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a mile: in width, towards the village of Linton, (which is situated near its eastern extremity,) it measures full three hundred feet; but not so much at the opposite end, where the gap is very evidently

The first idea that offers itself, in specu. lating on the origin of this extraordinary pass, is, that it must have been the course of a vast and violent torrent, which, from the broad opening towards the sea, and the more craggy torn surface of the mountains, would seem to have poured itself icto the Severn at the western extremity.”

LUNDY ISLAND. This Island, which lies in the Bristol Channel, 12 miles from Clovelly, is about three miles long, and nearly one in breadth. It is surrounded by precipi. tous cliffs, some of which rise 800 feet above the level of the sea, and render it inaccessible except in two or three places: indeed it has but one safe landing-place, which is on the east side, where a little beach leads to a winding path, by which the summit of the cliffs is gained, commanding an extensive prospect of the Channel. The Island is supposed to contain about 2000 acres of land, less than one-fourth of which is cultivated; yet wheat is raised in considerable quantity; some cattle are reared; and rabbits are found in great numbers. Many species of birds build in the rocks; and rats abound in all parts of the Island. Several springs supply an abundance of water, and two of these form little rivulets on the eastern side. It is destitute of wood, the violence of the winds preventing the growth of trees; but although the weather is frequently unpleasantly boisterous, the extremes of heat and cold are alike anknown here, and the air is pure and salubrious. .

Lundy appears to have been anciently much more populous than at present; towards the close of the seventeenth century it had more than 100 inhabitants, which number in 1794 was reduced to 23; and, according to a recent account, it has now but seven. Near the south-east extremity are the ruins of Morisco's Castle, so called from a pirate of that name, who established himself here in the reign of Henry III, and inflicted great injury on the trading vessels navigating the Channel; he was at length attacked, made prisoner, and executed here by order of the King.' His Castle appears not to have been demolished, as Lord Say and Sele defended it for Charles I during a considerable period; it was, however, at length reduced by the Parliamentary forces, and dismantled; many of its outworks, and a deep ditch by which it was surrounded, yet remain; and a few old dismounted cannon still occupy the ruined battlements. Some vestiges of a small Chapel, dedicated to St. Helen; a watch-tower near the landing-place, and another at the north end of the Island, with a few remains of old walls forming enclosures, the ground within having been once evidently cultivated, are all the architectural antiquities of this Island. It was, as already stated, comparatively populous in the reign of William III, when it was taken possession of by the crew of a French ship of war, who gained admittance by stratagem, and treated the poor inhabitants with the greatest barbarity, stripping them of every valuable, even to their clothes; seizing their cattle, horses, sheep, and goats, of which they carried off as many as they thought fit, hamstringed the remaining cattle, threw the sheep and goats into the sea, destroyed a quantity of flour, by mixing it with salt, and, in short, perpetrated every species of mischief that wanton malignity could suggest. The Island has never recovered from this blow: about 1750 it was in the possession of a smuggler, for whose profession it was excellently adapted, and who carried on an extensive traffic, during many years, in contraband articles; but he was at length detected, and fled to avoid punishment. It has since been the property of various persons, among others of the late Admiral Sir J. B. Warren, who built a small house here; and about 30 years ago was resumed by the Government, and a Light-house established.

LYDFORD, now a small decayed village, about seven miles from Tavistock, was formerly a large town and borough;" in 997 it was destroyed by the Danes, but in the following century had so far. recovered as to contain 122 burgesses, and to be the principal Stannary town, which it long continued. It also sent Members to Parliament, from which burthen it was afterwards excused on the score of poverty. The only remaining relic of its ancient consequence, beside the venerable parish Church, is a ruined tower, forming a portion of a Castle for the confinement and trial of offenders against the Stanpary Laws. The principal object of attention, howerer, at Lydford is

