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B. C. 1739.

Jacob comes to Shalem,

GENESIS.

and erects an altar to God. A. M. 2265. built him a house, and made booths 19 And ? he bought a parcel A. M. 2265 B. C. 1739.

for his cattle : therefore the name of a field, where he had spread of the place is called "Succoth.

his tent, at the hand of the children of 18 And Jacob came to Shalem, a.city of Hamor, Shechem's father, for a hundred * Shechem, y which is in the land of Canaan, " pieces of money. when he came from Padan-aram; and pitched 20 And he erected there an altar ; and his tent before the city.

c called it a El-elohe-Israel.

That is, booths. w John-iii. 23. Called, Acts vii. 16, John iv. 5.- Called, Acts vii. 16, Emmor.- cb Or, lambs. Sychem.

.- Josh. xxiv. l; Judges ix. 1. 2 Josh. xxiv. 32; < Chap. xxxv. 1.- d That is, God, the God of Israel.

them agree

there for the resting and convenience of his family, I in ancient times constituted the principal riches of who in all probability continued there for some con- their owners; but when other cattle were added, the siderable time.

word pecunia, (from pecus, cattle,) which we translate Verse 18. And Jacob came to Shalem, á cily of She- money, and from which we still have our English term chem] The word osv shalem, in the Samaritan disa pecuniary, appears to have been substituted for oves, shalom, should be translated here in peace, or in safety. because pecus, pecoris, and pecus, pecudis, were used After resting some time at Succoth, which was neces- to signify all kinds of cattle large and small. Among sary for the safety of his flocks and the comfort of his our British and Saxon ancestors we find coins stampfamily, he got safely to a city.of Shechem, in health ed with the figure of an ox, horse, hog, goat, fc., and of body, without any loss of his cattle or servants, his this custom arose in all probability, both among them wives and children being also in safety. Coverdale and other nations, from this circumstance, that in priand Matthews translate this word as above, and with mitive times the coin was the ordinary value of the

the Chaldee and the Arabic: it is not likely animal whose image it bore. It is, all circumstances to have been the name of a city, as it is nowhere else weighed, most likely that a piece of money is here into be found. Shechem is called in Acts vii. 16, Sy- tended, and possibly marked with the image of a lamb; chem, and in John iv. 5, Syehar ; in the Arabic it is but as the original word 10 vp kesitah occurs only here, called Nablous, and to the present day Neapolis. It and in Josh. xxiv. 32, and Job xlii. 11, this is not was near to Samaria ;-and the place where the wretched sufficiently evident, the word itself being of very doubtremains of the sect of the Samaritans were lately found, ful signification. . Mr. Parkhurst is of opinion that the from whom Dr. Huntington received a perfect copy of kesitah bore the image of a lamb ; and that these lamb the Samaritan Pentateuch.

coins of the ancient Hebrews typified the Lamb of Verse 19. For a hundred pieces of money.) The God, who in the Divine purpose was considered as slain original, nu up. 7789) bemeah kesilah, has been a mat- from the foundation of the world, and who purchased ter of long and learned discussion among critics. As us unto God with his own blood. The conjecture is kesitah signifies a lamb, it may imply that Jacob gave at least pious, and should lead to useful reflections. the Hamorites one hundred lambs for the field; but if Those who wish to see more on this subject may conit be the same transaction that St. Stephen refers to insult the writers in the Critici Sacri, and Calmet. Acts vii. 16, it was money, riums apyuplov, a sum or

Verse 20. And he erected there an allar It apprice of silver, which was given on the occasion. It pears that Jacob had a very correct notion of the prohas been conjectured that the money had the figure of a vidence and mercy of God; hence he says, ver. 5 : The lamb stamped on it, because it was on an average the children which God hath GRACIOUSLY given thy ser. value of a lamb; and hence it might be called a kesitah vant ; and in ver. 11 he attributes all his substance to or lamb from the impression it bore. It is certain that the bounty of his Maker : Take, I pray thee, my blessin many countries the coin has had its name from the ingbecause God hath dealt GRACIOUSLY with me, and image it bore; so among our ancestors a coin was called because I have enough. Hence he viewed God as the an angel because it bore the image of an angel ; hence God of all grace, and to him he erects an altar, dedialso a Jacobus, a Carolus, a Lewis, (Louis d. Or,) a cating it to God, the God of Israel, referring particuJoe, because certain coins in England, Spain, France, larly to the change of his own name, and the mercies and Portugal, bore on one side the image of the kings which he then received'; and hence perhaps it would of those countries, James, Charles, Lewis, Joseph, or be best to translate the words, The strong God (is) the Johannes. The Athenians had a coin called Bous, an God of Israel ; as by the power of bis grace and goodox, because it was stamped with the figure of an ox, ness he had rescued, defended, blessed, and supported Hence the saying in Æschylus :

him from his youth up until now, The erecting altars Τα δ' αλλα σιγω, βους επι γλωττης μεγας

with particular names appears in other places; so, Exod.

xvii. 15, Moses calls his altar Jehovah-nissi," the Lord Βεβηκεν. .

