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1838,) Konarski traversed Volhynia, the a relation of Rodziewitz, he made freUkraine and Lithuania in different di- quent excursions, entering every where rections, finding everywhere hearts into good understanding with the paburning with a pure love of country, triotic, and sowing in the hearts of his ready for any enterprise and any sacri- countrymen the seeds whose fruits were fice, but without any organization, mu to survive him. tual understanding or guiding hand ; Future history will undoubtedly give in a word without any definite plan. an account of his extended operations. They needed a determined man, one A portion of them, extorted by tortures, who could inspire the cautious with makes up already piles of documents confidence, rally the terrified, and who relative to his prosecution ; for this should know how to avail himself reason that part, however interesting it wisely of the enthusiastic ; in fine an may be, will not occupy us here. The upright man, absorbed in one aim mani- revolution of November has solved festing itself in every thought and deed. many riddles, and a future one, it is Such was Konarski when he reached hoped, will solve this one. We shall Lithuania, but not such when he was begin with the catastrophe which was leaving France; for he carried away the first scene in that terrible drama. with him from the midst of his discor Early in April, 1836, Konarski, with dant fellow-exiles a mind irritated Rodziewitz, went to Wilna for the secagainst every thing that belonged to ond time. It was the season of the the nobility. He was partly cured of so-called St. George's fair, when the this feeling when he met in Gallicia nobility of the neighborhood assemble. with men belonging to the movement It lasts from the 23d of April to the party, having more practical experience 15th of May. During their fortnight than himself; but wholly so, when, stay in Wilna, they made desirable acmingling with the people, he found that quaintances, and added many new memhis mission took root most successfully bers to their society, among whom the through the instrumentality of well students of the University, worthy disknown and respectable persons of that ciples of Zan,* strengthened their ranks class. In different meetings of the nobly. Having accomplished their busiyouths of Volhynia, Konarski discovered ness, they prepared to start for Minsk, willing and energetic intellects with fearing that a longer stay would expose devoted hearts. Zealous only for a them to danger. As they were on the good and effectual management of this point of leaving, one of the initiated cause, he weighed well the means and introduced to them a watchmaker probabilities of success, and was recon- named Duchnowski, as an honest and ciled with the nobles in proportion as he patriotic man, and proposed him for a found among them worthy citizens and member. This happened in the morngallant patriots. He sought among ing. In the afternoon Konarski went them for the ablest apostles to the peo- alone to Duchnowski's residence, ple; and to that portion of the nation where, having found some strangers, whose memory cherished most warmly he invents a pretext for his coming, the picture of their past historical great- and gives him his watch-chain, which ness and whose fancy kindled the he purposely broke, to be mended. A brightest hopes of future national re few minutes suffice for the task, and generation, he carried himself the Duchnowski hands it back to its owner, tidings of the gospel of freedom. refusing his pay for the trifling service;

Konarski, from the first moment of his whereupon Konarski invites him to arrival in the provinces taken by Rus- take a glass of wine with him. There sia, secreted himself at Lissow. That lived in the German street a Jew, estate lying in the marshes and forests named Rosenthal, a wine-merchant. of Polesia, near Pinsk, offered him a Thither Duchnowski and Konarski secure sojourn. It was a crown estate repair, and not desiring the presence under the administration of Rodziewitz, of other company, they are shown to a whose similarity of ideas and feelings room for themselves where the latter united him closely to Konarski. From discloses his projects, and invites Duchthis retreat, under the assumed title of nowski to join their patriotic society.

• One of the university students, who was exiled to Siberia with other patriotic youths; of which number was Mickiewirz (Mects-keh-vitch) the poet.

At the same time he informs him of his In consequence of this event, Duchnowintention to leave for Minsk that very ski was thrown into prison ; Wilna was night. Rosenthal had however suspect surrounded with guards ; swarms of ed them, and communicated his suspi- spies were set loose ; and many a quiet cions to the authorities. A Moscovite spy citizen, returning home late at night, shortly after made his appearance, and saw sentinels at the corners of the joined in the conversation, condemning streets, and watchmen secreted in the the Government and extolling the Re- various alleys. volution. Konarski's eagle eye saw During the first two days of the at once the impending danger, and, alarm, Konarski was secreted in the retaining his self-possession, continued city, and did not leave it in a postthe conversation in the same strain, chaise, as he intended, but in a hired and made the spy suppose that he was private conveyance, with which he was of the same craft; and cautiously furnished by Sawicz (Sah-vitch), a drawing him aside thus addressed him : university student, who was after

