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A. M. cir. 2093.
B. C. cir. 1911.
Israelites' redemption foretold.
Extent of the promised land. 14 And also that nation, whom furnace, and a burning lamp that “A. M. cir. 2093.
they shall serve, *will I judge : 5 passed between those pieces. and afterward y shall they come out with great 18. In the same day the LORD h made a cosubstance.
venant with Abram, saying, i Unto thy seed 15 And a thou shalt go a to thy fathers in have I given this land, from the river of Egypt peace; b thou shalt be buried in a good old unto the great river, the river k Euphrates : age.
19 The Kenites, and the Kenizzites, and 16 But c in the fourth generation they shall the Kadmonites, come hither again; for the iniquity d of the 20 And the Hittites, and the Perizzites, and Amorites e is not yet full.
the m Rephaims, 17 And it came to pass, that, when the sun 21 And the * Amorites, and the Canaanites, went down, and it was dark, behold a smoking and the Girgashites, and the Jebusites.
* Exod. vi. 6; Deut. vi. 22. - Exod. xii. 36; Psa. ov. 37. 31; Num. xxxiv. 3 ; Deut. i. 7; xi. 24 ; xxxiv. 4; Josh. i 4; z Job v. 26.
Acts xiii. 36. - Chap. xxv. 8. - Exod. xii. 1 Kings iv. 21 ; 2 Chron. ix. 26; Neh. ix. 8; Psa. cv. 11; Isa. 40.1 Kings xxi. 26. Dan. vii. 23; Matt. xxiii. 32 ; xxvii. 12.-__ Chap. ii. 14; 2 Sam. viii. 3; 1 Chron. v. 9. 1 Thess. ii. 16. - Heb. á lamp of fire. -5 Jer. xxxiv. 18, 19. Num. xxiv. 21, 22. -m Chap. xiv. 5 ; Isa. xvii. 5.
- Chap. Chap. xxiv. 7.- -i Chap. xi.7 ; xii. 15; xxvi. 4; Exod. xxii. x. 15-19; Exod. xxiii. 23–28; xxxii. 2; xxxiv. 11.
thers in peace.
Verse 14. And also that nation, fc.] How remark. Egypt; but the burning lamp was certainly the symbol ably was this promise fulfilled, in the redemption of of the Divine presence, which, passing between the Israel from its bondage, in the plagues and destruction pieces, ratified the covenant with Abram, as the folof the Egyptians, and in the immense wealth which lowing verse immediately states. the Israelites brought out of Egypt ! Not a more Verse 18. The Lord made a covenant] nonano circumstantial or literally fulfilled promise is to be found carath berith signifies to cut a covenant, or rather the in the sacred writings."
covenant sacrifice; for as no covenant was made withVerse 15. Thou shalt go to thy fathers in peace] out one, and the creature was cut in two that the cone This verse strongly implies the immortality of the soul, tracting parties might pass between the pieces, hence and a state of separate existence. He was gathered cutting ihe covenant signified making the covenant. to his fathers-introduced into the place where sepa- The same form of speech obtained among the Romans ; rate spirits are kept, waiting for the general resurrec- and because, in making their covenants they always tion. Two things seem to be distinctly marked here : slew an animal, either by cutting its throat, or knock1. The soul of Abram should be introduced among the ing it down with a stone or axe, after which they assembly of the first-born ; Thou shalt go to thy fa- divided the parts as we have already seen, hence
2. His body should be buried after a among the percutere fædus, to smite a covenant, and long life, one hundred and seventy-five years, chap. scindere fædus, to cleave a covenant, were terms which xxv. 7. The body was buried; the soul went to the signified simply to make or enter into a covenant. spiritual world, to dwell ámong the fathers—the patri- ! . From the river of Egypt]. Not the Nile, but the archs, who had lived and died in the Lord. See the river called Sichor, which was before or on the border note on chap. xxv. 8.