AGAM. V. 36.

is my banner." " I must be silent concerning other matters, a great ox has come upon my tongue;" to signify a person who 1. When a man's ways please God, he maketh even had received a bribe for secrecy, i. e., a sum of money, his enemies to be at peace with him. When Jacob had on each piece of which an ox was stamped, and hence got reconciled to God, God reconciled his brother to called Bous, an ox. The' word opes, riches, is a cor- him. The hearts of all men are in the hands of God, ruption of the word oves, sheep, because these animalsand he turns them howsoever he will.

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Dinah is violated by Shechem, CHAP. XXXIV. which displeases Jacob's sons.

2. Since the time in which Jacob wrestled with the worship of God.” Jacob buys a piece of ground, and Angel of the covenant, we see in him much depend erects an altar on it in the land of a heathen, that he ence on God, accompanied with a spirit of deep hu- might acknowledge God among his enemies, and turn mility and gratitude. God's grace alone can change them to the true faith ; and there is every reason to the heart of man, and it is by that grace only that we believe that this expedient would have been succéssget a sense of our obligations ; this lays us in the dust, ful, had it not been for the base conduct of his sons and the more we receive the lower we shall lie. How true is the saying, One sinner spoileth much

3. “ The first thing,” says good Bishop Wilson, good! Reader, beware, lest thy conduct should be“that pious men do, is to provide for the honour and come a stumbling block to any.

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CHAPTER. XXXIV. Dinah, the daughter of Jacob and Leah, going out to see the daughters of the land, is ravished by Shechem,

the son of Hamor, 1, 2. He entreats his father to get her for him to wife, 3. Jacob and his sons hear of the indignity offered to Dinah, 5–7. Hamor proposes the suit of Shechem to Jacob and his sons, and offers them a variety of advantages, 8–10." Shechem himself comes forward, begs to have Dinah to wife, and offers dowry to any extent, 11, 12. The sons of Jacob pretend scruples of conscience to give their sister to one who was uncircumcised ; and require, as a condition of this marriage, and of intermarriages in general, that all the Shechemites should be circumcised, 13-17. Hamor and Shechem consent, 18, 19. They lay the business before the elders of their city, dwell on the advantages of a connection with Jacob and his family, and propose to them the condition required by the sons of Jacob, 20–23. The elders consent, and all the males are circumcised, 24. While the Shechemites are incapable of defending themselves, on the third day after their circumcision, Simeon and Levi, the brothers of Dinah, came upon the city, slevo all the males, sacked the city, took the women and children captives, and seized on all the cattle belonging to the Shechemites, 25-29. Jacob is greatly displeased and alarmed at this treachery and cruelty of his sons,

and lays before them the probable consequences, 30. They endeavour to vindicate their conduct, 31. A. M. cir . 2266. AND. Dinah the daughter of 5 And Jacob heard that he had A. M, cir. 2266.

B. C. cir. 1738. Leah, which she bare unto defiled Dinah his daughter: now Jacob, went out to see the daughters of the his sons were with his cattle in the field, and land.

Jacob ► held his peace until they were come. 2 And when Shechem the son of Hamor the 6 And Hamor the father of Shechem went Hivitė, prince of the country, saw her, he out unto Jacob to commune with him. d took her, and lay with her, and • defiled her. 7. And the sons of Jacob came out of the

3 And his soul clave unto Dinah the daugh- field when they heard it: and the men were ter of Jacob; and he loved the damsel, and grieved, and they i were very wroth, because spake kindly unto the damsel.

he k had wrought folly in Israel, in lying with 4 And Shechem & spake unto his father Jacob's daughter ; ? which thing ought not to Hamor, saying, Get me this damsel to wife. be done.

a Chap. xxx. 21. Lo Tit. ii. 5. Chap. vi. 2; Judg. xiv. 1. & Judg. xiv. 2. <h 1 Sam. x. 27; 2 Sam. xiii. 22.
« Chap. xx. 2.--e Heb. humbled her ; Deni. xxii. 29.- Heb. xlix. 7; 2 Sam. xiii. 21. -k Josh. vii. 15; Judg. xx. 6.-

