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(pinguetudinem). In this respect it seems to bear some analogy to the clay of Cornwall, which is so much in vogue in our potteries under the name of "china clay."
1 think W. C.'s conjecture, that "some colouring matter was used," certainly derives support from Pliny, who alludes to an opinion at Samos, (suntqui in Samo tradunt,) that Rhoecus and Theodorus were the first artificers in the plastic art, but states that Dibutades of Sicyonia (in Peloponesus) •was the first who added red earth or colour to his material (rubricam addere, aut ex rubrica cretam fingere.) This seems to afford some little support to the opinion that the Samian ware was (''(.•'; bat it is not decisive, and the quotation from Pitiscue, "Ex luto Samio in rubrem colorem vertente," is scarcely sufficient authority. He published his Lexicon Antiquitatum Romanorum (from which, I assume, the passage to be taken) in 1713. He may have had good authority for his statement, but, if so, we ought to have the source of his opinion.* We have good evidence that numerous other cities, far removed from the island of Samos, furnished red pottery. The passage from Pliny, "major quorum pars hominum terrenis utitur vasis," does not solely refer to the productions of Samos, but is, I think, merely a general remark, and equally applicable to earthenware of all kinds. He in. forms us that theearthenwareofSamos, and of Aretium, in Italy (Tuscany,) is famed for "eating out of," (in esculentis,) but that for drinking cups (calicum) the following cities are distinguished (nobilantur):—Surrentinum (Sorento in Campania) ; Asta and Polentia (part of ancient Liguria, now Asti and Polenzo); also Saguntum, in Spain; Mutina (Italy, now Modena); Pergamos, in Asia-Minor; and the Greek cities, Trallis aud Erythrce ; and
* As this passage is of importance to our subject, and has been more than once introduced in the "Archeeologia," it may be worth while to inquire what work of Pitiscus it occurs in; and, if in his elaborate Lexicon, under what head. It is certainly not to be found under those heads where we should think it most likely. 1 have referred to "Samite," "Fictilia," " Pocula," and a host of other words, but without success.
towards the end of the chapter he adds Rhegium and Cimue.
The red earthenware of Cumee (in Campania) is mentioned in the Latin poets—
Hanc tibi Cumano ritbicttndam pulverc tcttam Municipem misit casta Sybilla suain.
Hart. lib. xiv. 114.
Articles of similar description formed the "Campanian furniture" (supellex Campana) which decorated the table or sideboard of Horace. Sat. lib. i. 6, 118. Mr. Shortt in "Silva Antiqua Iscana," a work replete with interest and learning, quotes a passage from Apicius (De arte coquina) in which the cook is directed to use "a clean Curtuean red earthenware dish."
Of the pottery of Saguntum we have frequent mention—
Fugna Saguntina ferret commissa lagena. Juv. v. 29.
It would seem, however, that the Saguntinc ware was held in less esteem than the others; judging from Martial (who came from the neighbouring city, Bilbilis)—
Ficta Saguntina cimbia mnlo luto.
Mart. viii. 6.
And again (lib. xiv. 108)—
Qur non solicitus teneat servetque minister. Same Sagtmtino pocula ficta Mo.
meaning, it is supposed, that the attendant may use this material without any anxiety, being of less value. It is probable that he alludes to the same ware in the following passage (lib. xiv. 102) :—
Accipe non till calices de pulvere natos,
The cups of Surrentinum are recommended by the poet as preferable for the wine for which that city was famed—
Surrfntina bibis nee murrhina pieta nee aurum Sume: dabunt calices ha?c tibi vina suot. Mart. lib. xiii. 110.
The pottery of Aretium (in Tuscany,) one of the cities spoken of by Pliny, is also meutioned by Martial (lib. xiv. 98)—
Aretina nimis ne spernas vata monemtu,
The red dish, or platter (paropsis rubra,) is alluded to by the same poet, (lib. xi. 26),
Cui portat gaudens ancillaparopMe rubra Alecem.
and by Persius (Sat. v. 183),
Rubrumque amplexa catinum Cauda natat thynni, tumet alba fidelia vino.
also in the Fasti of Ovid (v. 522),
Terra rubens crater, pocula fagus erant.
