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CONTENTS ix

PAGE

Robinson. John Goodwin. Bishop Butler. 'Fighting

against God.' The views of all learned Germans as esti-

mated by Rohnert. Mr. Gladstone quoted . . . .39

CHAPTER m

VARIETY AND UNITY

The Bible exhibits immense variety with essential unity. Re-

ferences of our Lord and the Apostles to the Old Testament.

Corrected estimates of the Law in the New Testament.

1. Preciousness of the variety of Scripture. 'Amicta varie-

tatibus.' Everything for some, something for all. Insight

into many minds. Characteristics of their diversity. 'As

universal as our race, as individual as ourselves.' 'Homo

sum.' Further illustrations. Influence of the Bible on

human history. 2. Unity of the Scriptures, especially in

the Revelation of Christ. 'In Vetere Testamento Novum

latet; in Novo Vetus patet.' The true value and message

of Scripture to be der ved from its final teaching in the

Gospels; and its true unity is in Christ . . . .47

CHAPTER IV

THE 'ALLEGORICAL METHOD' OP EXEGESIS UNTENABLE

The Bible contains a progressive and gradual revelation. Imper-
fect enlightenment of some of the Old Testament writers.
Defective characters, and partial knowledge. How Christ
corrected the Old Testament. Growth of the allegorising
method. It was borrowed by Philo from heathen sources.
His theory of impassive trance. Philo's manner of treating
the Law. Borrowed from the Stoic method of allegorising
Homer. Frequent childishness and audacity of the alleged
rising method. A disastrous legacy of the Jewish Church
to Christian exegesis. Connected with a false theory of
inspiration. The Talmud; Aqiba; Quenstedt; John Owen;
Burgon. Philo's method continued by Origen. 'The letter
killeth'—whatf The Venerable Bede. Sixtus Senensis.

The theory in opposition to all evidence. Unknown till after
the Reformation. The'Helvetic Confession'of 1675. Ca-

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CHAPTER Vm

'PLENARY INSPIRATION'

The word'inspiration'is excessively vague and undefined. 1. It

is not limited to the Scriptures. Instances of the use of the

word in English literature. 2. The Church has never de-

fined its character, or laid down its limitations. In our

Prayer Book it is always used of the ordinary influences of

the Holy Spirit on the minds of man. Milton. 3. Scripture

uses it in the same sense. Never confused with supernatu-

ral infallibility. 4. Widely divergent conceptions of inspi-

ration. i. The mechanical theory, ii. The dynamic theory.

iii. The theory of special inspiration in essentials only.

iv. The theory of general inspiration. 5. Supernatural

dictation of Scripture no part of the Christian Faith.

6. Scripture ascribes general or special inspiration to men

whom it depicts as still erring and imperfect. 7. Slavishly

literal exaggeration of isolated general expressions. 8. Evil

done by indeterminate words. 9. Inspiration does not ex-

clude fallibility in non-essentials. Dr. Pope. Archbishop

Temple. Dean Bagot. 10. The word 'inspiration' too

vague for dogmatic purposes. 11. The Bible itself shows

how widely variant must be the conceptions of 'inspiration.'

12. The correction of exaggerated notions lies on the sur-

face of the facts. 13. Faithlessness of the notion that we

have nothing but the letter of a book on which to rely.

What Scripture itself teaches on this subject. 14. Christ is

ever with us, and God has not ceased to speak. A Hag-

gadah of the Rabbis 114
CHAPTER IX

CHAPTER X

THE BIBLE CONTAINS THE WORD OF GOD

The formula of the Church is 'Scriptura continct verbum Dei.'
Cartwright's seven arguments that'the Bible is the word of
God.' They are only tenable when applied to the essential
revelation of Scripture. Luther never adopted the errone-
ous formula. The Scriptures as a whole never claim to be
'the word of God.' The phrase never once applied to the
Bible as a whole, either in the Old or the New Testament.
The expressions of Scripture itself. The teaching of the
Universal Church on this subject has always been in accord
with that of Scripture itself. John of Damascus. Doctrine
of the Anglican Church. The difference between vague,
rhetorical, general phrases and exact definition. The rigid

CONTENTS xiii

PAGE

identification of all Scripture with the word of God hardly

earlier than 1550, and it led to monstrous excesses. 'Com-

pkctitur,' not 'est,' throughout our formulte. Christ alone

is'the Word of God' 142

CHAPTER XI

BIBLICAL INFALLIBILITY

Sufficiency of Scripture for all things necessary to salvation.

Dangers which arose from the notion that it was in every

word divinely inerrant. False inferences. Infallibility not

granted to man except in things necessary to salvation.

1. No two great branches of the Church in rigid accord as

to what is the Bible. Primitive indeterminateness of the

Canon. The Apocrypha. The Syrian Canon. 2. No agree-

ment as to the authoritative text. In the Romish Church,

the Vulgate. In the Greek Church, the Septuagint. In the

Anglican Church, the original languages. 3. No agreement

as to any rule of interpretation. The Romish Church. The

Reformed Churches. The Greek Church. Thus no agree-

ment as to what is infallible. The supposed infallibility of

the letter has been a sterile as well as a dangerous dogma.

Immense divergencies of deduction from the 'infallible'

letter. 'Lucidity' of Scripture. '.Unhappy divisions.' Irre-

concilability of conclusions and inferences. Hence the in-

fallibility, if existent, has proved to be unavailable. Masses

of exegetic material now wholly obsolete .... 150

CHAPTER XI I

DANGEROUS RESULTS OF THE 'SUPERNATURAL DICTATION' THEORY

Judged by its fruits. The Bible and Science. Ignorant and

wicked persecutions of scientists. J. S. Mill. History of

Science. Absurdity of schemes which professed to be lite-

rally drawn from Scripture. Cosmas, Pfeiffer, Whiston, and

Burnet; Coleridge quoted, i. Roger Bacon, ii. Galileo.

Kepler. iii. Buffon. iv. The Geologists, v. Mr. Darwin.

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