“ I see we are, both of us, chasing wards condemned to perpetual service the winds. Neither of us can do any as a common soldier. In this way, thing without the other. I have dis- Konarski and Rodziewitz fortunately covered the bird of which you are in reached the next post-station at Krzypursuit, and am informed of his nest; zówka, on the road to Minsk. Rod but alone I cannot cope with him, for ziewitz alighted first, to hire posthe is a huge fellow. Come with me, horses, leaving Konarski concealed in then; four hands may succeed better; the covered carriage, who, feeling unand as for the reward, we will share it easy and agitated, looked out, but inequally.”

stantly withdrew his head on discoverThe spy looked thoughtful, smiled, ing the red color of a Moscovite officer shook his head doubtingly, and care- on the piazza. This attracted the atfully watching him, inquired, “ what he tention of the officer, whose sole duty was so earnestly saying to Duchnow- was to stop and annoy travellers. ski about a conspiracy? That he had He immediately compared Konarski's so conversed, was certain, for Rosen- appearance with the description he thal had overheard them, and from a had, and gave orders to the secreted few words had guessed what sort of gens-d'armes to seize him. At this mopersons they were.

ment the horses were brought, and To this, Konarski, still sustaining Rodziewitz was about to get in, but his assumed character, replied, “ You was prevented by a police officer from must be a novice in our craft. Do you Wilna, named Wendzigolski. He not see that I was trying to entangle preserves his self-possession, and the old man, who has the character of showing the officer his passport, threatbeing a patriot ?"

ens to enter a complaint against him if And have you caught him ?" he is detained. The policeman pro

“No, indeed : I lost my time and tests he has nothing against him, and the bottle of wine to boot. He is a that he is at liberty to proceed wheresimple-hearted old man, who hardly ever he pleases, but insists on stopping knows that two and two make four." his servant, whose looks correspond so

Having thus dexterously deluded the well with the description of the conspy, he carried him with him to an spirator. Rodziewitz endeavors alley leading into Wilna-street, where show the impossibility that his servant he pointed out an house in which he so well known could be a person so informed him that the emissary they important.

The officer once more were in pursuit of was secreted. He compares the description with the looks stationed the spy at the door, while he of the arrested, and although he knew entered to discover if the person they that during the past three days a numsuspected was within. The house ber of innocent persons had been arhad two entrances. Konarski dis- rested, still he hopes that this seizure appeared, and the spy, weary with may prove more successful; and in a waiting, learned that he had been de- few minutes, Konarski, in a post-chaise ceived, and hastened to inform the surrounded by gens-d'armes, is on his chief of the secret police that he had way back to Wilna. actually had Konarski in his hands, and Rodziewitz remained at the posthow the latter had effected his escape. station. He had various important


papers belonging to the conspirators, thods of punishment. At the comwhich he had scarcely time to destroy, mencement of every examination, Kobefore he heard the post-chaise return- narski and Rodziewitz were severely ing. He was then himself put in beaten, to induce them to divulge the chains and carried away with his whole truth. If they gave what were friend.

considered evasive replies, the flesh of Konarski was thrown into a dungeon the shoulder was cut, and smelted sealunder the royal palace, where he had ing-wax was dropped into the gaping nothing to eat for three days, nor had wounds, and sometimes spirits were he even a blade of straw for his bed. poured in and set on fire. At the same On the third day he was brought be- time, the fingers were drawn out of their fore the Prince Dolhoruki, who asked sockets,and sharp instruments driven unhim if he was not an emissary con- der the nails. Such cruelty on the one spirator. The prisoner made no an- hand, and such endurance on the other, swer to the question, but indignantly could only be equalled by the martyr said, “I want food; otherwise I will deaths of the early Christians in the reign not reply.” The governor ordered of that fiercest of the persecutors, Domithat his wishes should be complied tian. Frequently, when the tortured with, after which they conversed a victim fell from exhaustion upon the long time together. Konarski, with hands of the hangman, who endeaall the eloquence of a great soul, vored to bring him back to life, on pleaded before the Moscovite the duties coming to, he would exclaim : "Vilof a man to mankind, and especially of lains ! I have already told you I know a patriot to his country. He spoke of nothing, I know nobody, and if I am self-sacrifice, of the martyr's crown, of guilty, I am alone in my guilt.”