of Egypt, near to the isthmus of Suez; see Josh. Verse 16. In the fourth generation] In former xiii. 3 ; though some think that by this a branch of the times most people counted by generations, to each of Nile is meant. This promise' was fully accomplished which was assigned a term of years amounting to 20, in the days of David and Solomon. See 2 Sam. viii. 25, 30, 33, 100, 108; or 110; for the generation was 3, &c., and 2 Chron. ix. 26., of various lengths among various people, at different Verse 19. The Kenites, fc.) Here are ten nations times. It is probable that the fourth generation here mentioned, though afterwards reckoned but seven ; see means the same as the four hundred years in the pre- Deut. vii. 1; Acts xiii. 19. Probably some of them ceding verse. Some think it refers to the time when which existed in Abram's time had been blended with Eleazar, the son of Aaron, the son of Amram, the others before the time of Moses, so that seven only out son of Kohath, came out of Egypt, and divided the of the ten then remained; see part of these noticed land of Canaan to Israel, Josh. xiv. 1. Others think Gen. x. the fourth generation of the Amorites is intended, because it is immediately added, The iniquity of the In this chapter there are three subjects which must Amorites is not yet full ; but in the fourth generation be particularly interesting to the pious reader. 1. The they should be expelled, and the descendants of Abram condescension of God in revealing himself to mankind established in their place. From these words we learn in a variety of ways, so as to render it absolutely that there is a certain pitch of iniquity to which nations evident that he had spoken, that he loved mankind, and may arrive before they are destroyed, and beyond which that he had made every provision for their eternal welDivine justice does not permit them to pass.
fare. So unequivocal were the discoveries which God Verse 17. Smoking furnace and a burning lamp] made of himself, that on the minds of those to whom Probably the smoking furnace might be designed as they were made not one doubt was left, relative either an emblem of the sore afflictions of the Israelites into the tsuth of the subject, or that it was God șimself
Sarai gives Hagar
to Abram for wife.
who made the discovery. The subject of the disco- of all the families of the earth, and this covenant is very also was such as sufficiently attested its truth to ratified by a sacrifice. By this covenant man is bound all future generations, for it concerned matters yet in to God, and God graciously binds himself to man. As futurity, so distinctly marked, so positively promised, this covenant referred to the incarnation of Christ ; and so highly interesting, as to make them objects of and Abram, both as to himself and posterity, was to attention, memory, and desire, till they did come ; and, partake of the benefits of it by faith ; hence faith, of gratitude, because of the permanent blessedness not works, is the only condition on which God, through they communicated through all generations after the Christ, forgives sins, and brings to the promised spiritual facts had taken place.
inheritance. This covenant still stands open; all the 2. The way of salvation by faith in the promised successive generations of men are parties on the one Saviour, which now began to be explicitly declared. side, and Jesus is at once the sacrifice and Mediator God gives the promise of salvation, and by means in of it. As therefore the covenant still stands open, which it was impossible, humanly speaking, that it and Jesus is still the Lamb slain before the throne, should take place ; teaching us, 1, That the whole every human soul must ratify the covenant for himself; work was spiritual, supernatural, and Divine.; and, 2. and no man does so, but he who, conscious of his guilt, That no human power could suffice to produce it. accepts the sacrifice which God has provided for him. This Abram believed while he was yet uncircumcised, Reader, hæst thou done so ? And with a heart unto and this faith was accounted to him for.righteousness righteousness dost thou continue to believe on the Son or justification ; God thereby teaching that he would of God? How merciful is God, who has found out pardon, accept, and receive into favour all wḥo should such a way of salvation by providing a Saviour every believe on the Lord Jesus Christ. And this very case way suitable to miserable, fallen, sinful man ! One has ever since been the standard of justification by who is holy, harmless, undefiled, and separate from faith ; and the experience of millions of men, built sinners; and who, being higher than the heavens, on this foundation, has sufficiently attested the truth raises up his faithful followers to the throne of his and solidity of the ground on which it was built. own eternal glory! Reader, give God the praise,
3. The foundation of the doctrine itself is laid in and avail thyself of the sin-offering which lieth at the covenant made between God and Abram in behalf the door.
Sarai, having no child, gives Hagar her maid to Abram for wife, 1-3. She conceives and despises her mis tress, 4.
Sarai iš offended and upbraids Abram, 5. Abram vindicates himself; and Hagar, being hardly used by her mistress, runs away, 6. She is met by an angel, and counselled to return to her mistress, 7-9. God promises greatly to multiply her seed, 10. Gives the name of Ishmael to the child that should be born of her, 11. Shows his disposition and character, 12. Hagar calls the name of the Lord who spoke to her, Thou God seest me, 13. She calls the name of the well at which the angel met her, Beer-laharoi, 14.
