« AnteriorContinuar »
Isaac is born and circumcised.
Sarah exults and Ishmael mocks.
B. C. 1896.
A. M. 2109. AND the Lord "visited Sarah 7 And she said, Who would have A. M. 2108. B. C. 1896.
as he had said, and the LORD said unto Abraham, that Sarah did unto Sarah -as he had spoken,
should have given children suck ? ? for I have 2 For Sarah o conceived, and bare Abraham borne him a son in his old age. a son in his old
age, at the set time of which 8 And the child grew and was weaned ; and God had spoken to him.
Abraham made a great feast the same day 3 And Abraham called the name of his son that Isaac was weaned. that was born unto him, whom Sarah bare to 9 And Sarah saw the son of A. M. cir. 2110. him, Isaac,
Hagar m the Egyptian,. ?. which 4 And Abraham circumcised his son Isaac she had borne unto Abraham, o mocking. being eight days old, 5 as God had command- 10 Wherefore she said unto Abraham, o Cast ed him.
out this bond-woman and her son: for the 5 And Abraham was a hundred years son of this bond-woman shall not be heir with old, when his son Isaac was born unto him. my son, even with Isaac.
6 - And Sarah said, i God hath made me to 11 And the thing was very grievous in laugh, so that all that héar k. will laugh with me. Abraham's sight, a because of his son.
B. C. cir. 1894.
a 1 San ü. 21. Chap: xvii. 19; xviii. 10, 14; Gal. iv. i Psa. exxvi. 2; Isa, liv. L; Gal. iv. 27. k Luke i. 58. 23, 28.- -C Acts vii. 8; Gal. iv. 22; Heb. xi. 11. -d Chap: 'Chap. xvii. 11, 12. — Chap. xvi. 1.- Chap. xvi. 15. u. 21.-_e Chap. xvii. 19.- Acts vii. 8. Chap. xvii. • Gal. iv. 22. -P Gal. iv. 30; see chap. xxv. 6; xxxvi. 6, 7. 10, 12 2 Chap. xvii, 1, 17.
1 Chap. xvii. 18.
NOTES-ON CHAP. XXI.
of the mother to her son, 2 Mac. vii. 27, it seems Verse 1. The Lord visited Sarah] That is, God likely that among the Jews they were weaned when fulfilled his promise to Sarah by giving her, at the ad- three years old : O my son, have pity upon me that vanced age of ninety, power to conceive and bring bare thee nine months in my womb, and gave thee suck forth a son.
THREE YEARS, and nourished thee and brought thee up. Verse 3. Isaac.] See the reason and interpretation And this is farther strengthened by 2 Chron. xxxi. 16, of this name in the note on chap. xvii. 7.
where Hezekiah, in making provision for the Levites Verse 4. And Abraham circumcised his son] See and priests; ineludes the children from three years old on chap. xvii. 10, &c.
and upwards; which is a presumptive proof that preVerse 6. God hath made me to laugh] Sarah viously to this age they were wholly dependent on the alludes here to the circumstance mentioned chap. 1 mother for their nourishment. Samuel appears to have xviii. 12 ; and as she seems to use the word to laugh been brought to the sanctuary when he was just weaned, in this place, not in the 'sense of being incredulous, and then he was capable of ministering before the Lord, but to express, such pleasure or happiness as almást 1 Sam. i. 22-28 ; and this certainly could not be besuspends the reasoning faculty for a time, it justifies fore he was three years of age. The term among the the observation on the above-named verse. See a Mohammedans is fixed by the Koran, chap. xxxi: 14, similar case in Luke xxiv.: 41, where -the disciples at two years of age. were so overeome with the good news of our Lord's "Verse 9. Mocking.) What was implied in this resurrection, that it is said, They believed not for joy. mocking is not known. St. Paul, Gal. iv. 29, calls
Verse 8. The child grew and was weaned] Dæc cild it persecuting; but it is likely he meant no more than mplice peos y pearp gepened. - Anglo-Saron Version. 'some species of ridicule used by Ishmael on the occaNow the child wared and became weaned. We have sion, and probably with respect to the age of Sarah the verb to wean from the Anglo-Saxon apendan awen- at Isaac's birth; and her previous barrenness. Jonathan dan, to convert, transfer, turn from one thing to ben Uzziel and the Jerusalem Targum represent Ishanother, which is the exact import of the Hebrew mael as performing some idolatrous rite on the occaword 532 gamal in the text. Hence penan wenan, tosion, and that this had given the offence to Sarah. wean, to turn the child from the breast to receive another Conjectures are as useless as they are endless. Whatkind of aliment. And hence, probably, the word wean, ever it was, it became the occasion of the expulsion a young child, which is still in use in the northern of himself and mother: Several authors are of opiparts of Great Britain and Ireland, and which from its nion that the Egyptian bondage of four hundred years, etymology seems to signify a child taken from the mentioned chap. xv. 13, commenced with this persebreast; surely not from the Scotch wee-ane, a little cution of the righteous seed by the son of an Egyptian one, much less from the German wenig, little, as Dr. woman." Johnson and others would derive it. At what time Verse 10. Cast out this bond-woman and her son children were weaned
among the ancients, is a disputed Both Sarah and Abraham have been accused of crupoint, St. Jerome says there were two opinions on elty in this transaction, because every word reads harsh this subject. Some hold that children were always to us. Cast out ; und garash signifies not only to weaned at five years of age; others, that, they were thrust out, drive away, and expel, but also to divorce ; not weaned till they were twelve. From the speech (see Lev. xxi. 7 ;) and it is in this latter sense the
