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&c. and having a recumbent figure, in a furred gown, and large wig, with an epitaph, which for bombastic and extravagant eulogium can scarcely bel equalled, especially when it is recollected that the subject of it was one of those “illustrious obscure” who are forgotten as soon as they are buried:
“ Here Lockyer lies interr’d; enough; his name
To future times, without an epitaph!” He died in 1672, aged 72 years; what his“ virtues” might have been we know not; fortunately for the world, his “pills” are equally unknown.
Adjoining to this monument is a figure of a knight templar, supposed to be William Warrenne, Earl of Surrey, who was slain during the Crusades, in 1148; the figure, which is cross-legged, has been ridiculously placed erect.
In the Bishop's Chapel are interred Bishop Andrews*, with a fine effigy in his robes, as prelate of the order of the Garter; Sir John Shorter, who died while Lord Mayor of London, in 1688; a worthy grocer, named Garrard, with a quibbling epitaph, which concludes with the assurance that
“he is gone before To Heaven, where Grocers there are many more!” and last, though not least, the celebrated Abraham Newland, who died in 1807, after being 50 years Cashier to the Bank of England.
Within the Church, but without any memorial to mark the spot, was interred John Fletcher, the dramatic poet, who died in 1625, and whose plays are inferior only to those of Shakspeare; and in the Churchyard, Philip Massinger, another eminent dramatist, was buried in 1640; his funeral was attended by “the comedians,” but no stone points out the place where his ashes repose.
* This prelate was a man of humour; and being suspected of an inclination to the liberal party, James I took an opportunity of asking him, whether “he might not take his subjects' money without all this formality of Parliament?" Neale, Bishop of Durham, who was present, immediately interposed with, “God forbid but you should! for your Majesty is the breath of our nostrils." Andrews attempted to excuse himself, as « having no skill in Parliamentary matters;" but the King insisting on an answer, he replied, “Why then I think
your Majesty may lawfully take my brother Nealè's money, for he offers it."
St. Olave's Church next demands attention. At what period a Church was first erected on this spot cannot be ascertained, but one was iu existence in 1281, which continued until 1736, when part of it falling down, an Act of Parliament was obtained for building a new one, and the present edifice was accordingly raised. It is situated on the north side of Tooley Street, and is a plain building, of Grecian architecture, faced with Portland stone, 82 feet in length, and 59 in breadth. At the north-west angle is a tower, of no great elevation. The interior is very handsomely fitted up; and the altar is ornamented by statues of Moses and Aaron. As funerals are not permitted in this Church, it does not contain any monuments.
St. John's, Horselydown. This building was erected in consequence of the great increase of inhabitants in the parish of St. Olave, from which a certain portion was separated, and constituted a distinct parish, in 1733. The Church, situated in the centre of a large burial-ground, in Fair Street, is a plain stone building, 105 feet in length, and 51 in width, with a square tower at the west end, from which rises a fluted pillar, gradually lessening in circumference, with an Ionic capital, and a vane in the form of a comet. The roof of the building is slated, and a flagstaff is fixed at the east end. The interior is not entitled to much praise; over the communion table is a painting, by the Rev. Mr. Peters, of St. John writing the Apocalypse; the organ is large and handsome. Among the monuments there are not any deserving of particular notice. The architect was John James, of Greenwich, who also erected the beautiful church of St. George, Hanover Square; but this edifice does not justify the high opinion of his abilities which the former would occasion.
St. George the Martyr. This Church occupies the site of a very ancient building, which belonged to the Abbey of Bermondsey so far back as 1122, and having become so ruinous as to defy further repairs about 1733, an Act of Parliament was obtained, by which £6000 was granted for the erection of a new one, and the present'edifice was completed in 1736. It stands in High Street, and is constructed of red brick, with stone facings; above the centre of the west front is a tower and clumsy spire, and the whole structure is exceedingly heavy and tasteless. The principal entrance is by a flight of steps leading to the western door. The interior is very plain; the ceiling is painted in imitation of pannelling, flowers, &c.; and the east end has a little additional ornament. The organ, pulpit, desks, monuments, &c. possess no claims to particular notice. The infamous Bishop Bonner was interred in the old church, in 1569, after his death in the Marshalsea, where he had been confined more than ten years.
St. Thomas's Church is a small edifice, in the street of the same name, adjoining to the Hospital, of which the ancient Church formed a part; it was made parochial by Edward VI; and being much decayed, was rebuilt in 1702. It is a plain building of red brick, with a square tower on the south side. The interior is neat and plain; it has no organ. In the vestry is a portrait of Edward VI, in his robes, taken shortly before his death.