Ishmael is born in the 86th year of Abram's age, 15, 16. A: M: 2002: Now Sarai, Abram's wife, a bare the Lord • hath restrained me from 4. M. 2092.
B. C. 1912. him no children: and she had bearing : I pray ftheè, go in unto a handmaid, ban Egyptian, whose name was my maid; it may be that I may s obtain chil• Hagar.
dren by her. And Abram h hearkened to the 2 d And Sárai said unto Abram, Behold now, voice of Sarai.
« Chap. xv. 2, 3. -b Chap. xxi. 9. - Gal. iv. 24.-- Chap. So chap. xxx. 3; 9.
xxx. 3.- Chap. xx. 18 ; xxx. 2; 1 Sam. i. 5. 6.
NOTES ON CHAP. XVI.
she had a right, according to the usages of those times, Verse 1. She had a handmaid, an Egyptian] As to dispose of them as she pleased, the husband having Hagar was an Egyptian, St, Chrysostom's conjecture no authority in the case. is very probable, that she was one of those female I may obtain children by her.) The slave being the slaves which Pharaoh gave to Abram when he so- absolute property of the mistress, not only her person, journed in Egypt; see chap. xii. 16. Her name un but the fruits of her labour, with all her children, were hagar signifies a stranger or sojourner, and it is likely her .owner's property also. The children, therefore, she got this name in the family of Abram, as the word which were born of the slave, were considered as the is pure Hebrew.
children of the mistress. It was on this ground that Verse 2. Go in unto my maid.] It must not be for- Sarai gave her slave to Abram ; and we find, what gotten that female slaves constituted a part of the must necessarily be the consequence in all cases of priyatc patrimony.or possessions of a wife, and that I polygamy, that strifes and contentions took place.
A. M. 2093.
Sarai zives Hagar to Abram.
GENESIS Hagar flees from her mistress. 3 And Sarai, Abram's wife, took hardly with her, she fled from A. M. 2093.
B. C. 1911. Hagar her maid, the Egyptian, after her face. Abram i had dwelt ten years in the land of a And the angel of the Lord found her by Canaan, and gave her to her husband Abram a fountain of water in the wilderness, by the to be his wife.
fountain in the way to · Shur. 4 And he went in unto Hagar, and she con- 8 And he said, Hagar, Sarai's maid, whence ceived: and when she saw that she had con-camest thou ? and whither wilt thou go? And ceived, her mistress was 'k despised in her she said, I fee from the face of my mistress eyes.
Sarai. 5 And Sarai said unto Abram, My wrong be 9 And the angel of the LORD said unto her, upon thee: I have given my maid into thy Return to thy mistress, and submit thyself bosom; and when she saw that she had con- under her hands. ceived, I was despised in her eyes : " the LORD 10 And the angel of the LORD said unto judge between me and thee.
her, "I will multiply thy seed exceedingly, 6 m But Abram said unto Sarai, Behold, that it shall not be numbered for multitude. thy maid is in įhy hand; do to her as it pleaseth thee. And when Sarai P dealt her, Behold, thou art with child, and shalt
it ; 11 And the angel of the Lond said unto
Chap. xii. 5.- 2 Sam. vi. 16; Prov. *xx. 21, 23. o. Heb. that which is good in thine eyes.- - Heb. afflicted her. Chap. xxxi. 53 ; 1 Sam. xxiv. 12. m Prov. xv. 1; 1 Pet. iii. 9 Exod. ii. 15.- --- Chap. xxv. 18. 2. Exod. xv. 22. 7. - Job ii. 6; Psa. cvi. 41, 42; Jer. xxxviii, 5.
ii. 9; 1 Pet. ii. 18- Chap. xvii. 20; xxi. 18; xxv. 12.