Deut. to the heart of the damsel ; see Isa. xl. 2 ; Hos. ii. 14.

xxiii. 17; 2 Sam. xiii. 12. NOTES ON CHAP. XXXIV.

grace. It appears sufficiently evident from this and Verse 1. And Dinah-went out to see the daughters the preceding verse that there had been no consent on of the land.] It is supposed that Jacob had been now the part of Dinah, that the whole was an act of vioabout seven or eight years in the land, and that Dinah, lence, and that she was now detained by force in the who was about seven years of age when Jacob came house of Shechem. Here she was found when Simeon to Canaan, was now about fourteen or fifteen. Why and Levi sacked the city, verse 26. or on what occasion she went out we know not, but Verse 7. He had wrought folly in Israel]

The the reason given by Josephus is very probable, viz., land, afterwards generally called Israel, was not as that it was on one of their festivals.

yet so named; and the sons of Jacob were neither Verse 2. Prince of the country) i. e., Hamor was called Israel, Israeliles nor Jews, till long after this. prince ; Shechem was the son of the prince or chief. How then can it be said that Shechem had wrought Our version appears to represent Shechem as prince, folly in Israel? The words are capable of a more but his father was the chief of the country. See literal translation : bonu'3 beyisrael, may be translated, verses 6, 8, &c.

against Israel. The angel had said, Thy name shall Verse 3. Spake kindly unto the damsel.] Literally, be called no more Jacobnot only Jacob, but Israel. he spake to the heart of the damsel—endeavoured to It was this that aggravated the offence of Shechem; gain her affections, and to reconcile her to her dis- he wrought folly against Israel, the prince of God,

i Chap.

B. C. cir. 1738.

B. C. cir. 1738.

unto you.

Jacob's sons propose that all

GENESIS. the Shechemites be circumcised. A. M. cir. 2266. 8 And Hamor communed with and we will dwell with you, and A. M. cir. 2266.

them, saying, The soul of my son we will become one people. Shechem longeth for your daughter : I pray 17 But if ye will not hearken unto us, to be you give her him to wife.

circumcised; then 'will we take our daughter, 9 And make ye marriages with us, and give and we will be gone. your daughters unto us, and take our daughters 18 And their words pleased Hamor, and

Shechem Hamor's son.. 10 And ye shall dwell with us : and » the 19 And the young man deferred not to do land shall be before you ; dwell and trade ye the, thing, because he had delight in Jacob's therein, and get you possession therein. daughter: and he was * more honourable than

11 And Shechem said unto her father and all the house of his father. unto her brethren, Let me find grace in your

20 And Hamor and Shechem his son came eyes, and what ye shall say unto me I will unto the gate of their city, and communed with give.

the men of their city, saying, 12 Ask me never so much p dowry and gift, 21 These men are peaceable with us; thereand I will give according as ye shall say unto fore let them dwell in the land, and trade me ; but give me the damsel to wife. therein; for the land, behold, it is large

13 And the sons of Jacob answered Shechem enough for them ; let us take their daughters and Hamor his father a deceitfully, (and said, to us for wives, and let us give them our Because he had defiled Dinah their sister :) daughters.

14 And they said unto them, We cannot do 22 Only herein will the men consent unto this thing, to give our sister to one that is us for to dwell with us, to be one people, if uncircumcised; for that were a reproach every male among us be circumcised, as they unto us :

are circumcised. 15 But in this will we consent unto If 23. Shall not their cattle and their substance ye will be as we be, that every male of you be and every beast of theirs be ours ? only let us circumcised;

consent unto them, and they will dwell with us. 16 Then will we give our daughters unto 24 And unto Hamor and unto Shechem his you, and we will take your daughters. to us; son hearkened all that went out of the gate

m Chapter xiii. 9; xx. 15.- Chap. xlii. 34.0 Chapter 9 See 2 Sam. xiii. 24, &c. Josh. v. 9.-Num. Xxii. xlvii. 27. PExodus xxii. 16, 17; Deut. xxii. 29; 1 Samuel 15; 2 Chron. iv. 9; Isa. ii. 3–5. — Chap. xxiii. 10; Matt. Fii.