These perhaps form the chief, if not all the illustrations furnished by the "classic" authors relative to the red pottery of the Romans, and the result of my inquiries into the subject is, the opinion that what we have so long termed "Samian ware" really came from Italy, and that the material was indigenous to that portion of Italy anciently comprehended in the name Campania, a district which included Cumae, Baiae, Puteoli, Pompeii, Herculaneum, Stabiae, Surrentum, &c. &c.
We have certainly much stronger evidence in support of this supposition than that in favour of the isle of Samos, particularly as no modern discoveries in the latter seem to afford us much, if any, corroborative testimony. Mr. C. R. Smith (no slight authority in such matters) seems to think it likely that this beautiful ware was imported from Snguntum, as being the nearest port to Britain (Collect. Antiq. No. 2), in which case Martial's description of its quality is certainly not applicable.
The " Signina " mentioned by Pliny (xxxv. 10) and Vitruvius (ii. 4) was made from broken pots and tiles generally. The text of Pliny does not exclusively mention Samian earthenware; he merely says, "fractis testis," which will equally apply to the manufactures of Cumae or the other cities he enumerates.
To the beautiful and varied character which distinguishes so much of this ware, I can bear ample testimony; that in some cases the ornaments were afterwards finished off by the graver or tools of the sculptor is, I think, borne out by the following passage from Martial, lib. iv. 46.
Kt craseo Jlffuli polita calo
thus supporting the opinion of Mr. C. R. Smith with respect to the ornaments on the beautiful red vase discovered in Cornhill, 1841 (Arch. xxix. 274).
Whichever locality may be decided upon as the source of this pottery, it seems pretty evident, from the remarkable similarity in the specimens, that England and France were supplied from the same market.
Of embossed drinking-cups in wood, earthenware, and metals, the Roman poets furnish us with many illustrations. Among them I may briefly cite Virgil, Eclog. iii. 43; Juvenal, i. 76; Martial, lib. iv. 46; viii. 51; Propertius i. 14. Some of them seem to have been sufficiently large and ponderous to serve for other purposes as well. Thus we read in Ovid (Met. v. 81) that Perseus broke the head of Eurythus with a massive bowl highly embossed.
While paying a just tribute of admiration to the many interesting illustrations of the poetry and mythology of Greece and Rome, and to the general beauty and elegance which frequently characterise the figured specimens of the red ware, we must at the same time bear in mind that there are occasionally discovered fragments depicting subjects of such extremely gross character, that we-must cease to wonder at the more refined taste of Pliny causing him to inveigh so eloquently against the depravity of his countrymen in attaching a higher value to such vessels.
Quot modis auximus pretia rerum In poculis libidines caelare juvit, ac per obscenitates bibere.
Lib. xxxiii. Proemium.
Similar sentiments occur in a former passage (lib. xiv.).
W. C. amusingly alludes to the wellknown game with the acetabulum as the prototype of the " thimble-rig " of modern times, that never-failing, but perhaps not inappropriate, accompaniment of the race-course, (the transactions of each presenting equal claim to the late facetious designation "manly sports.") But this distinguished game can trace its parentage to a much earlier source, as evinced by the sculptures on the tombs at Thebes (vide Wilkinson's Ancient Egyptians).
Yours, &c. E. B. Price.
P.S.—I annex a list of such " potters' stamps" as are in my own possession, from the various excavations
in the city during the last three or four years.
Accilinvs. F. Broad-street.
Ajlbini. Of. Saddler's-place, London Wall.
Abiani. New street by Holbornbridge.
Advocisi. (in large characters on the side), St. Paul's Churchyard.
Avent. (Aventini?), Bishopsgate-street.
Atii. (or Atali), Bishopsgate-street.
Of. Abali. Clement's-lane.
Of. Abini, ditto.
