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sums on the preceding Hospital, determined to employ his immense wealth in the foundation of another. This he accordingly accomplished, and lived to see it nearly completed, although not begun until he was in his 77th year. The building cost him £18,793, and he left the immense sum of £219,499 for the support of 400 diseased objects, and 20 incurable lunatics.
This building is extensive, and the entrance is by an elegant iron gateway, which opens into a handsome square, in the centre of which is a brass statue of the founder, on a pedestal ornamented with sculpture. The wards contain more than 400 beds, and the average number of patients admitted is about 2250 annually, beside a great number of out-patients. In the Court Room, which is handsomely decorated, is a portrait of Mr. Guy, and in the Chapel a fine statue of white marble, representing him in the act of raising a miserable object, and pointing to his Hospital. This figure is by Bacon, and cost
£1000. In 1829, Mr. Hunt, formerly a merchant in London, left upwards of £200,000 to this Hospital, for the purpose of erecting new wards, and receiving 100 additional patients. He was interred in the Chapel, near Mr. Guy, and may be considered a second founder. The Asylum for the Deaf and Dumb, in the Kent Road, owes its origin to the exertions of the Rev. John Townsend, who about 1792 succeeded in establishing this institution for the relief and
instruction of those unfortunate children who are deprived of hearing and speech. The building, erected in 1807, and much enlarged in 1819, is a neat structure, and can receive 200 children, the ages of nine and fourteen. They are , write, cipher, and
ten some are even enabled to speak. They are likewise instructed in some mechanical art, and many of them are qualified for useful occupations.
London Road, was formed in 1789 by Robert Young, Esq. Dr,
The Philanthropic Institution, 1998, Lettsom, and other benevolent individuals, for the reform of children who have been engaged in criminal courses, or who are the offspring of convicted felons. The society was first established at Cambridge Heath, near Hackney, but soon after removed to its present situ ation, where spacious and commodious buildings have been erected for its use. For the employment of the boys, various trades are carried on within the walls, under the superintendence of master workmen; while the girls are employed as menial servants, in washing, needle-work, &c. Upwards of 200 chil. dren are brought up in this Institution, the funds of which derive a material benefit from the collections at the Chapel, which is a neat building.
The district still known as St. George's Fields, was till a comparatively recent period what its name imports, but is now covered with buildings, and intersected by many handsome streets and roads. In the centre, where several of these roads meet, is a neat Obelisk, erected in 1771, in honour of Brass Crosby, Esq. Lord Mayor in that year, who was imprisoned by the House of Commons for a conscientious discharge of his magisterial duty. Several Charitable Institutions are situated in this neighbourhood; and some of the most prominent objects are represented in the following view:
The School for the Indigent Blind, in St. George's Circus, was founded on a small scale, at a short distance, in 1799, but was soon removed to its present situation, and is a commodious building, with a neat front. The object of this institution is to instruct persons above 12 years of age, labouring under the severe afflictions of blindness and poverty, in such useful arts as may enable them to maintain themselves. The inmates are of both sexes, and about 60 in number, and the articles manufactured by them, consisting of baskets, lines, mats, &c. return an annual sum of from £800 to £1000 to the Society.
Bethlem Hospital is situated in the Lambeth Road, and was erected between 1812 and 1815, at an expense of £100,000, the ancient structure of the same name in Moorfields having become decayed. It is an immense pile of building; the principal front, which is 580 feet in length, has a noble aspect; it consists of a centre and two wings; the centre is surmounted by a dome, and ornamented with an Ionic portico of six columns, above which is placed the royal arms, the original Hospital being founded for the reception of lunatics by Henry VIII, although placed under the controul of the Corporation of London. The interior is judiciously arranged, and is capable of receiving about 200 patients. "Behind the principal edifice are two detached buildings for criminals; and spacious grounds for air and exercise extend in the rear of the whole. The space occupied by the Hospital and its dependencies is about 12 acres of ground. In the Hall are the two inimitable statues of Raving and Melancholy Madness, executed by Gabriel Cibber, which were formerly placed on the outer gates of the old hospital.
The Female Asylum, in Westminster Road, is a refuge for female orphans, instituted in 1758, and has been eminently useful in rescuing poor children from that state of neglect and wretchedness which would probably lead them to robbery and prostitution. The buildings, which were re-erected two or three years ago, are now very neat, and the Chapel is handsome and well attended.
