ascending, to E, whenever a sharp occurs-and to A, in descending, whenever a dat is used.

* When a note succeeds one that has been made fat or sharp, toithout a note intervening on another degree of the staff, the effect of the accidental continues, although in another measure.


ELEMENTS OF MUSIC MADE EASY. Question as follows on the melodic form: How many major and minor seconds has The above example is not, strictly speaking, in the key of G, although we take G the melodic form of the minor scale ascending, and between which numerals do they as one. When F sharp is introduced, then, and then only, the transposition takes place, occur? Name the seconds descending: In what respect does this form of the scale thus; differ from the Harmonic form ? How does it differ from the major scale, &c. ? The scale of A minor has the same signature that C major has, hence some guide is neces

No. 2. SCALE IN THE KEY OF G PERFECT. sary in order to distinguish between the two. When the signature is natural, and any part commences on A, it is generally in the minor mode. When sharp five occurs

E to F# F# to G. often, the piece of music is generally in A minor. After hearing some minor music,

Major Sec. Major Sec.

Major Sec. Major Sec. Major Sec. the ear will enable one to decide whether it is in the major or minor mode. But as the key or mode is constantly varying in most pieces of music, it is impossible to de

---cide with certainty in relation to the key, without some knowledge of modulation, &c.* See the following minor tunes, viz. : Meldrum, Russia, Lebanon, Ramoth, &c.








G to A.

A to B.

C to D.

D to E.

B to C.
Minor Sec.

Minor Sec.


5 Te D sol

8 sol


6 mi E la

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The same method is followed in all the transpositions by sharps, viz., the fifth above or fourth below is taken as one of a new key, in every succeeding transposition, and

an additional sharp will be required also in every succeeding transposition. TRANSPOSITION OF THE SCALE.

REMARK.-In the above example, it will be observed that we have not only placed

the syllables transposed, but retained their original position as in the scale of C. Eight WHEN a scale of eight sounds occurs founded on any letter, the order of intervals or ten years' experience has proved to us, thai, generally speaking, more can be learned being from one to two and two to three, major seconds; three to four, a minor; four by classes, if the syllables are not changed. to five, five to six, and six to seven, major seconds; and seven to eight a minor second; REMARK. – We are aware that this will not meet with the approbation of all our it is named after the letter on which one is written. Thus, if one is written on C, it teachers, but those who have given it a fair trial, will fully endorse the above. Here is called the scale of C; if on D, the scale of D; if on E, the scale of E, &c. When a we would also enter our protest against the change of the vowel sounds of the syllapiece of music commences in the key of C, (although other keys may be introduced in bles, where an accidentalis introduced. It brings a long train of evils that requires the course of the piece by means of accidentals,) the signature is said to be natural, or, months of labor to eradicate. One reason why our choirs, and even select societies, in other words, there are no flats or sharps used at the commencement. But when a almost always fail on the accidentals, is owing to the habit of changing the syllables piece of music has flats or sharps placed at the commencement, it is said to be trans- and their vowel sounds. The system of changing the syllables is not known in the posed. The signature (or number of flats or sharps) placed at the commencement of best schools of Europe; and we predict that, ere many years pass away, the elements a piece of music will decide the key. The pupil will take notice in transposing the of the art in this country will throw off these trammels, and find itself free to soar on, scale, that the same order of intervals as in the key of C must be preserved, i. e., in its glorious path of love to fallen man. from three to four and seven to eight must be minor seconds, and all the rest major

Question as follows :-What do you understand by the transposition of the scale ? seconds. In the first regular transposition of the scale by fifths, G becomes one of the Ans. When any other letter besides C is taken as one of a new scale, and accidentals new scale, thus :

are introduced. When is the scale said to be in its natural position? What letter is

used to designate the natural key? What is the signature to C? In transposing the No. 1. SCALE IN THE KEY OF G IMPERFECT.

scale what order of intervals should always be preserved ? What is the first transpoPerfect. Perfect. Perfect Perfect Imperfect Imperfect.

sition ? Ans. To G, the fifth of C? What is the signature to G? If F is not sharped

how many intervals would be wrong? What would be the interval from six to seven E to F. F to G.

without the F#? What should it be, &c. ? Major Sec. Major Sec. Major Sec. Major Sec.