B. C. cir. 1894.
Hagar and Ishmael cast out.
GENESIS. They wander in the wilderness A. M. cir. 2110. 12 And God said unto Abra- 16 , And she went, and sat her A. M. cir. 2110. B. C. cir. 1894.
ham, Let it not be grievous in down over against him a good thy sight because of the lad, and because of way off, as it were a bow-shot : for she said, thy bond-woman; in all that Sarah hath said Let me not see the death of the child. And unto thee, hearken into her voice; for 'in she sat over against him, and lift up her Isaac shall thy seed be called.
voice, and wept.
14 And Abraham rose up early in the morn- heayen, and said unto her, What aileth thee,
| 19 And " God opened her eyes, and she saw 15 And the water was spent in the bottle, a well of water; and she went, and filled the and she cast the child under one of the bottle with water, and gave the lad drink. shrubs.
20 And God . x was with the lad; and he
* Rom. ix. 7, 8; Heb. xi. 18.- - Ver. 18; chap. xvi. 10; w Num. xxi. 31 ; see 2 Kings vi. 17, 18, 20; Luke xxiv. 16, 31. xvii. 20. John viii. 35. Exod. iii. 7. - Ver. 13.
* Chap. xxviii. 15; xxxix. 2, 3, 21.
word should be understood here. The child of Abra-chap. xvi. 16 ; Isaac was born when he was one hunham by Hagar might be considered as having a right dred years of age, chap. xxi. 5; hence-Ishmael was at least to a part of the inheritance; and as it was fourteen years old at the birth of Isaac. Add to this sufficiently known to Sarah that God had designed that the age of Isaac when he was weaned, which, from the succession should be established in the line of ver. 8 of this chapter, (see the note,) was probably Isaac, she wished Abraham to divorce Hagar, or to three, and we shall find that Ishmael was at the time perform some sort of legal act by which Ishmael might of his leaving Abraham not less than seventeen years be excluded from all claim on the inheritance. old; an age at whieh, in those primitive times, a young
Verse 12. In Isaac shall thy seed be called.) Here man was able to gain his livelihood, either by his bow God shows the propriety of attending to the counsel in the wilderness, or by keeping flocks as Jacob did. of Sarah ;-and lest Abraham, in whose eyes the thing Verse 15. And she cast the child) -7577 ni thoni was grievous, should feel distressed on the occasion, vatlashlech eth haiyeled, and she sent the lad under God renews his promises to Ishmael and his posterity.. one of the shrubs,' viz., to screen him from the inten
Verse 14. Took bread, and a bottle] By the word sity of the heat. Here Ishmael appears to be utterly bread we are to understand the food or provisions helpless, and this circumstance seems farther to conwhich were necessary for her and Ishmael, till they firin the opinion that he was now in a state of infancy; should come to the place of their destination ; which, but the preceding observations do this supposition enno doubt, Abraham particularly pointed out. The bot- tirely away, and his present helplessness will be easily tle, which was made of skin, ordinarily a goat's skin, accounted for on this ground: 1. Young persons can contained water sufficient to last them till they should bear much less fatigue than those who are arrived at come to the next well; which, it is likely, Abraham mature age. ' 2. They require much more fluid from particularly specified also. This well, it appears, Ha- the greater quantum of heat in their bodies, strongly gar missed, and therefore wandered about in the wil marked by the impetuosity of the blood; because from derness seeking more water, till all. she had brought them a much larger quantity of the fluids is, thrown with her was expended. We may therefore safely off by sweat and insensible perspiration, than from presume tħat she and her son were sufficiently pro- grown up or aged persons. 