The Freemason's Charity School is a handsome building, erected in 1793, for the education and maintenance of female orphan children of freemasons. It is well supported by the fraternity, and is situated in Westminster Road. In the front is a small garden; and the building is adorned with three elegant statues of Faith, Hope, and Charity:
The General Lying-in Hospital, was established in 1765, for the reception of poor married women;
and, with a benevolence worthy of imitation, the governors afterwards resolved to admit unmarried females, who had once strayed from the path of virtue, and by this measure probably saved the lives of many infants, whom a false shame would otherwise have led their unhappy mothers to destroy. This institution has been recently removed from its original situation in the Westminster Bridge Road, to an elegant new building, situated in York Road, leading to Stamford Street.
The Magdalen, in Blackfriar's Road, was established in 1758, principally by the exertions of the unfortunate Dr. Dodd, for the reception of those unhappy females who are willing to quit a life of prostitution, or who, having been seduced and deserted, would be otherwise driven to that dreadful resource. This edifice was erected in 1769, (the previous operations of the Society having been carried on in Prescot Street, Goodman's Fields,) and receives about 80 females, who are treated with the utmost tenderness, employed in various useful works, suitable to their education and ability, and, when thoroughly reformed, either sent back to their friends, or placed in respectable situations. Since the commencement of this Institution between 4000 and 5000 women have been thus restored to society, and by far the greater portion of them have, by their subsequent behaviour, shown themselves worthy of the benevolent attention bestowed on them. The Chapel is open to the public on Sunday, when a collection is made in aid of the funds, and as the singing renders it a favourite resort, considerable benefit is derived from this source,
In Southwark and the vicinity are several Almshouses, the most remarkable of which are, Cure's College, near St. Saviour's Church, founded and endowed in 1584, for 16 poor persons, by Thomas Cure, Esq. who was saddler to Edward VI, Mary, and Elizabeth, and M. P. for this Borough; the Fishmongers' Alms-houses, opposite the Elephant and Castle, an extensive pile, founded in 1619; and those of Mr. Hopton, in Green Walk, Blackfriar's Road, erected about 1730, for 26 decayed housekeepers, each of whom receives £10 per ann, and a chaldron of coals.
Here are two Free Grammar Schools; that of St. Saviour, opposite the south side of the Church, was founded in 1562 at the expense of the parishioners, and endowed for a master and usher, who are “freely to teach such poor children as are natives of the parish;" the original building was destroyed by the fire of 1676; the present one is a neat edifice of brick, with a large door-way in the centre. St. Olave's School was founded in 1571, and the governors incorporated by Queen Elizabeth; Charles II, in 1674, granted a further charter, enabling them to hold lands amounting to £500 a year, for the maintenance of a master and ushers, and the education of poor scholars belonging to the parish, two of whom were to be kept at one of the Universities; and a part of the funds were to be applied to other charitable purposes. The School-house has been lately pulled down by the committee for forming the approaches to London Bridge, and a site for the new building has not yet been fixed on.
Beside the above, almost every parish has its own charity school for poor children of both sexes; the British School, in the Borough Road, instructs 500 boys and 300 girls, on the plan of the excellent Joseph Lancaster; and the Benevolent Society of St. Patrick, in Stamford Street, receives a great number of children, of Irish parentage, and bestows on them education and clothing.
In Southwark are several Prisons; the County Jail, in Horsemonger Lane, though not strictly within the limits of the Borough, is but a few yards beyond them; it is a massy brick building, erected in 1781, surrounded by a strong wall, and appropriated to the confinement of debtors, felons, and, sometimes, persons convicted of political libels. On the top of the building, over the northern gateway, a temporary scaffold is erected for the execution of criminals, and here Col. Despard and six of his miserable associates were hanged for treason in 1803. The Sessions House adjoins to the prison.
The Borough Compter, in Tooley Street, belongs to the City of London, and receives offenders of every description, within the five ancient parishes of Southwark; here is no attempt at arrangement, all ages and all classes of offenders are huddled together, and the consequences must be dreadful.
The King's Bench Prison, at the top of Blackman