Major Sec,

No. 3.

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We think classes in general are too much confined to the syllables. The practice of them to some

extent, is desirable and even necessary; but we would not use them one moment longer than is necessary, . For extended illustrations and instructions in Modulation, s.. Woodbury's “ Self-Instructor in Mu. but substitute the words as soon as the progress of the class will allow. The syllable La and the vowelá sical Composition and Thorough Base,"

may also be used much more than is customary.

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6 6 7 8 fa sol la do

re F G A. B C D mi fa sol la do


Stars shining o-ver-head, Tell us to go to bed ; Dear friends, good night, Dear friends,good night. No. 6.


1 Re D Do

2 3 mi fa E re

7 8 do

Te C# D

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4 5 6
so! la

Do re

fa sol la do Questions. In what key is this scale? Ans. D. How do you know it to be in the key of D? By the signature. What is the signature ?_ Two sharps. What letters are sharp ? F and C. Why do we sharp F and C? To preserve the order of intervals. What numerals of the new scale are sharped ? Three and seven. In order to transpose a scale to its next affinity in sharps, what numeral of it must we sharp, ? The fourth. What was the fourth to C? Ans. F. By sharping F into what key do we modulate, or transpose the scale ? Ans. G. By sharping the fourth to G (which is C), into what key do we modulate ? Ans. D, &c. Practise tunes in D.

Third transposition by sharps (Key of A). One is written on A, the fifth to D, and in order to preserve the order of intervals, three sharps are found necessary, viz., G# (the new sharp), F# and C#, thus :

No. 8.

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Pick up the stones, not a weed must be growing Here on the ground, where our sweet flowers are blowing.

Practise such tunes as Temple, Monmouth, Invitation, Greenwich,* and in fact all tunes in the Key of G, which will be found arranged together in the different metres. Question on each tune something as follows: What is the signature ? Ans. One sharp. What letter is sharped ? Ans. F. Why do we sharp F? To regulate the order of the intervals. What is the order of intervals in all the transpositions ? Between three and four, and seven and eight, are minor seconds; all the rest are major seconds. Name the letters to the scale of G. Ans. G is one, A is two, B is three, C is four, D is five, E is six, F# is seven, and G is eight.

REMARK.—Most classes will be able to understand the theory, and, to a certain extent, the practical part of the art that we have been over, in about twelve or thirteen lessons, if the teacher has been faithful. Of course, in our division of the elements into lessons, it is not intended that they shall be followed out to the letter, but changes should be made as the interest of the class may require. Many classes will require twenty-four, or even more lessons, to acquire what we have been over in these few lessons. There is but little danger of going loo slow in teaching the elements of music. The rest of the transpositions may be taken up as the class may require, but let it be impressed on the mind, that if the first transposition is well understood, all the rest will come easy, and but little time will be required in teaching them.

Second transposition by sharps (Key of D). One is written on D, the fifth to G, and • If these old Continental Tunes are not useful for the services of the sanctuary, they are at least valua. ble as practice for classes. We are aware that many will * cry out" against them, but such are not obliged to use thema, for there is surely enough of good music in this work.

1 2 3

5 6 7 8 La si do

1 2 3

5 6

7 8 fa sol la

La si
B C D E F# G A


do re

mi fa sol la

Do re mi fa sol la

C# D E F# G# A

Do re Question as in the Key of D. Sing tunes in the Key of A, and exercises in the

mi fa sol la si do Keys of D and A. No. 9.


Follow me in this glee, Pleasant singing will be ringing, La la la, Tra la la la la la. No. 10.


O, mas my heart discover

All that is good and true, And may be fovet

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