3. Their digestion is vided for their journey, had they not missed their way.. much more rapid, and hence they cannot bear hunger Travellers in those countries take only, to the present and thirst as well as the others. On these grounds day, provisions sufficient to carry them to the next Ishmael must be much more exhausted with fatigue village or encampment; and water to supply them till than his mother, they shall meet with the next well. What adds to Verse 19. God opened her eyes] These words apthe appearance of cruelty in this case is, that our pear to me to mean no more than that God directed translation seems to represent Ishmael as being a her to a well, which probably was at no great distance young child ; and that Hagar' was obliged to carry from the place in which she then was; and therefore him, the bread, and the bottle of water on her back or she is commanded; ver. 18, to support the lad, literally, shoulder at the same time. But that Ishmael could to make her hand strong in his behalf-namely, that not be carried on his mother's shoulder will be suffi- he might reach the well and quénch his thirst. . ciently evident when his age is considered; Ishmael Verse 20. Became an archer.) And by his skill in was born when Abraham was eighty-six years of age, this art, under the continual superintendence of the
Abraham and Abimelech make
a covenant at Beer-sheba.
B. C. cir. 1894.
A. M. cir. 2118.
A. M. cir. 2110. grew, and dwelt in the wilder- done this thing: neither didst A. M. cir. 2118.
B. C. cir. 1886. ness, Y and became an archer. thou tell me ; neither
neither yet heard 21 · And he dwelt in the wilderness of Paran: I of it, but to-day. and his mother z took him a wife out of the 27 And Abraham took sheep and oxen, and land of Egypt.
gave them unto Abimelech ; and both of them 22 And it came to pass at that made a covenant.
time, that a Abimelech, and Phi- 28 And Abraham set seven ewe lambs of chol the chief captain of his host, spake unto the flock by themselves. Abraham, .saying, God is with thee in all| 29 And Abimelech said unto Abraham, that thou doeşt:
& What mean these seven ewe lambs which 23 Now therefore o swear unto me here by thou hast set by themselves? God d that thou wilt not deal falsely with me, 30 And he said, For these seven ewe lambs nor with my son, nor with my son's son: but shalt thou take of my hand, that he they may be according to the kindness that I have done a witness unto me, that I have digged this well. unto thee, thou shalt do unto me, and to the 31 Wherefore he i called that place k Beerland wherein thou hast sojourned.
sheba ; because there they sware both of them. 24 And Abraham said, I will swear.
32 Thus they made a covenant at · Beer25 And Abraham reproved Abimelech be-sheba : then Abimelech rose up, and Phichol cause of a well of water, which Abimelech's the chief captain of his host, and they returned servants had violently taken away.
into the land of the Philistines. 26 And Abimelech said, I wot not who hath
33 And Abraham planted a 'grove in Beer
y Chap. xvi. 12. — -z Chap. xxiv. 4. Chap. xx. 2 ; xxvi. 26. - Chap. xxvi. 28. — Joshi ii. 12; 1 Sam. xxiv. 21. Heb. if thou shali lie unto me.
See chap. xxvi. 15, 18, 20, 21, 22.- Chap. xxvi. 31, 5 Chap. xxxvi. 8. h Chap. xxxi. 48, 52. Chap. xxvi. 33.
That is, the well of the oath.- 1 Or, tree; Amos viii. 14.
Divine Providence, (for God was with the lad,) he was especially where the flocks were numerous, because undoubtedly enabled to procure a sufficient supply for the water was scarce; and digging to find it was achis own wants and those of his parent.
companied with much expense of time and labour. Verse 21. He dwell in the wilderness of Paran] Verse 26. I wot 'not who hath done this thing) This is generally allowed to have been a part of the The servants of Abimelech had committed these depredesert belonging to Arabia Petræa,' in the vicinity of dations on Abraham without any authority from their Mount Sinai; and this seems to be its uniform mean- master, who appears to bave been a very amiable man, ing in the sacred writings.
possessing the fear of God, and ever regulating the Verse 22. At that time] This may either refer to whole of his conduct by the principles of righteousness the transactions recorded in the preceding chapter, or and strict justice. to the time of Ishmael's marriage, but most probably Verse 27. Took sheep and oxen] Some think that to the former.