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which is formed by the waters of the little river Lyd, augmented near this place by a small rivulet which has its source in the neighbouring moors, and when swelled by heavy rains forms a magnificent sheet of water, which is precipitated from a height of more than 100 feet; about the middle of its course, stands a small rocky ridge; and the grandeur of the fall is much enhanced by this obstacle, over which the stream rushes with inconceivable impetuosity. The scenery around is of the most picturesque kind; the Cascade is overhung with the thickest foliage, among the rich tints of which the sober grey of its rocky base is interspersed; the ivy-covered tower of the Church, and the venerable ruins of the Castle, add interest to the view; and the distant hills of Dartmoor, whose summits are lost in the clouds, complete a picture which to be properly appreciated must be beheld. About half a mile from hence is a second fall, called Skait's Hole, which has a greater body of water than the first, but is not precipitated so far. From hence the Lyd swiftly flows over its rocky bed, until, at the distance of half a mile, it is crossed by a rude Bridge of one arch, thrown over an awful chasm, in the bottom of which, 80 feet below this structure, the stream is, heard rushing through its narrow channel. To comprehend the wildness and romantic beauty of this spot, the visitor must not merely pass over the Bridge; he must behold the scene in the various points of view presented from the craggy projections which hang over the yawning chasm, and he will then feel the justness of Warner's discription, who, in his Walk through the Western Counties, says, “ At a little distance below the Bridge, the fissure gradually spreads its rocky jaws; the bottom opens; and, instead of the dark precipices which have hitherto overhung and obscured the struggling river, it now emerges into day, and rolls its murmuring current through a winding valley, confined within magnificent banks, darkened with woods, which swell into bold promontories, or fall back into sweeping

recesses, till they are lost to the eye in distance. Thickly shaded by trees, which shoot out from the sides of the rent, the scene at Lydford Bridge is not so terrific as it would have been, had a little more light been let in upon the abyss, just sufficient to produce a “ darkpess visible. As it is, however, the chasm cannot be regarded without shuddering; nor will the stoutest heart meditate unappalled upon the dreadful anecdotes connected with the spot."

** The “ dreadful anecdotes” here alluded to, are the stories told by the guides, of several persons having chosen this wild and se questered scene for the commission of suicide; and the relation of these and other horrors, joined to the feeling of awe which always arises in the breast from the contemplation of scenes of this description, has a powerful effect on the minds of some hearers. VOL. I.

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MEMBURY, a village near the river Axe, on the Dorsetshire border, has an ancient Castle, once the property of the Marquis of Exeter, after whose attainder it was granted to Sir Edward North, and subsequently became the property of Sir John Drake, whose family mansion of Ashe, in the neigbourhood, deserves notice as the birth-place of John Churchill, Duke of Marlborough. His father, Sir Winston, had married the daughter of Sir John Drake, aud being an active Royalist, had provoked the vengeance of the opposite party, by whom his estates in Dorsetshire were seized, and he was compelled to seek an asylum here, where he resided many years. The future General was born in June, 1650, and after receiving such instruction as a domestic chaplain could supply, was taken to court at the age of twelve, where he became page to the Duke of York. At sixteen he commenced his military career, as an ensign, and was present at the siege of Tangier. He afterwards returned to court, where the beauty of his figure, and the softness of his manners, rendered him a great favourite; he was particularly noticed by the Duchess of Cleveland, one of the King's mistresses, who gave him £5000, with which the prudent youth purchased an annuity.

In 1672 he was present as a captain of the English auxiliaries at the siege of Maestricht, and so much distinguished himself as to be publicly thanked at the head of the line by Louis XIV, who little dreamed that he was complimenting one who in after life was to become his severest scourge. Having received the rank of Colonel, he went with the Duke of York to the Netherlands in 1679, and in the following year to Scotland, having about that time married Miss Jennings, a lady of great beauty and talent, and a favourite attendant on the Princess Anne. On a second voyage to Scotland, in 1682, in the suite of the Duke of York, the ship was wrecked, and many persons of distinction perished; Colonel, Churchill, however, was preserved by the particular directions of his royal master*. In this

* It is said that when the Duke found the vessel sinking pelled to make his escape in the boat, regardless of every other person, he cried ou', “ Save the dog , and Colonel Churchill !and while these directions were obeyed, many of the attendants on his Royal Highness, clinging round the boat for safety, were consigned to a watery grave, by having their fingers chopped off, to make them leave their hold.

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