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finement easy to Demetrius. He ordered him royal entertainment within doors, a fine ftable of horses, and the use of a noble park, without. To give him a relith for thefe pleasures, hopes were cherished, and promifes of liberty intermixed, which were all made to depend on the coming of Antiochus and Stratonice, to whom the conditions on which this freedom was to be obtained were referred. All other arts were practifed to amuse Demetrius, and to divert his cares. At firft he fuffered himfelf to be deluded, and hoped, that after a time Seleucus would fee him; but when he found this vifit protracted, and that excufe fucceeded excufe, he penetracted the defign of his politic fon-in-law, and, without entertaining vain expectations, fought by all methods to make his confinement eafy. Hunting was for a while his chief diverfion; but by degrees he quitted it, to give himfelf up to feafting and caroufing, that, in wine and pleasant converfation, the memory of paft greatness, and present forrows, might be drowned.

2064. Ante Chr. 284.

He found, by fatal experience, that mirth and wine Yr. of Fl. were no cures for grief; for while by them he fought to ftifle his concern, the ftruggle between refentment and a defire of concealing it, added to his high living, occafioned a distemper, which, when he had been a prifoner His death. three years, carried him off in the fifty-fourth year of his age. Thus died this active prince, who had fo often been at the top, and fo frequently at the bottom, of fortune's wheel. His death delivered Seleucus from all apprehenfions; and not only him, but others; for the great accomplishments of Demetrius, his fingular address, and, above all, his extraordinary military fkill, made him always formidable, though his forces were ever fo weak, and the places in his poffeffion ever so few 1.

While Demetrius lay in prifon, many princes and states, moved with the diftrefs of fo great a prince, fued to Seleucus for his liberty. Lyfimachus only was bafe enough to offer him a fum of money to put him to death; which, with the higheft indignation Seleucus refused, affirming, that neither envy, nor any ancient antipathy, inclined him to confine Demetrius, but only a regard to his own fafety, and a juft attention to reafons of ftate. As Demetrius had rendered himself remarkable for his filial piety towards his father, fo his fon Antigonus mani- his fon piety of fefted a laudable affection to him; for notwithstanding Antigonus.

The filial

Plut. ubi fupra. Juftin. lib. xvi.


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the letter his father had wrote him might, in the opinion of the world, have freed him from all cenfure, yet he offered Seleucus all that he held in Greece, and his own perfon in hostage for his father's liberty, but this was refufed. However, Antigonus continued earnestly to folicit it, by the moft preffing and paffionate letters, as long as Demetrius lived; going in deep mourning during that fpace, and never once partaking of any feafts or diverfions while his father was in prifon. As foon as he understood that his father's afhes were coming from Syria, he failed His fune- with a noble fleet to the Archipelago to meet them. He then depofited them in an urn of gold, which, when he entered the harbour of Corinth, he placed in the poop of the royal galley, fet his crown upon it, and covered it with a canopy of purple, himself standing by, clad in deep mourning, and his eyes streaming with tears. Moft of the cities in Greece fent chaplets to crown the urn, and deputations of their prime citizens to affift at the funeral i.



The Hiftory of Macedon, from the Death of Alexander the Great, to the Conquest of that Kingdom by the Romans.


at the

king's de-

The fate of THE kingdom of Macedon, at the time of Alexander's
decease, was governed by Antipater, yet Craterus
was appointed him for a fucceffor; and the general opi-
nion is, that Antipater, who was directed to come with
a fresh Macedonian army to Babylon, would have been
difgraced, if not put to death, on account of the many com-
plaints exhibited against him. If these were fo, the death
of Alexander prevented that of Antipater, and left him
poffeffed of his government. In writing therefore the
hiftory of Macedon from the demife of Alexander, we
Antipater's muft begin with Antipater, and his adminiftration. He
character. was a perfon noble by birth, of great natural abilities, im-
proved by an excellent education. He was the friend as
well as difciple of Ariftotle, learned, and a lover of learn-
ing; magnificent in his actions, but plain in his dress
and behaviour, never varying his habit in all the time of
his government, but appearing like a private perfon when
he gave law to kings. Philip of Macedon, whofe great

k Arrian.


i Plut. in Demet. Corn. Nep. de Regib. cap. 3. lib. vii. Curt. lib. x. Juftin. lib. xiii. cap. 5.

talent was judging well of men and things, made choice Greatly ef of Antipater as his minifter, and relied on him as his teemed by friend. "I have flept foundly, (faid he,) for Antipater Philip. was waking." This fentence affords us a ftronger defcription of his abilities and fidelity, than an orator could convey in twenty pages. Alexander entrusted him, not only with the care of his hereditary kingdom, and the command of a great army therein, but also with the custody of Greece. He had many quarrels with Olympias, who was a high-fpirited woman, and very defirous of interfering in ftate affairs. Alexander himself approved his conduct fo far, as to fay on account of his mother's letters, "That he had paid dearly for the months he lay in her womb 1." It is certain, that he was no lefs angry with Hephæftion, the most faithful friend, as well as the chief favourite of his master. What he thought of her character, appears from a fragment of one of his letters to her, wherein he wrote thus: "Forbear your unjust reproaches; but if you will not forbear, I care not, fince Alexander muft judge of all "." When the news of Parmenio's death arrived in Macedonia, Antipater is recorded to have faid, "If Parmenio confpired against Alexander, whom can we trust? If he did not confpire, what fhall we do "?" What remains of the letters of Alexander, fhew, that he kept a regular correfpondence with Antipater, and that he gave him public marks of his esteem. There is one fragment of a letter from Antipater to his master, which is the nobleft teftimony of his extraordinary firmness, and strict regard to truth. Aristotle had fallen under Alexander's difpleasure, and he had written in fevere terms of him to Antipater; yet when Antipater acquainted him with the death of Ariftotle, he gave a noble character of that philofopher, which he clofed with thefe words: "Befides the marvelous talents wherewith the mind of that truly great man was adorned, this was peculiar to him, that he acquired the good-will of every man who knew him "." Having now fufficiently fhewn who and what Antipater was, let us proceed to the hiftory of his administration. after the death of Alexander.