Aventini. M. Cateaton-street.
Bvrdonis. Of. Cateaton-street.
Of. Bassi. Water-lane, Tower-street.
Borilli. Of. Saddler's-place.
Cacas. M. Queen-street.
Certvs. F. Broad-street.
Calvi. St. Paul's Churchyard.
Cotto. F. Clement's-lane.
Cirrvs. Fec. St. Paul's Churchyard.
Comitialis. F. (on the side). Lothbury.
Of. Calvi. The new street at Holbornbridge.
Cvna. F. Playhouse-yard, Blackfriars.
Domii. Great St. Helens.
Of. Face. Bishopsgate.
Oermani. Of. Near the Bank.
Gimmt. F. (Gimmati ?) Paternoster-row.
Of. Gai. Ivi. Water-lane.
Loll. Holborn-bridge new street.
Minvi. o. ditto.
Minvtivs. F. Lad-lane.
Of. Modest. Queen-street.
Of. Modi. Basinghall-street.
Mascvlvs. F. Clement's-lane.
NERTVS. St. Paul's Churchyard.
Of. Nigri. Bishopsgate-street.
Nert. M. St. Swithin's-laue.
Prim. M. Tooley-street.
Of. Prim. Clement's-lane.
Patrici. New-street, Holborn bridge.
Racvna. F. Cateaton-street.
Seneci. o. Queen-street.
Mr. Urban, Lichfield, April 18.
MY last remarks on the Metonic Cycle, as a means of finding the date of our moveable feasts, having been condensed for the purpose of avoiding a lengthened trespass on the pages of the Gentleman's Magazine, I beg now to give a plainer illustration of the value of the lunar measure of time than that which the former communication may offer to those of your readers who have not hitherto had their attention directed to this particular subject.
To prove, therefore, in the first place, that the conclusions before arrived at by decimal fractions agree with the more common form of expressing the amount of time, I shall now take three examples of familiar character:
A Lunation, then, being twenty-nine days, twelve hours, forty-four minutes, and nearly three seconds; A Metonic Cycle consists of two-hundred and thirty-five such lunations.
Days, Hours. 100 Metonic Cycles, therefore, are very nearly 693,968 20| 200 .... . 1,387,937 174
A Solar Year being three hundred and sixty-five days, five hours, fortyeight minutes, and rather more than forty-nine seconds and a half.
Days. Hours. 1900 Solar years are very nearly . 693,960 6
And twice 1900 . . . 1,387,920 12
Civil Time being computed by an emission of one day in four thousand Gregorian years,
1900 Civil years are
Thus it will be seen that nineteen hundred solar years exceed the civil measure, while twice nineteen hundred are less than the civil account.
But the Metonic Cycle exceeds both the other measures, and this in different progress. Because, while its course and that of solar centuries are,
1st. Solar time being in advance of Civil.
Days. Hours. 100 Metonic Cycles are . . 693,968 20|
1900 Solar years are . . . 693,960 6
693,960 days. 1,387,921 days.
popularly speaking, uniform, the course of civil centuries is not uniform. But the difference between the uniform measures being determined, that between either of them and the irregular measure may be determined by comparison, as thus:
2ndly. Civil time being in advance of Solar.
Days. Hours. 200 Metonic Cycles exceed twice 1900 solar years 17 54
Deduct the correct excess of civil over solar time 114
200 Metonic Cycles exceed twice 1900 civil years 16 18
In the general table, which exhibits the anticipation of the Metonic Cycle on civil time, the decimal figures express the parts of an hour not exactly as here represented. But this is solely because of the manner in which both forms of calculation are given; and not from any defect in the rule of calculation. And, when it is considered that various " anomalies," &c. cause a difference of some hours between the mean and true dates of new moon, it would be trifling to expect precision in general estimates.