.” Again, the progress of liberal ideas among in the midst of his agony, he would nations, and by predicting the speedy mockingly exclaim to Trubetski: “Now downfall of Czarism. Doubtless, more try some other torture; perhaps you than one thought left an impression may invent something better, and see upon the governor's mind.

if you can extort a single word from After the first examination, Konarski me. was removed to the convent of the Trubetski, with his head set close monks of St. Basil, by the Ostra upon his shoulders, and a face swollen Brama (Sharp Gate), where he was by drunkenness, with ferocious eye and imprisoned in a well-secured priest's implacable heart, foamed like a mad cell. It was the same bastille in which animal. Yet even his brutal soul Zan, Mickiewicz, and so many other seemed sometimes to be struck with martyrs had suffered. Classic spot! the enormity of the sufferings, and the The memory of the unfortunate Simon indomitable will of the martyr; for now must have filled it, in his lonely hours, and then he would exclaim in astonishwith images of torture immortalized ment “ He is a man of iron !" by the pen of Adam.

But Rodziewitz did not show equal The arrest of Konarski was an event firmness. The old man whose head of great importance. To the greedy was blanched by age, and whose host of hirelings an opportunity now strength was worn out, at length yieldopened itself to involve the whole of ed to the malice of his tormentors. Lithuania. An investigating commis- Under the repeated tortures to which sion was already established, and he was subjected he confessed all that Prince Trubetski, civil vice-governor, he knew, and much that he did not was appointed at its head ; and post- perfectly know, respecting individuals ; chaises were busy, night and day, car- thus bringing ruin and wretchedness rying away the suspected citizens. It upon several hundred families. After is impossible to imagine anything more these confessions a great hunt for hudisgraceful than a Moscovite criminal man beings took place in Lithuania. trial. The cruel tortures of the middle Noblemen, clergy, and students were ages had a certain systematic order brought in from all parts of the counguarded by law, which was strictly try. Sometimes a culprit when brought adhered to with every prisoner ; but, before Trubetski was met by him at under the merciless superintendence of the outset with a blow of the fist, and Trubetski, the hirelings were constant- the question uttered in a voice of thunly inventing new and more severe me- der, "Did you take the oath or not ?" He

would then torture his victim till he cence, now or never!" Korovayeu obtained from him his signature ac- endeavors to make him understand the knowledging that he belonged to the matter; explains to him the minutest secret society, and had likewise taken details, and proposes to bring Konarsan oath before Konarski. In one month ki to him, if he still mistrusts. It is all there was no more room in the spacious in vain—in vain does he depict liberty convent of the monks of St. Basil. in the most vivid of colors. It is past

In the midst of these secret murders, all conception! A Moscovite captain of tortures diabolically invented for the strives to fan the flame of freedom in body and soul, of groans piercing the the unwilling breast of a Pole! The walls of the prison, in the very midst conduct of Orzeszko would embitter the of the hard-hearted persecutors, a heart of the best patriot. All efforts deed of high-mindedness was enacted; on the part of the gallant captain proved the more noble because performed by a futile. The obstinate man could not man who was not a Pole, but one of be persuaded. Korovayeu saw the the professional instruments of despo- abyss before him, and in despair seized tism, and who now sacrificed himself the prisoner, and endeavored to snatch for truth and mankind.

the note from him. They struggled It was early in September, 1838, that and fell. The noise alarmed the turnthe Russian Captain Korovayeu, moved key. Korovayeu departed without the by Konarski's innocence of all moral note. The next morning Orzeszko deguilt, and overcome by the nobleness posited before the investigating comof his character, with which he had mission, the testimony exculpating himbecome acquainted during short con- self and condemning one of the noblest versations while on guard, came to the of men. There is no more hope for prison one night and offered him his Konarski !* freedom. Konarski could not for some Towards the end of December, after time believe he was in earnest. But having extorted from the accused their when the captain told him how a pass- signatures acknowledging their guilt, port and relay of horses might be pro- the commission, both in Wilna and cured, and that his company of soldiers Kiou, closed their proceedings. Genewas ready even to fight in his defence, ral Polozow, known for his honesty and should occasion require, he threw him- humanity, was sent to Wilna to examself into the arms of his noble deliverer, ine those proceedings, and to him many and they were soon engaged in con- owed their complete acquittal or a comcerting a plan for escape. When no mutation of their punishment. hope was visible on his horizon, free The prisoners were divided into dom began to smile upon the prisoner. three classes-1st. those who were