The Grecians, even in the life-time of Alexander, en- Yr. of Fl. dured very unwillingly that fuperiority which he exercised over them; and though nothing could be more gentle


Ante Chr. 321,

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than the government of Antipater with respect to Greece, yet he was exceedingly hated, because he obliged them to be quiet. One of the last actions of Alexander's life blew the embers of fedition into a flame. He had, by an edic, directed all the cities of Greece to recall their exiles; which edict, when it was published at the Olympic games, occafioned great confufion. Many of the cities were afraid, that when the exiles returned they would change the government; most of them doubted their own fafety in cafe the edict took effect, and all held this peremptory decree to be a total abolition of their liberty. Immediately therefore they began to levy foldiers, and to prepare for war. In these transactions the Athenians were extremely alert, yet thy did not publicly declare themselves, till they were affured that Alexander was dead. Then they kept no meafures; they laid out the money, which Harpalus had ftolen from Alexander, and deposited in their city, to hire forces P. They exclaimed against the Macedonians as a barbarous and tyrannical nation, and appointed Leofthenes general of their forces, raised for delivering Greece. This man was the disciple of Demofthenes, and feems to have meant his country better than he was able to ferve it. He was full of an enthufiaftic paffion for democracy, and this prompted him to talk in a very high ftrain in the affembly. Phocion, who judged better of the state of Athens, could not help faying to him on this occafion, " Young man, your fpeeches are like the cyprefs tree, lofty and well fpread, but they bear no fruit 9." However he drew together a formidable army, with which he advanced towards Theffaly, which was the most judicious step taken in the war.

Antipater, as foon as he was thoroughly informed of the march of the Athenian forces, fent over into Afia to defire the affiftance of the governors in that continent. In the interim he marched with thirteen thousand foot, and fix thoufand horfe, in order to fecure Theffaly. He appointed Sillas to prefide in Macedon during his abfence, and directed him to raife forces with all imaginable diligence; for the large draughts which Alexander had made, rendered this a work not eafily performed. A fleet of a hundred and ten gallies was likewife fitted out, under the command of Clytus, who, as a feaman, had ferved with great reputation under the late king. When Antipater came into Theffaly, he found the inhabitants of that coun

Diodor. Sicul. lib. xviii.

a Plut, in Vit. Phocion.


try ftill in the Macedonian intereft, and received from them a very confiderable reinforcement of horfe; yet, according to the practice of their ancestors, they acted deceitfully; and, when he wanted them most, went Gyer to the enemy. Leofthenes was in poffeffion of the Pylæ, or ftreights leading into Greece, where he waited for Antipater, who with the small army he had, did not fail to give him battle, wherein numbers, and the skill of the mercenaries ferving under Leofthenes, gained him the victory. Antipater, with the remains of his army, retired to Lamia, a city of fome ftrength, and not far diftant from the field of battle. This he feized, and fortified in fuch a manner, that though the victorious army at tempted to ftorm it, yet they were unfuccefsful; fo that Leofthenes was obliged to undertake a regular fiege, whereby, when he had reduced Antipater to great ftraits, he himself advancing too near the wall, was flain by a ftone. Antiphilus was created general in his ftead. While things were in this fituation, Leonnatus arrived from Afia with a great army, and advanced to fuccour Antipater. Antiphilus, as foon as he was apprifed of this reinforcement, raifed the fiege, burnt his tents, and marched to fight the new-comers, though they were no less than twenty-two thousand foot, and two thousand five hundred horse, moft of them veterans. The battle was long difputed; but through the valour of the Theffalian horfe, and the death of Leonnatus, the Greeks carried the vic tory, and the Macedonian phalanx was compelled to retire to the hills, where the horfe could not follow. These victories exceedingly raised the spirits of the confederates, and made them defpife their enemies fo much, that many of them returned home, a circumftance which afterwards proved fatal to the common cause '.

Antipater while he was fhut up in Lamia, fent depu- The concluties to Athens, to negotiate a peace; but the Athenians fion of this refused him any other terms than furrendering at difcre- war. tion, and leaving all things to their difpofal. The fiege being now raifed, Antipater, with incredible diligence, marched to the place where the remains of Leonnatus's army was encamped, and having joined them, kept the enemy employed, though he was not able to offer them battle. When he found the confederates preffed hard upon him, and that their chief strength confisted in their

Diod. Sicul. ubi fupra. Plut. in Vit. Phocion & Demofthen. Justin, lib. xiii. cap. §.

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