Verse 3. And Sarai, Abram's wife, took Hagar- of worship, which, had he been a created angel, he and gave her to her husband-o be his wife.] There would have refused. See Rev. xix. 10; xxii. 9. are instances of Hindoo women, when barren, .con- 3. Moses, who relates the transaction, calls this senting to their husbands marrying a second wife for angel-expressly JEHOVAH; for, says he, she called DV the sake of, children ; and second marriages on this 1710' shem Yehovah, the name of the Lord that spake account, without consent, are very common.- Ward. to her, ver. 13. Now this is a name never given to
Verse 5. My wrong be upon thee) This appears to any created being. be intended as a reproof to Abram, containing an in- 4. This person, who is here called in yxbo malach sinuation that it was his fault that she herself had not Yehovah, the Angel of the Lord, is the same who is been a mother, and that now he carried himself more called 58.377 7x Son hammalach haggoel, the redeeming affectionately towards Hagar than he did to her, in Angel or the Angel the Redeemer, Gen. xlviii. 16; consequence of which conduct the slave became petu- 130 78523 malach panaiv, the Angel of God's presence, lant. To remove all suspicion of this kind, Abram Isa. Ixiii. 9.; and n.728 78859 malach habberith, the delivers up Hagar into her hand, who was certainly Angel of the Covenant, Mal. .iii. 1 : and is the same under his protection while his concubine or secondary person which the Septuagint, Isa. ix. 6, term weyahns wife ; but this right given to him. by Sarai he restores, Bovans ayyedos, the Angel of the Great Counsel or lo prevent her jealousy and uneasiness.
Design, viz., of redeeming man, and filling the earth Verse 6. Sarai dealt hardly with her] - miyn tean- with righteousness. neha, she afflicted her; the term implying stripes and 5. These things cannot be spoken of any human or hard usage, to bring down the body and humble the created being, for the knowledge, works, fc., attributed mind. If the slave was to blame in this business the to this person are such as belong to God; and as in mistress is not less liable to censure. She alone had all these cases there is a most evident personal appearbrought her into those circumstances, in which it was ance, Jesus Christ alone can be meant; for of God natural for her to value herself beyond ber mistress.
the Father it has been ever true that no man hath at Verse 7. The angel of the Lord] That Jesus Christ, any time seen his shape, nor has he ever limited himin a body suited to the dignity of his nature, frequently self to any definable personal appearance. appeared to the patriarchs, has been already intimated: In the way to Shur.] As this was the road from That the person mentioned here was greater than any Hebron to Egypt, it is probable she was now returning created being is sufficiently evident from the following to her own country. particulars :
Verse 8. Hagar, Sarai's maid] This mode of ad1. From his promising to perform what God alone dress is used to show her that she was known, and to could do, and foretelling what God alone could know ; remind' her that she was the property of another. " I will multiply thy seed exceedingly," $c., ver. 10;
Verse 10. I will multiply thy seed exceedingly) “ Thou art with child, and shalt bear a son,” gc., ver. Who says this ? The person who is called the Angel 11; “ He will be a wild man,” fc., ver. 12. All this of the Lord ; and he certainly speaks with all the shows a prescience which is proper to God alone. authority which is proper to God.'
2. Hagar considers the person who spoke to her as Verse 11. And shalt call his name Ishmael] wypon God, calls him 5x El, and addresses him in the way Yishmasl, from you shama, he heard, and 5x El, God; The birth and character
. of Ishmael foretold. A M. 2093. bear a son, and shalt call his 13 And she called the name of A. M. 2003. B. C. 1911.
B. C. 1911. name w Ishmael ;- because the LORD the LORD that spake unto her, hath heard thy affliction.
Thou God seest me : for she said, Have 1 12 = And he will be a wild man; his hand also here looked after him ? that seeth me? will be against every man, and every man's 14 Wherefore the well was called Beerhand against him; y and he shall dwell in the lahai-roi ; • behold, it is between Kadesh presence of all his brethren.
and Bered. Chap. xvii. 19; Matt. i. 21 ; Luke i. 13, 31. That is, 2 Chap. xxxi. 42. La Chap. xxiv. 62 ; xxv. 11.
_b That is, God shall hear.- Chap. xxi. 20.- Chap. xxv. 18. the well of him that liveth and seeth me. - Num. xu. 26. for, says the Angel, The LORD HATH heard thy afflic-ment of his providential care, and an incontestable ar tion. Thus the name of the child must ever keep the gument of the truth of Divine Revelation. Had the mother in remembrance of God's merciful interposi- Pentateuch no other argument to evince its Divine tion in her behalf, and remind the child and the man origin, the account of Ishmael, and the prophecy conthat he was an object of God's gracious and providen-cerning his descendants, collated with their history and tial goodness. Aflictions and distresses have a voice manner of life during a period of nearly four thousand in the ears of God, even when prayer is restrained ; years, would be sufficient. Indeed the argument is so but how much more powerfully do they speak when absolutely demonstrative, that the man who would endured in meekness of spirit, with confidence in and attempt its refutation, in the sight of reason and comsupplication to the Lord !