these were the sacrifices which were offered on the God is with thee) 18793 meimera daiya, the occasion, and which Abraham furnished at his own WORD of Jehovah ; see before, chap. xv. 1. That cost, and, in order to do Abimelech the greater honour, the Chaldee paraphrasts use this term, not for a word gave them to him to offer before the Lord. : spoken, but in the same sense in which St. John'uses Verse 28. Seven ewe lambs] These were either given the hoyos TOU DEOU, the WORD of God, chap. i., must as a present, or they were intended as the price of the be evident to every unprejudiced reader. See on well, and being accepted by Abimelech, they served chap. xv. 1.
as a witness that he had acknowlodged Abraham's Verse 23. Now therefore swear unto me) The oath right to the well in question. on such occasions probably meant no more than the Verse 31. He called that place Beer-sheba) 783 mutual promise of both the parties, when they slew an vsv Beer-shaba, literally, the well of swearing or of animal, poured out the blood as a sacrifice to God, and the oath, because they both sware there—mutually conthen passed between the pieces. See this ceremony, firmed the covenant. chap. v. 18, and on chap. xv.
Verse 33. Abraham planted a grove) The original According to the kindness that I have done] The word buk eshel has been variously translated a grove, simple claims of justice were alone set up among a plantation, an orchard, a cultivated field, and an oak, virtuous people in those ancient times, which con- From this word, says Mr. Parkhurst, may be derived stitute the basis of the famous lex talionis, or law of the name of the famous asylum, opened by Romulus, like for like, kind office for kind office, and breach for between two groves of oaks at Rome; (uɛdoplov dvolv breach.
8pvriwv, Dionys. Hal., lib. ii. c. 16 ;) and as Abraham, Verse 25. Abraham reproved Abimelech] Wells Gen. xxi. 33, agreeably, no doubt, to the institutes of were of great.consequence in those hot countries, and the patriarchal religion, planted an oak in Beer-sheba, Abraham plants a grove,
and invokes the everiasting God
A. M. cir. 2118. sheba, and mcalled there on the 34 And Abraham sojourned A. Mc. 2018. B, C. cir. 1886.
B. C. cir. 1886. name of the LORD, n the ever- in the Philistines' land many lasting God.
m Chap. iv. 26; xxvi. 23, 25, 33.- Deut. xxxu. 27, Isa. xl. 28; Rom i. 20; xvi. 26; 1 Tim. i. 17; Jer. x. 10.
and called on the name of Jehovah, the everlasting on this the fire was lighted and the sacrifice offered. God, (compare Gen. xii. 8; xviii. 1,) so we find that Any place was equally proper, as they knew that the oaks were sacred among the idolaters also. Ye shall object of their worship filled the heavens and the earth. be ashamed of the oaks ye have chosen, says Isaiah, In process of time when families increased, and many chap. i. 29, to the idolatrous Israelites. And in Greece 'sacrifices were to be offered, groves or shady places we meet in very early times with the oracle of Jupiter were chosen, where the worshippers might enjoy the at the oaks of Dodona. Among the Greeks and Ro- protection of the shade, as a considerable time must mans we have sacra Jovi quercus, the oak sacred to be employed in offering many sacrifices. These groves Jupiter, even to a proverb. And in Gaul and Britain became afterwards abused 10. impure and idolatrous we find the highest religious regard paid to the same purposes, and were therefore strictly forbidden. See tree and to its misletoe, under the direction of the Exod. xxxiv. 13; Deut. xii. 3 ; xvi. 21. Druids, that is, the oak prophets or priests, from the And called there on the name of the Lord] On this Celtic deru, and Greek dpus, an oak. Few are igno- important passage Dr. Shuckford speaks thus : “Our rant that the misletoe is indeed a very extraordinary English translation very erroneously renders this place, plant, not to be cultivated in the earth, but always grow- he called upon the name of Jehotah; but the expresing on some other tree. “ The druids,” says Pliny, sion Dvd xp kara beshem never signifies to call upon Nat. Hist., lib. xvii., c. 44, “ hold nothing more sacred the name ; dorp kara shem would signify to invoke than the misletoe, and the tree on which it is produced, or call
