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" Whose fault?
Whose but his own? Ingrate! he had of me
All he could have : I made him just and right,
Sufficient to have stood, though free to fall.
Such I created all th' etherial powers
And spirits, both them who stood, and them who fail'd;
Freely they stood who stood and fell who fell.
Not free, what proof could they have giv'n sincere
Of true allegiance, constant faith, or love,
When only what they needs must do appeared,
Not what they would ? What praise could they receive?
What pleasure I, from such obedience paid,
When will and reason, (reason also is choice,)
Useless and vain, of freedom both despoil'd,
Made passive both, had serv'd necessity,
Not me? They therefore, as to right belong'd,
So were created, nor can justly accuse
Their Maker, or their making, or their fate,
As if predestination overrul'd
Their will dispos'd by absolute decree
On high foreknowledge: they themselves decreed
Their own revolt, not I; if I foreknew,
Foreknowledge had no influence on their fault,
Which had no less prov'd certain unforeknown.
So without least impulse, or shadow of fate,
Or aught by me immutably foreseen,
They trespass; authors to themselves in all,
Both what they judge, and what they choose, for so
I form’d them free: and free they must remain
Till they enthral themselves: I else must change
Their nature, and revoke the high decree
Unchangeable, eternal, which ordain'd
Their freedom : they themselves ordain'd their fall.”

Paradise Lost, p. 69.

That stupendous operation of the Supreme Being, by which he overthrew the power of darkness, is recorded by St. Paul to have been the eternal purpose

of the infinite and eternal God,

which He purposed in himself in Christ Jesus. It is, therefore, highly reasonable to suppose, that the magnitude of the purpose would correspond with the immensity of the Purposer, and consequently comprehend consequences, whereof our narrow understandings and short views may utterly incapacitate us to judge. But though we cannot by searching find out the Almighty and his dispensations unto perfection, (Job xi. 7,) we are in no part of the sacred volume restrained from searching at all; on the contrary, reason and Scripture evidently enjoin every rational creature to endeavour after attaining as just a knowledge of their mighty Former (the knowledge of God being the source from whence is derived the love of God; and as clear a comprehension of those important subjects He has been graciously pleased to reveal, that they may be enabled to give an answer to those that ask them, a reason of the hope that is in them—1 Pet. iii. 15,) as their capacities will admit. In the momentous subject now before us, though our feeble faculties may be utterly inadequate to the perfect understanding of its several parts, we still may manifestly trace the most consummate wisdom.

From the result of our former researches, we discovered an imperious necessity (supposing the power of darkness to have gained any one advantage) that the superiority of the wise and benignant Being, over that of the evil one, should be clearly evinced to the beholding universe, by the most express and public demonstration ; and we also remarked how completely this conclusion was

confirmed by gospel declaration, which invariably represents the death of Christ as effective of a threefold purpose; for in addition to the stupendous ones already stated, may be subjoined, that by the great celestial Champion having exemplified a complete obedience to those laws which we have broken, He gloriously fulfilled the prediction, that God would magnify his law, and make it honourable ; (Isa. xlii. 21 ;) and that He did thereby not only blot out the hand-writing of ordinances that was against us, by atoning for all the imperfections of our observances, that was contrary to us, and took it out of the way, nailing it to his cross; (Col. ii. 14;) but that He likewise spoiled principalities and powers, made a show of them openly, triumphing over them in it. (Col. ii. 15.) And we shall now attempt a few remarks which appear to us illustrative of the wisdom that peryades this great transaction, and how it could prove productive of a circumstance so fraught with wonder, as that announced by the scriptural declaration just stated; though the completion of our inferences on this subject must be postponed till we have endeavoured more fully to ascertain the rank of the illustrious personage who undertook and accomplished this vast exploit.

The first grand instance of unerring wisdom that demands our contemplation in this amazing plan, is its clearly demonstrating the excellency of counsel which purposed it; by every effect that it produces ultimately and evidently redounding to the honour and praise of God :

whereas, on the contrary, all the devices, machinations, and subtlety of the evil one, maliciously exercised against the human race, do appear as certainly and uniformly to terminate in his dishonour and ignominy. For by this great event, the most incontestable proof is exhibited of the impotence of him who has dared to oppose Omnipotence by his presumptuous and impious attack upon mankind.

Transfixed on the cross of Christ, we behold stretched out in agony, a frail, enfeebled nature, over whom this wily chieftain had obtained the most signal and deplorable successes ; evincing a perfect purification from all moral taint, and in its humiliated, tortured, and degraded state, gloriously re-assuming its pristine majesty, wading triumphant through this sea of sorrows, and emerging thence arrayed in brightest glory of transcendent virtue; each piercing trial serving but to irradiate the refulgent lustre; each pointed thorn enwreathing laurels round the victor's head; and all the artillery of the enraged foe employed to maintain his conquest, inverting its own aim, by effecting man's redemption and his ruin.

Well may the apostle exclaim, after contemplating this crucified but virtuous hero, that the foolishness of God is wiser than men, and the weakness of God stronger than men; that God hath chosen weak things to confound the things that are mighty, and base things, and things despised, yea, and things which are not, to bring to nought the things that are ; (1 Cor. i. 25, 27, 28;) when, by so common, and apparently, un

important an occurrence as the barbarous and ignominious execution of a derided, unpitied, and forlorn malefactor, we see produced consequences of the most stupendous import, naturally, though astonishingly, drawn forth the one from out the other. For from the vindication of God's honour is derived the propitiation for sin,-and by the propitiation for sin, the third grand purpose in this work of wonder is fully and effectually accomplished; namely, the spoiling of the power of darkness: because an accepted atonement for transgression totally counteracts the whole operations of the evil one, by obtaining pardon and eternal happiness for all who do not wilfully enlist under his banner; for all who comply with the proposed terms-love of virtue and hatred of vice. (Micah iii. 2.) By the ratification of this wise and benignant treaty, his kingdom is depopulated, his machinations confounded, his inferiority clearly demonstrated, his power destroyed, and his impious impotence rendered most illustriously conspicuous, by the frustration of his schemes having solely resulted through his own devices. God taketh the wise in their own craftiness. (1 Cor. iii. 19.) The wicked one is snared in the work of his own hands. (Psalm ix. 16.) The judgment of our world being thus triumphantly decided (by human nature having proved victorious,) its prince cast out, (John xii. 31,) and evil completely overcome by good; it became unquestionably expedient, that the great celestial Conqueror, “whose heavenly love had outdone

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