mon sense would stand convicted of the most ridiculous Verse 12. He will be a wild man] 07x x70 pere presumption and folly. adam. As the root of this word does not appear in The country which these free descendants of Ishthe Hebrew Bible, it is probably found in the Arabic mael may be properly said to possess, stretches from w farra, to run away, to run wild, and hence the Aleppo to the Arabian Sea, and from gypt to the Perwild ass, from its fleetness and its untamable nature. sian Gulf ; a tract of land not less than 1800 miles What is said of the wild ass, Job xxxix. 5–8, affords in length, by. 900 in breadth; see chap. xvii. 20. the very best description that can be given of the Verse 13.. And she called the name of the Lord] Ishmaelites, (the Bedouins and wandering Arabs,) the She invoked (privattikra) the name of Jehovah who descendants of Ishmael : “Who hath sent out the wild spake unto her, thus : Thou God seest me! She found ass (*70 pere) free? or whò hath loosed the bands that the eye of a merciful God had been upon her in (7173 arod, of the brayer? Whose house I have made all her wanderings and afflictions; and her-words seem the wilderness, and the barren land his dwellings. He to intimate that she had been seeking the Divine help scorneth the multitude of the city, neither regardeth and protection, for she says, Have I also (or have 1 he the crying of the driver. The range of the moun- not also) looked after him that seeth me? tains is his pasture, and he searcheth after every green This last clause of the verse is very obscure, and is thing." Nothing can be more descriptive of the wan- rendered differently by all the versions. · The general dering, lawless, freebooting life of the Arabs than this. sense taken out of it is this, that Hagar was now con
God himself has sent them out free he has loosed vinced that God himself had appeared unto her, and them from all political restraint. The wilderness is was surprised to find that, notwithstanding this, she their habitation ; and in the parched land, where no was still permitted to live ; for it is generally supposed other human beings could live, they have their dwell- that if God appeared to any, they must be consumed ings. They scorn the city, and therefore have no by his glories. This is frequently alluded to in the fired habitations ; for their multitude, they are not sacred writings. As the word 978 acharey, which afraid ; for when they make depredations on cities and we render simply after, in other places signifies the towns, they retire into the desert with so much preci- last days or after times, (see on Exod. xxxiii. 23,) it pitancy that all pursuit is eluded. In this respect the may probably have a similar meaning here ; and indeed crying of the driver is disregarded. They may be said this makes a consistent sense : Have I here also seen lo have no lands, and yet the range of the mountains is the latteR PURPOSES or DESIGNS of him who seeth me? their pasture—they pitch their tents and feed their flocks An exclamation which may be referred to that diswherever they please; and they search after every covery which God made in the preceding verse of the green thing-are continually looking after prey, and future state of her descendants. seize on every kind of property that comes in their way. Verse 14. Wherefore the well was called Beer-la
It is farther said, His hand will be against every hai-roi] It appears, from ver. 7, that Hagar had sat man, and every man's hand against him. Many po- down by a fountain or well of water in the wilderness tentates among the Abyssinians, Persians, Egyptians, of Shur, at which the Angel of the Lord found her ; and Turks, have endeavoured to subjugate the wander- and, to commemorate the wonderful discovery which ing or wild Arabs ; but, though they have had tempo- God had made of himself, she called the name of the rary triumphs, they have been ultimately unsuccessful. well 7 0h 783 beer-lachai-roi, "A well to the Living Sesostris, Cyrus, Pompey, and Trajan, all endeavoured One who seeth me." Two things seem implied here : to conquer Arabia, but in vain. From the beginning 1. A dedication of the well to Him who had appeared to the present day they have maintained their inde- to her; and, 2. Faith in the promise ; for he who is pendency, and God preserves them as a lasting monu- the Living One, existing in all generations, must have
A. M. 2094. 15 And I Hagar bare Abram a 16 And Abram was fourscore and A. M. 2094. B. C. 1910.
B. C. 1910. son; and Abram called his son's six years old when Hagar bare name, which Hagar bare, Ishmael.
Ishmael to Abram.