' upon the name, or ou 48 top kara él shem would provided it be the oak. They make choice of grores signify to cry unto the name; but ows xp kara beshem, of oak on this account, nor do they perform any of signifies to invoke in the name, and seems to be used their sacred rites without the leaves of those trees; where the true worshippers of God offered their prayers so that one may suppose that they are for this reason in the name of the true Mediator, or where the idolacalled, by a Greek etymology, Druids. And whatever ters offered their prayers in the name of false ones, I misletoe grows on the oak they think is sent from Kings xviii. 26; for as the true worshippers had but heaven, and is a sign that God himself has chosen that one God and one Lord, so the false worshippers had tree. This however is very rarely, found, but when gods many and lords many, 1 Cor. viii. 5. We have discovered is treated with great ceremony. They call several instances of xp kara, and a noun after it, it by a name which signifies in their language the curer sometimes with and sometimes without the particle 5 of all ills; and having duly prepared their feasts and el, and then it signifies to call upon the person there sacrifices under the tree, they bring to it two white mentioned; thus, 7717' x7 kara Yehorah is to call upor bulls, whose horns are then for the first time tied; the the Lord, Psa. xiv. 4 ; xvii. 6 ; xxxi. 17; liii. 4; cxviii. prieşt; dressed in a white robe, ascends the tree, and 5, &c.; and 717 5x *7 kara el Yehovah imports the with a golden pruning hook cuts of the misletoe, which same, 1 Sam. sii
. 17; Jonah i. 6, &c.; but DUI XP is received into a white sågum or sheet. · Then they kara beshem is either to name by the name, Gen. iv. sacrifice the victims, praying that God would bless his 17; Num. xxxii. 42 ; Psa. xlix. 11; Isa. xliii. 7; own gift to those on whom he has bestowed it.” It is or to invoke in the name, when it is used as an expresimpossible for a Christian to read this account without sion of religious worship.” Connex. vol. i., p. 293.. thinking of him who was the desire of all nations, of I believe this to be a just view of the subject, and the man whose name was the BRANCH, who had indeed therefore I admit it without scruple. no father upon earth, but came down from heaven, The everlasting God.) ohry Soinin Yehovah el olam, was given to heal all our. ills, and, after being cut off Jehovah, the strong God, the ETERNAL ONE.
This is through the Divine counsel, was wrapped in fine linen the first place in Scripture in which osu olam occurs and laid in the sepulchre for our sakes. I cannot for- as an attribute of God, and here it is evidently de. bear adding that the misletoe was a sacred emblem to signed to point out his eternal duration ; that it can other Celtic nations, as, for instance, to the ancient in- mean no limited time is self-evident, because nothing habitants of Italy. The golden branch, of which Virgil of this kind oan be attributed to God. The Septuagint speaks so largely in the sixth book of the Æneis, and render the words Okoç alovios, the ever-existing God; without which, he says, none could return from the in- and the Vulgate has Invocavit ibi nomen Domini, Dei
fernal regions, (see line 126,) seems an allusion to the æterni, There he invoked the name of the Lord, the misleloe, as he himself plainly intimates by comparing eternal God. The Arabic is nearly the same. Frem it to that plant, line 205, &c. See Parkhurst, under this application of both the Hebrew and Greek words the word 50x eshel.
we learn that obwy olam and awwv aion originally signiIn the first ages of the world the worship of God fied ETERNAL, or duration without end. Ohy alam sigwas exceedingly simple ; there were no temples nor nifies he was, hidden, concealed, or kept secret; and covered edifices of any kind; an altar, sometimes a alwv, according to Aristotle, (De Cælo, lib. i., chap. 9, single stone, sometimes consisting of several, and at and a higher authority need not be sought,) is comother times merely of turf, was all that was necessary; Ipounded of gel, always, and wv, being, AWV EOTIV, ATTO
του αει ειναι.
on the preceding accounts. The same author informs us that God 1. FAITHFULNESS is one of the attributes of God, was termed Aisa, because he was always existing, de- and none of his promises can fail. According to the γεσθαι--Αισαν δε, αει ουσαν.
