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remaining still upon the coaft, and the prætor advancing towards the river Strymon, Alexander found himself too But foon weak to engage the numerous and victorious army of the with Romans. Quitting therefore his conquefts, and the en- draws. figns of the regal dignity which he had affumed, he withdrew into Dardania, where he fo effectually concealed himself, that the Romans could never get him into their power. Such was the end of this war, which afforded yr. of Fl. what had been fo long defired, a pretence for reducing Macedonia into a Roman province, as well as for chastif- Ante Chr. ing the Thracians, and other borderers, for having fhewn greater affection to the Macedonians, than duty towards the republic. Q. Cæcilius Metellus, on his return to reduced to Rome, triumphed, and led Pfeudo-Philippus, in the ca- a Roman valcade; after which the victor took the firname of Ma- province. cedonicus 2.
The Macedonians were not only reduced to the fame A third ftate with the rest of the nations conquered by the Ro- pretender. mans, but also deprived of what fmall remains of their ancient grandeur Æmilius had left behind him; among the reft, of the brazen statues fet up at Dium, for fuch of Alexander's guards as had fallen in the battle of Granicus. Metellus alfo appointed new magiftrates, and changed in every refpect the government under which they had lived before. As the rest of Greece foon after fell under the like circumftances, it was not doubted but the fpirits of these people were effectually quelled, and that they would never attempt to throw off that yoke, which, after repeated victories, they had feen impofed upon the bravest and most potent of their neighbours. Yet it happened otherwife: a new Pfeudo-Philippus fhewed himself on the borders of Thrace, and having drawn together a small band of defperate men, began to harass the country, and particularly to destroy fuch as he either knew or fufpected to be attached to the Romans. The love of liberty among the Macedonians increafing with the lofs of it, they reforted in crowds to this new pretender, and advised him to invade the kingdom, with full affurance that he would meet with little oppofition. Accordingly he came with his forces into the heart of Macedonia, where he was continually joined by new recruits, making in a fhort time fo quick a progrefs, that the greatest part of the country fubmitted to him; and thus with the regal title he gained the power
a Liv. Flor. Patercul. ubi fupra. Strab. lib. xiii. p. 624. Jul. Obfeq. de Prodigiis. Eutrop. lib. iv.
and authority of a king. To reduce him, the Romans fent a numerous army, under the command of the quæftor Lucius Tremellius, who no fooner entered the province, than he began to retake the cities which Philip had fubdued and fortified; and though this pretender excelled Andrifcus in prudence and moderation, yet in the end he was defeated and flain. He feems to have been the last who pretended to vindicate the liberty of the Macedonians, under the colour of a right derived from Perses, or any of its ancient princes ".
The trouble which the reduction of, this province had coft, and the manifest difaffection which the people had shewn towards the republic, encouraged fuch as were entrufted with the government to exercise great severities, Syllanus; and grievoufly to oppress those whom they were fent to rule. D. Junius Syllanus, a man of high quality, exceeded all his predeceffors, as well in fleecing the Macedonians, as in treating them with exceffive rigor. In fhort, though few years had elapfed fince their country had been reduced into a province, and they had reafon to believe that their ftrenuous endeavours to avoid it were remembered at Rome; yet fo much of their ancient spirit remained, that they could not endure tamely fo severe a fubjection. They therefore fent deputies to Rome to reprefent their grievances, and to pray that more justice might be done on their rapacious governor, than ever he had done in his province. When this complaint came before the fenate, the deputies were heard with great fhew of kindness, and Junius Syllanus was commanded to appear at a certain day, and answer to the crimes objected against him. Before that time was expired, Titus Manlius Torquatus, his father, a very eminent perfon, of the old Roman ftamp, preferred a petition, that the caufe might be referred to him, and he be allowed to hear and determine it at his own houfe; a requeft which was granted. There the Macedonian deputies appeared, and boldly opened the particular caufes of their complaints; exhibited their proofs, and fully replied to the defence made by Syllanus. At length Titus Manlius gave fentence, that his fon was guilty, and ordered him to be taken out of his prefence. A little after, Junius Syllanus hanged himself; and when the old man was informed of his fate, he fhewed no concern, but on the very day of his funeral kept his houfe open, and tranfacted all forts of business, as if his fon's deviating from virtue had di
b Liv. lib. liii. Varro. de Re Rustic, lib. ii. cap. 4.
Defeated and flain.
donians complain of their
who is tried and condemned
by his own father.
vorced him from his family, and made him a stranger to his blood . After this transaction, we meet with nothing relating to the Macedonians, which deferves to be recorded in their history.
CHA P. XXIV.
The Hiftory of the Seleucida in Syria, to the Reduction of their Dominions by the Romans.