it ever in his power to accomplish promises which are be a cause to no effect but as it is excited by a soveto be fulfilled through the whole lapse of time, reign power. This is a doctrine of sound philosophy,
Verse 15. And Hagar bare Abram a son, fc.] It and should be carefully considered by all, that men appears, therefore, that Hagar, returned at the com- may see that without an overruling and universally mand of the angel, believing the promise that God had energetic providence, no effect whatever can be brought made to her.
about. But besides these general influences of God Called his son's name—Ishmael.]. Finding by the in nature, which are all exhibited by what men call account of Hagar, that God had designed that he general laws, he chooses often to art supernaturally, should be so called. “ Ishmael," says Ainsworth,“ is i. e., independently of or against these general laws, the first man in the world whose name was given him that we may see that there is a God who does not of God before he was born."
confine himself to one way of working, but with means,
without means, and even against natural means, acIn the preceding chapter we have a very detailed complishes the gracious purposes of his mercy in the account of the covenant which God made with Abram, behalf of man. Where God has promised let himn be which stated that his seed should possess Canaan; and implicitly credited, because he cannot lie; and let not this promise, on the Divine authority, he steadfastly hasty nature intermeddle with his work. believed, and in simplicity of heart waited for its ac- The omniscience of God is a subject on which we complishment. Sarai was not like minded. As she should often reflect, and we can never do it unfruithad no child herself, and was now getting old, she fully while we connect it, as we ever should, with thought it necessary to secure the inheritance by such infinite goodness and mercy. Everything, person, means as were in her power ; she therefore, as we and circumstance, is under its notice; and dotti not have seer, gave her slave to Abram, that she might the eye of God affect his heart ? The poor slave, the have children by her. We do not find Abram remon- stranger, the Egyptian, suffering under the severity strating on the subject ; and why is he blamed? God of her hasty, 'unbelieving mistress, is seen by the allhad not as yet told him how he was to have an heir ; wise and merciful God. He permits her to go to the the promise simply stated, He that shall come forth oul desert, provides the spring to quench her thirst, and of thine own bowels shall be thine heir, chap. xv. 4. sends the Angel of the covenant to instruct and comConcubinage, under that dispensation, was perfectly fort her. How gracious is God' He permits us to lawful ; therefore he could, with equal justice and in- get into distressing circumstances that- he may give us nocence, when it was lawful in itself, and now urged effectual relief; and in such a way, too, that the excelby the erpress desire of Sarai, take Hagar to wife. lence of the power may appear to be of him, and that And it is very likely that he might think that his pos- we may learn to trust in him in all our distresses. terity, whether by wife or concubine; as both were God delights to do his creatures good. lawful, might be that intended by the promise.
In all transactions between God and man, mentioned It is very difficult to believe that a promise which in the sacred writings, we see one uniform agency; refers to some natural event can possibly be fulfilled the great. Mediator in all, and through all ; God ever but through some natural means. And yet, what is coming to man by him, and man having access to God nature but an instrument in God's hands? What we through him. This was, is, and ever will be the call natural effects are all performed by supernatural economy of grace. “ The Father hath sent me :and agency; for nature, that is, the whole system of inani- no man cometh unto the Father but by me.” God mate things, is as inert as any of the particles of mat- forbid that he should have cause to complain of us, ter of the aggregate of which it is composed, and can “ Ye will not come unto me, that ye might have life.”
CHAPTER XVII. . In the ninety-ninth year of Abram's life God again appears to him, announces his name as God ALMIGHTY,
and commands him to walk perfectly before him, 1; proposes to renew the covenant, 2. Abram's prostration, 3. The covenant specified, 4. Abram's name changed to Abraham, and the reason given, 5. The privileges of the covenant enumerated, 6-8. The conditions of the covenant to be observed, not only by Abraham but all his posterity, 9. Circumcision appointed as a sign or token of the covenant, 10, 11. The age at which and the persons on whom this was to be performed, 12, 13. The danger of neglecting this rite, 14. Sarai's name changed to Sarah, and a particular promise made to her, 15, 16. Abraham's joy at the prospect of the performance of a matter which, in the course of nature, was impossible, 17. His request for the preservation and prosperity of Ishmael, 18. The birth and blessedness of Isaac foretold, 19.
Great prosperity promised to Ishmael, 20. But the covenant to be established not in his, but in Isaac's posterity, 21. Abraham, Ishmael, and all the mates in the family circumcised, 23–27.