Christ Church is situated on the west side of Great Surrey Street, and was erected about 1737 on the site of a former building, which had become ruinous from the badness of its foundations, although it had stood little more than sixty years. The present edifice is of brick, nearly square, with a tower, surmounted by a wooden turret, at the west end. Neither the exterior nor the interior of this Church possess any claims to notice on the score of architectural beauty. The three eastern windows contain some stained glass, and the ceiling is slightly ornamented. Galleries run round three sides of the building, and the fourth is occupied by the altar. The churchyard is very spacious, the sites of several houses having been added to it within the last twelve years.
The places of worship for Dissenters of every description are very numerous in Southwark and its environs; but few among them possess any claims to architectural distinction; the Unitarian Chapel in
Stamford Street, erected in 1821, deserves mention, as an exception to their almost proverbial homeliness. Its magnificent portico, of the Doric order, is an exact imitation of that of the Temple of Theseus at Athens; the interior is simply elegant. Surrey Chapel, on the east side of Blackfriars Road, is an extensive building, of an octagonal form, capable of receiving nearly 5000 persons; it has a most excellent organ, and is well known as the chapel in which the venerable Rowland Hill has for many years almost constantly officiated.
Of the Charitable Institutions with which the Borough and its vicinity abound, the first which demand our notice are the Hospitals of St. Thomas and Guy. The former of these was originally founded early in the 13th century by the Prior of Bermondsey, and much enlarged by Peter de Rupibus, Bishop of Winchester; it was dedicated to St. Thomas aBecket*, and maintained a master, brethren, and sisters, and also “ received 40 poor infirm people, who had victuals and firing.” At the Dissolution it was seized by Henry VIII, and the buildings had become ruinous, when, in 1552, Bishop Ridley preaching before Edward VI on the duty of charity, excited that young monarch to commence those three noble institutions, Christ's Hospital, Bridewell, and St. Thomas's. His benevolent intentions were admirably seconded by the Lord Mayor and Corporation of London, who immediately purchased the buildings, and began to repair and fit them for their respective objects; and so active were they in this good work, that in the course of four months they had admitted into this Hospital 260 poor lame and diseased persons, and had expended £1100 in repairs, furniture, &c. In the following year an Act of Incorporation was passed, by which the government of this, and the other institutions mentioned above, was vested in the Lord Mayor, Aldermen, and other persons, in whose successors it still continues.
The ancient buildings, having been damaged by fire, and decayed through age, a subscription was commenced about 1690, to rebuild it, and the gover
* After the Reformation this rebellious saint was deposed, and the patronage of the new Hospital transferred to St. Thomas the Apostle.
nors, and other persons, having very liberally contributed, the first stone of the new edifice was laid in 1692, and it was carried on at intervals, until 1732, when the whole was completed, as it now appears. It is composed of four quadrangular courts, the entrance to the first being by a pair of handsome iron gates, which, with the house on each side, and the north side of the court, were erected by Mr. Guy. The principal front of the building is neat, and is ornamented with statues, a clock, &c. From hence, a flight of steps leads into the second court, surrounded by a colonnade, under which are benches; on one side is the Chapel, opposite to this the parish Church, and in the centre is a fine brass statue of Edward VI, on a stone pedestal. From the east side of this court, under the Hall, is a passage to the third, which is also surrounded by a colonnade, and is ornamented with a good statue of Sir Robert Clayton, a great benefactor. Beyond this court is a fourth, containing the Theatre, baths, dead-house, &c. The Court Room, in the second quadrangle, is a handsome apartment, with many fine portraits. This Hospital contains 18 wards, and nearly 500 beds, and here the poor have the benefit of the most skilful medical and surgical treatment, joined to the greatest cleanliness and comfort of which their situation is susceptible. The annual expenditure is more than £10,000; and the number of patients relieved in the course of the year is about 9000.
Guy's Hospital, on the opposite side of St. Thomas's Street, was founded and endowed by Thomas Guy*, a bookseller of London, who after bestowing large
* He was the son of a lighterman at Horselydown, where he was born in 1644, and after serving an apprenticeship to a bookseller, commenced business for himself in the house which still forms the angle between Lombard Street and Cornhill, with a stock of about £200. He carried on a great trade in the sale of Bibles printed abroad, and also engaged largely in the purchase of the tickets which were at that time given to seamen in lieu of their wages, and which they, being unable to wait, were obliged to dispose of, at a considerable reduction. From these sources, and being very economical in his household and personal expences, Mr. Guy amassed an immense fortune, and this fortune he employed in the noblest acts of charity; beside the sums which he bestowed on his own Hospital and that of St. Thomas, he bequeathed a perpetual annuity of £400 to Christ's Hospital; left £ 1000 for discharging poor prisoners for debt in London, Middlesex, and Surrey; founded Almshouses, with a perpetual annuity of £125, at Tamworth, where his mother was born ; and bequeathed large sums to his poor relations, and to various charities.