THE kingdom of Syria was not confined to that country Extent of alone, but also comprehended thofe vaft and fertile the kingprovinces of Upper Afia, which formed the Perfian empire; dam of Syria. being, in its full extent, bounded by the Mediterranean on one fide, and the river Indus on the other. These wide-fpreading dominions were, commonly called the kingdom of Syria, because Seleucus, the firft of the SyroMacedonian kings, having built the city of Antioch in that province, chofe it, as did likewife his fucceffors, for the ufual place of his refidence. Here his defcendents, from him ftyled Seleucidæ, reigned, according to Eusebius, for the fpace of two hundred and fifty-one years, that is, from the one hundred and feventeenth Olympiad, when Seleucus recovered Babylon, to the third year of the one hundred and eightieth, when Antiochus Afiaticus, the last of the race of Seleucus, was driven out by Pompey, and Syria reduced to a Roman province. Before we proceed to the history of the Seleucide, we fhall exhibit a series of the kings of that race, with the years, of their respective reigns.
A Table of the Kings of Syria, from the Foundation of that Monarchy to its being reduced by the Romans, with the Years of their respective Reigns.
Made governor of Babylon. Afpires to the fovereign power in his govern
Seleucus, the founder of the Syro Macedonian empire, was the fon of Antiochus, one of the chief captains of Philip, the father of Alexander. He ferved under Alexander from his tender years, attended him in his expedition into Afia, and was by him honoured with the chief command of the elephants, a commiffion of great trust and reputation. After the death of that conqueror, Perdiccas, whom the officers had unanimoufly appointed regent of the empire, placed him at the head of the cavalry of the allies; in which command he acquitted himself with fuch reputation, that Antipater, who fucceeded Perdiccas in the regency, raised him to the government of Babylon and its territory.
In this poft he was tempted, by the example of the other captains of Alexander, who afpired to the fupreme power in their refpective allotments, to betray his truft, and entertain thoughts of fetting up for himfelf; whence, when Eumenes, on his march into Sufiana, preffed him to join the governors of the upper provinces againft Antigonus, who had openly revolted, he not only refused to lend them any affiftance, but even attempted to deftroy both Eumenes and his army, by cutting the fluices of the Euphrates, and laying the whole plain where they were encamped under water. Eumenes, however, though thus furprifed, reached an eminence with his troops, before the waters rofe to any height, and the next day, by diverting their course, found means to escape the danger, without the lofs of a fingle man. Seleucus finding this ftratagem prove unfuccefsful, fent emiffaries fecretly into Eumenes's camp, foliciting, with great promifes, the argyrafpides, and Antigines, their leader, to abandon Eumenes, and come over to him; but not being able to prevail with them upon any terms, he made a truce with Eumenes, granting him a free paffage through his province. However, he fent an exprefs at the fame time to Antigonus in Mefopotamia, advising him to come with all poffible expedition, and fall upon Eumenes, before he was joined by the governors of the Upper Afia; for as Eumenes was unalterably at
e Diodor. Sicul. lib. xix. Plut. in Eumen. Corn. Nep. cap. 7.
tached to the intereft of the kings, and also the best general and greatest statesman Alexander had left behind him, Seleucus, as well as the other governors, who were prompted by their ambition to ufurp the fovereign power in their governments, were under no fmall apprehenfion of his fuperior merit and genius. Antigonus followed the reasonable advice of his friend Seleucus, and being attended in his expedition against Eumenes with the great fuccefs we have related above, he returned to Babylon, where Seleucus received him with rich prefents, and feafted his whole army. But when Antigonus demanded Falls out an account of the revenues of his government, the anfwer he gave him fo exafperated Antigonus, that he thought it advifeable to abandon his province, and put himfelf under the protection of Ptolemy, governor of Egypt (L).
Seleucus meeting with a friendly reception from Ptolemy, in Egypt, reprefented fo effectually to that prince, as alfo to Lyfimachus and Caffander, the formidable power and ambitious views of Antigonus, that he engaged them all three in a league against him. This war, which put an end both to the life and reign of Antigonus, we have already described at length, and therefore fhall at prefent confine ourselves to that part alone, which Seleucus acted in it. After the victory which Ptolemy gained over Demetrius at Gaza, Seleucus, having obtained of the con queror a thousand foot, and two hundred horfe, took his route towards Babylon, in order to attempt the recovery of that city. This undertaking was looked upon as a defperate enterprize, even by his friends, but was attended with all the fuccefs he could have wished for. On his arrival at Carrhæ, in Mefopotamia, he prevailed, partly by force, and partly by perfuafion, on the Macedonians who garrifoned the place, to revolt from Antigonus,
(L) Diodorus tells us, that upon the first news of the flight of Seleucus, the Chaldeans foretold to Antigonus, that if Seleucus fhould get fafe into Egypt, he should one day be come lord of all Afia, adding, that if Antigonus oppofed him, he fhould fall in a battle. Hereupon Antigonus immedi
ately difpatched fome horse-
gonus, and Aies to Egypt