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on the south side. This elegant fabric was erected by Prior Goldstone, in 1517, and is enriched by a variety of sculptured ornaments, though now very much defaced. It has two octagonal towers, which were formerly finished by turrets of the same shape; but the latter having become ruinous, were taken down as far as the battlements. The lower part has a large and a small arch, closed by curiously carved wooden gates. Over the arches are many shields containing armorial bearings, and niches originally filled with statues; and two ranges of windows.
The venerable remains of the ABBEY OF St. AuGUSTINE stand at a short distance from the Cathedral Precincts. This Abbey was founded in 598 by the Saint whose name it bears, and was endowed with lands to a large amount by his royal convert, King Ethelbert; these gifts were increased by succeeding monarchs, and many privileges were granted to its Abbots by the Papal See.
The ancient Church existed from 613 to 1070, when Abbot Scolard commenced its re-edification, which was completed by his successor Wido, in 1099. Subsequent Abbots rebuilt other portions of the monastic offices; and about the fourteenth century, when it had attained the zenith of its splendour, it is said to have rivalled the Cathedral itself in magnificence and beauty. At the time of the Dissolution, its revenues amounted to £1413 14s. 11°d.; a very large sum, considering the relative value of money at that period and the present.
Henry VIII. preserved the great Gateway, with some adjoining buildings, intending to convert them into a palace for his own residence; the remainder Was stripped of its lead roofing, and left to perish. Queen Mary granted the Abbey and its demesnes to Cardinal Pole, after whose death it became again the property of the Crown; it has since that period passed to various possessors, and is at present vested in Sir E. Hales, Bart.
The western front extended 250 feet in length, and had a gate at each end, which are still remaining, with several fragments of the adjoining buildings. The
grand entrance, called
is exceedingly elegant; but, being converted into a brewery, the interior is lamentably dilapidated. The front has two octagonal towers, surmounted by lofty turrets, with rich cornices and battlements. Above
entrance are two handsome windows, and many ornamental niches and recesses, which were formerly filled with statues, the whole being finished by a fine battlement. The wooden gates have been carved in
corresponding style. This beautiful edifice was completed in 1309.
The ruins of the Church are extensive and inte. resting; many eminent persons were here interred, including St. Augustine, King Ethelbert, Bertha his queen, several other monarchs, archbishops, abbots, &c.; but not the slightest memorial now remains, to point out the place of their sepulture.
On a part of the site of the Abbey, the Kent and Canterbury Hospital was erected, in 1791; this is a very useful institution, well built and commodious, and supported by voluntary subscriptions. A hand, some County Gaol and Sessions House are situated at a short distance; and the remaining portions of this once sacred enclosure are occupied in a manner very inconsistent with its original destination.
The Castle of Canterbury was situated near the entrance from Ashford, and its outer walls appear to have enclosed an area of about four acres, surrounded by a ditch. From the style of its architecture, it was most probably erected in the reign of William the Conqueror, and it is mentioned in Domesday Book as existing at that period. The remains of the Keep exhibit an interesting specimen of the military architecture of that age; the principal walls are eleven feet thick.
About 300 yards to the south-east of the Castle is a high artificial mount, called Dane-John Hill, of which the origin has been much disputed. In 1790, by the exertions of Mr. Alderman Simmons, this hill, and the adjoining field, were laid out in walks, and planted with trees; and they now form a delightful promenade, commanding an extensive and varied prospect over the city and surrounding country.
The Walls of Canterbury were in all probability originally constructed by the Romans; and having been much damaged during the Danish incursions, were repaired in the time of Archbishop Lanfranc, who liberally contributed to the expense. They were strengthened during the reign of Richard I.; and in that of Richard II. they underwent further repairs, and the West Gate, with a part of the walls, was rebuilt by Archbishop Sudbury. In the reign of Henry IV. they appear to have undergone extensive reparation for the last time, and are now, in most places, in a ruinous state. They formerly included a space of nearly two miles in circumference, and were
defended by twenty-one towers; their general thickness is from six to nine feet. They had Six principal Gates, named Wincheap Gate, Riding Gate, St. George's Gate, Bur Gate, North Gate, and West Gate; of these the last only remains, being the entrance to the city from London; it is now used as a prison, and is a handsome and lofty stone structure, flanked by round towers, which, as well as the centre, are embattled.
Canterbury contains within its walls, exclusive of the Cathedral, eleven Churches, very few of which are worthy of attention on any other account than their antiquity; they are as follow:
Holy Cross, near West Gate, a spacious edifice, erected in the reign of Richard II., having a nave, chancel, and aisles, with a square tower at the west end.
St. Alphage, in Palace Street, a neat building, with several monuments.
St. Mary Bredman, and St. Margaret, the former in, and the latter near, High Street, possess nothing remarkable, except an inscription in the latter to the memory of William Somner, the historian of this city, who was buried there in 1669.
St. Andrew, in St. George's Street, is a modern brick building, erected about 1765.
St. Mary Breding, not far from the above, is an ancient structure, of small dimensions, supposed to have been built in the twelfth century.
St. Mildred, a spacious and well-built structure of the thirteenth century, has a nave, aisles, and chancel, with two chapels, and a square tower. It contains a monument in memory of Thomas Cranmer, nephew of the Archbishop, and another to Sir W. Cranmer, a more distant relation of the same prelate.
The remaining Churches, dedicated to St. Mary Magdalen, St. George, St. Peter, and All Saints, require no particular notice.
In the suburbs are three Churches; St. Dunstan's, on the London road, is a large building, with a square tower. In a vault beneath this church is interred Margaret Roper, the affectionate daughter of Sir Thomas More, whose head she procured after it had been exposed on London Bridge, carefully
treasured during her life, and directed to be placed near her coffin, which was accordingly done.
St. Paul's, near Bur Gate, contains the remains of Admiral Sir George Rooke, and of his father, Sir William.
St. Martin's, not far from St. Augustine's Abbey, is a small building, with a low tower at the west end. This church appears to have been constructed from the materials of a more ancient edifice, as the walls exhibit a confused mixture of flints, stone, and tiles. This circumstance has given rise to an opinion, which Mr. Brayley considers erroneous, that the present is part of the structure erected here in the time of the Romans; from the style of the architecture it cannot have been built before the reign of Henry III. It contains a very curious ancient font of Norman workmanship.
Canterbury formerly contained a great number of religious and charitable foundatious; of many of these the ruined walls alone remain; others still exist, in a modified state, better adapted to the habits and wants of the present
population. The Monastery of the Franciscans, or Grey Friars, was situated in the meadows to the west of the High Street, and near the river. This fraternity does not appear to have been in a very flourishing condition, as at the Dissolution its yearly revenues were estimated at no more than £33 12s. 8 d.; some low walls and ruinous arches are all that now remain of the buildings.
In St. Peter's Street, not far from the above, is the East Bridge Hospital, called also the Hospital of St. Thomas' the Martyr, supposed to have been originally founded by Becket, but placed under new regulations in 1342 by Archbishop Stratford, who ordered that it should contain twelve beds for lodging poor pilgrims, for whose support the sum of fourpence per day should be regularly expended; " and if there be not a sufficient resort of pilgrims in one day to require the expending of the WHOLE FOURPENCE, the remainder shall be laid out freely on another day, when the resort of pilgrims shall be greater; so that for every day of the whole year the entire sum of fourpence shall be carefully and faithfully expended!” A revenue of fourpence a day did not