oav. De' Mundo, chap. xi., promise to Abraham, Isaac is born ; but according to in fine. Hence we see that no words can more forci- the course of nature it fully appears that both Abraham bly express the grand characteristics of eternity than and Sarah had passed that term of life in which it was these.. It is that duration which is concealed, hidden, possible for them to have children. Isaac is the child or kept secret from all created beings; which is always of the promise, and the promise is supernatural. IshEristing, still running on but never running out; an mael is born according to the ordinary course of nature, interminable, incessant, and immeasurable duration ; it and cannot inherit, because the inheritance is spiritual, is that, in the whole of which God alone can be said and cannot come by natural birth; hence we see that to exist, and that which the eternal mind can alone no man can expect to enter into the kingdom of God comprehend,
by birth, education, profession of the true faith, &c., In all languages words have, in process of time, de- &c. Those alone who are born from above, and are viated from their original acceptations, and have become made partakers of the Divine nature, can be admitted accommodated to particular purposes, and limited to into the family of God in heaven, and everlastingly particular meanings. This has happened both to the enjoy that glorious inheritance.' Reader, art thou born Hebrew Dhy alam, and the Greek awr; they have been again? Hath God changed thy heart and thy life? both used to express a limited time, but in general a If not, canst thou suppose that in thy present state thou time the limits of which are unknown; and thus a canst possibly enter into the paradise of God? I leave pointed reference to the original ideal meaning is still thy conscience to answer.kept up. Those who bring any of these terms in an 2. The actions of good men may be misrepresented, accommodated sense to favour a particular doctrine, and their motives suspected, because those motives are &c., must depend on the good graces of their oppo- not known; and those who are prone to think evil are nents for permission to use them in this way. For as the last to take any trouble to inform their minds, so the real grammatical meaning of both words is eternal, that they may judge righteous judgment. Abraham, and all other meanings are only accommodated ones, in the dismissal of Hagar and Ishmael, has been acsound criticism, in all matters of dispute ocncerning cused of cruelly. Though objections of this kind have the import of a word or term, must have recourse to been answered already, yet it may not be amiss farther the grammatical meaning, and its use among the earliest to observe that what he did he did in conformity to a and most correct writers in the language, and will de- Divine command, and a command so unequivocally given termine all accommodated meanings by this alone. Now that he could not doubt its Divine origin ; and this very the first and best writers in both these languages apply command was accompanied with a promise that both olam and alwv to express eternal, in the proper mean- the child and his mother should be taken under the Diing of that word ; and this is their proper meaning in vine protection. And it was so; nor does appear the Old and New Testaments when applied to God, that they lacked any thing but water, and that only for his attributes, his operations taken in connection with a short time, after which it was mịraculously supplied. the ends for which he performs them, for whatsoever God will work a miracle when necessary, and never he doth, it shall be for ever-hws 7'ni yihyeh leolam, till then ; and at such a time the Divine interposition il shall be for eternity, Eccl. iii. 14 ; forms and ap- can be easily ascertained, and man is under no tempo pearances of created things may change, but the coun- tation to attribute to second causes what has so evi. sels and purposes of God relative to them are perma- dently flowed from the first. Thus, while he is pro, nent and eternal, and none of them can be frustrated; moting his creatures' good, he is securing his own hence the words, when applied to things which from glory., and he brings men into straits and difficulties, their nature must have a limited duration, are properly that he may have the fuller opportunity to convince to be understood in this sense, because those things, his followers of his providential care, and to prove how though temporal in themselves, shadow forth things that much he loves them.. are eternal. Thus the Jewish dispensation, which in 3. Did we acknowledge God in all our ways, he the whole and in its parts is frequently said to be obwys would direct our steps. Abimelech, king of Gerar, leolam, for ever, and which has terminated in the and Phichol, captain of his host, seeing Abraham a Christian dispensation, has the word properly applied worshipper of the true God, made him swear by the to it, because it typified and introduced that dispensa- object of his worship that there should be a lasting tion which is to continue not only while time shall tast, peace between them and him; for as they saw that but is to have its incessant accumulating consummation God was with Abraham, they well knew that he throughout eternity. The word is, with the same strict could not expect the Divine blessing any longer than propriety, applied to the duration of the rewards and he walked in integrity before God; they therefore punishments in a future state. And the argument that require him to swear by God that he would not deal pretends to prove (and it is only pretension) that in the falsely with them or their posterity.
From this very future punishment of the wicked " the worm shall die," circumstance we may see the original purpose, design, and “the fire shall be quenched,” will apply as forcibly and spirit of an oath, viz., Let God prosper or curse to the state of happy spirits, and as fully prove that a me in all that I do, as I prove true or false to my enpoint in eternity shall arrive when the repose of the gagements! This is still the spirit of all oaths where righteous shall be interrupted, and the glorification of God is called to witness, whether the form be by the the children of God have an eternal end ! See the water of the Ganges, the sign of the cross, kissing the noles on chap. xvii. 7, 8.
Bible, or lifting up the hand to heaven. Hence wg