Now, since the course of the Metonic Cycle has been calculated for four thousand years before, and two thousand five hundred years in, the Christian era, if the average day of new or full moon, in March, for any year, for six thousand five hundred years, be required, it may at once be found by adding the number for its century to the date of new or full moon in the March of a year in the forty-first century B.c. which has a corresponding Golden number in the following table, the hours of which table refer to the division of the day from midnight to midnight.
'I'm: GOLDEN NUMBER for any year B.c. is thus found: Adopting Archbishop Usher's estimate of time elapsed since the preparation of the earth for human existence, reduce the given year r..r. to the corresponding year styled A.m. by deducting its number from 4004. To the result add 7, and divide by 19- The remainder is the golden number required.
The Day Of The Week onwhichany day of the year has happened, or may happen, can be determined by certain familiar tables in the Book of Common Prayer, or by tables which shew the day at once without the intervention of Sunday letters.
AS TO THE DATE OF THE FIRST
Passover then, it is agreed, that this event happened in the beginning of the day of the first full moon after the vernal equinox, B.c. 1491 ; according to the Jewish division of the twenty-four hours, which commenced "between the two evenings." Now the Golden Number for this year is xn. and by adding ] 1 days, 14 hours, as the anticipation of the Metonic Cycle for the fifteenth century before the Christian era, to the 16th of March, at four o'clock in the afternoon, as the date of mean full moon for the golden number xn. in the forty-first century B.c. the result is the 28th of March, at six o'clock in the morning. And this date, in our account of time, is nearly the true
date of THE FIRST PASCHAL FULL MOON. But TUB FIH8T PASSOVER
embraced the evening and night of the twenty-seventh of the month in the same account; and in so far anticipated the date of full moon.*
ench unit contained in the first figure only of the decimal as representing a value of two hours and a half, and by counting the hours which exceed 12 as afternoon hours. Thus the first date in the above table is ,'i • 47i which really expresses the third day of the month, at sixteen minutes and forty-eight seconds past eleven o'clock in the forenoon. But it may be called the same day, at four limes two and a half hours, or ten o'clock instead of the later date. And in like manner the decimal 66 may he taken to express three o'clock in the afternoon, as the 15th hour of the day, and so on.
* See Greswell's Dissertations, 2nd
edition; Dissertation vii. and Appendix,
Dissertation xi. on the computation of
passovers, and the date of the first passover.
A proof of the correctness of the foregoing deduction is this:
Supposing civil years to have been counted as now from a very remote period, the year 1491 B.c. was the second year after leap year, and in it the vernal equinox happened on the twenty-second of March.t Now from the twenty-eighth of March B.c. 1491, to March the twenty-sixth A.d. 1842, (the second year after leap year and true date of paschal full moon,) being 3332 years less by two days in the corrected Gregorian style, is 1,216,9S5 days.
But so many days are an exact number of lunations, and, therefore, as the moon was full at one date, so was it full at another.
Again, the numberof days just mentioned is an exact number of weeks, and, therefore, as the 26th of March, A.d. 1842, fell on Saturday, so the 28th of March, B.c. 1491, fell on a Saturday also, a fact on which as a layman I shall offer no comment, however obviously this embracing of the Jewish and Christian sabbaths in the establishment of the passover, as the great Jewish ordinance, and the escape " out of the house of bondage" on Sunday, may be enlarged upon with reference to the bondage of ordinances and the liberty under "Christ our passover," through whom a new covenant has been effected, and this "not according to the covenant made in the day," when the Jews prepared to leave Egypt. See Htb. viii. 9.
Hoping on an early occasion to point out the value of the Metonic Cycle in relation to certain other important dates noticed in sacred and profane history, I am.
Yours, &c. J. R.
Me. Urban, Stamford, 25 March.
The inclosed I found in a manuscript common-place book of an ancestor of mine, the Rev. John Adamson, M.A. Rector of Burton Goggles, and a Prebendary of Lincoln. He was also, 1 believe, one of the chaplains of King Charles the Second.
1 think you will agree that it is a good specimen of old English gallantry and loyalty, described with true pathos
f See Brinkley's Astronomy, Sections 90—92, on precession of the equinoxes.