They determined to free all those to suffer death ; 2d. those who were who were most deeply involved. Cap- to work for life in the mines of Siberia, tain Korovayeu took from Konarski and to have their estates confiscated; written directions to several of his fel- and 3d. those who were destined for low prisoners. With one of these the the colonies of Siberia, or to serve as captain went to the cell of Anthony privates in the army in the Caucasus. Orzeszko, handed it to him, and waited Konarski was in the first, and Rodzi. till the gratified prisoner should express ewitz in the second class. his joy. But what astonishment, what When the decree was read to the disappointment does he feel, when the University students, an affecting scene prisoner not only receives the news took place. Those gallant youths, with indifference, but, folding the paper with tears in their eyes, embraced and grasps it tight in his hand, saying: “I saluted each other, as if they were thank you, captain ; you have given me parting at the portals of the grave. a weapon,-now I will prove my inno- General Polozow suspended the read

* Koroayeu was tried and condemned to be shot, but, through the influence of his colonel, General Geismar and Prince Dolhoruki, who represented to the Czar that he did it out of a kindliness of heart, and an excessive tenderness of disposition, for which he was distinguished, his punishment was commuted to fifteen years service as a common soldier in the Caucasus.

7 In Russia, though capital punishment does not exist as a part of the civil penal code, it is allowed, and on very rare occasions inflicted, for high political crimes.

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ing for a while, but seeing no early ter. But it was all in vain, and she was mination to their grief, he asked for si- compelled to depart. lence, saying : "Gentlemen, are you At 8 o'clock on the morning of the 26th not curious to learn your sentence ?" of February, twenty-four hours before We listen to you, General,” was the his execution, the decree condemning reply of Doctor Milkowski. “ The Konarski to be shot, was read. The decree of death from your lips will be whole of that day which was left to more agreeable to us than even mercy him for preparation for his deparfrom those of Prince Trubetski." ture from this world, was devoted

“ You complain unjustly,” rejoined by Konarski to the memory of his the General ; "the Prince obeyed the relatives, and friends. Now he relaw; and," pointing to the piles of joiced in the hope that the fate of his papers, “look, there are your own country, hitherto veiled from his view, signatures.'

would soon be uncovered to his disen* We have signed, it is true," again thralled vision ; and now, as if to bid spoke Milkowski. “We have signed adieu to it forever, he called forth from every thing we were required; but we his flute melody of the most exquisite swear before God, give us for half an tenderness. Touched by the fire of hour the power of inflicting the tor- inspiration he asked for paper, and tures which made us sign, and this though unskilled in the art composed a Prince Trubetski himself will plead poem in which he depicted his ardent guilty to the same crime for which we love of liberty and country, and poured are now to suffer."

forth his enthusiasm for the improveAt this speech Trubetski and the rest ment of the world and the extirpation of the investigating commission arose of its deep-rooted wickedness; and from their seats at the table, remon- gave a passionate vent to his agony of strating against the insult their honora- complaint against the unjust fate which ble body had received. 6. Well !” said awaited him. But when the violence one of them, “ let the proceedings be of his first emotion had subsided into torn to pieces, let us begin the investi- calm contemplation, Konarski appears gation anew! let truth like oil come like a vessel ready to sail just before up to the surface !” Miscreant! he she is loosened from her moorings. doubtless wished to prolong the enjoy. She is not let go at once, but gradually, ment of the lucrative office !

so that she can take a free sweep on a General Polozow, requested the deep sea. Having taken up the pen committee to be silent, and then address- a second time, before he is launched ing the young men, advised them not forth upon the deep sea of eternity, he to set up any new complaints; for so began slowly and calmly to unloose, one doing, they would only prolong their by one, the ties which bound him to his sufferings and their suspense ; and pro- mother, his brother and his beloved. mised them that whenever it was in The following letter will portray the his power he would ask the Czar for depth and purity of his heart, better a commutation of heir punishment. than any phrases of high sounding He kept his promise, and a part of eulogy: the prisoners afterwards experienced through his influence some alleviation “ My dear mother-dear Stanislausof their hard fate. After the prisoners my dear relatives—all of you who loved of the second and third classes were me and to whom my heart and soul owe disposed of, Konarski's sentence re- gratitude for all my happy moments, and mained to be carried into effect. Three the dear remembrances which I have exdays before, his mother who had come perienced in the course of my life-forfrom the country to visit her unfortu- give the tears and sufferings which you nate son, was ordered to leave Wilna. have endured on my account. When you She endeavored to soften the authori- will read this letter, I have

no doubt that ties by her prayers and tears, to obtain my fate will be decided ; General Polo

zow and the court-martial have assured permission to be present at the execu

me that my letter shall be forwarded to tion. “ Be assured," said she, “that you. It may be that nature may overthe faintest sob shall not escape my come all philosophy and all logic, for the breast. I wish only by my presence frailties of human nature are more powto encourage him to die manfully.' erful than I can describe. I should be

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