6; Rom. ii. 28, 29.

you :

xviii. 25.

in lying with the daughter of Jacob. Here both the of Hamor was very inconsiderable, else they would names are given ; Jacob, whose daughter was defiled, not have sought an alliance with the family of Jacob, and Israel, the prince of God, against whom the offence and have come so readily into a painful, disgraceful was committed.

measure, without having either the sanction of Divine Verse 12. Ask me never so much dowry) See on authority or reason ; for it does not appear that the chap. xxix. 20, &c. See the law relative to this, sons of Jacob urged either. · And they are threatened Exod. xxii. 16, 17.

here that if they do not agree to be circumcised, Verse 13. Answered-deceitfully] Which nothing Dinah shall be taken from them, and restored to her could excuse ; yet, to show that they had had much pro-, familyand this is probably what the Shechemites vocation, it is immediately subjoined 1937' vaidabberu, saw they had not power at present to prevent. they spoke thus because he had defiled Dinah their Verse 23. Shall not their callle and their substance sister ; for so this parenthesis should be read. -be ours ?] This was a bait held out for the poor

Verse 14. That were a reproach unto us] Because unsuspecting people of Hamor by their prince and his the uncircumcised were not in the covenant of God; son, who were not much less deceived than the people and to have given an heiress of the promise to one themselves. who had no kind of right to its spiritual blessings, Verse 24. Every male was circumcised] These from whom might spring children who would natural-simple people must have had very great affection for ly walk in the way of their father, would have been their chief and his son, or have been under the influabsurd, reproachful, and wicked.. Thus far they were ence of the most passive obedience, to have come so perfectly right; but to make this holy principle a cloak readily into this measure, and to have submitted to this for their deceitful and murderous purposes, was the rite. But the petty princes in Asiatic countries have full sum of all wickedness.

ever been absolute and despotic, their subjects paying Verse 17. Then will we take our daughter, and we them the most prompt and blind obedience. I shall give will be gone.] It is natural to suppose that the tribe a few examples from Mr. Richardson's Dissertations :

The Shechemites consent, and.

CHAP. XXXIV.

are treacherously murdered.

B. C. cir. 1738.

B. C. cir. 1738.

A. M. cir. 2266. of his city: and every male was and their asses, and that which A. M. cir. 2266.

circumcised, all that went out of was in the city, and that which the gate of his city.

was in the field, 25 And it came to pass on the third day, 29 And all their wealth, and all their little when they were sore, that two of the sons of ones, and their wives took they captive; and Jacob, Simeon and Levi, Dinah's brethren, spoiled even all that was in the house. took each man his sword, and came upon the 30 And Jacob said to Simeon and Levi, city boldly, and slew all the males.

w Ye have a troubled me y to make me to stink 26 And they slew Hamor and Shechem his among the inhabitants of the land, among the son with the edge of the sword, and took Canaanites and the Perizzites : 2 and I being Dinah out of Shechem's house, and went out. few in number, they shall gather themselves

27 The sons of Jacob came upon the slain, together against me, and slay me; and I shall and spoiled the city, because they had defiled be destroyed, I and my house. their sister.

31 And they said, Should he deal with our 28 They took their sheep, and their oxen, sister as with a harlot?

Chapter-xlix. 5, 6, 7. - Hebrew, mouth ; Deut. xxxii. 42;

2 Sam. Ü. 26; Isa. xxxi. 8.

w Chap. xlix. 6. * Josh. vii. 25. Exod. v. 21; 1 Samuel

xili. 4. - Deut. ïv, 27; Psa. cv. 12.

cer

Abu Thaher, chief of the Carmathians, about the sons, the remaining brothers of Simeon and Levi, spoiled year nine hundred and thirty, ravaged the territory the city. Though the others could slay the defenceless of Mecca, defiled the temple, and destroyed nearly males, it was not likely that they could have carried 40,000 people. With only 500 horse he went to lay away all the booty, with the women, children, and catsiege to Bagdad : the caliph's general, at the head of tle; it is therefore most natural to suppose that the rest 30,000 men, marched out to seize him, but before he of the sons of Jacob assisted at last in the business. attacked him he sent an officer to summon him to Verse 30. Ye have troubled me] Brought my mind surrender. • How many men has the caliph's general ?' into great distress, and endangered my personal safety; said Abu Thaher. • Thirty thousand,' replied the offi- to make me to stinkto render me odious to the sur

* Among them all,' says the Carmathian chief, rounding tribes, so that there is every reason to sus'has he got three like mine ? Then, ordering his fol- pect that when this deed is come abroad they will join lowers to approach, he commanded one to stab him in a confederacy against me, and extirpate my whole self, another to throw himself from a precipice, and family. And had he not been under the peculiar proa third to plunge into the Tigris; all three instantly tection of God, this in all human probability would obeyed, and perished. Then turning to the officer, have been the case; but he had prevailed with God, he said, • He who has such troops needs not value the and he was also to prevail with men. That Jacob's number of his enemies !'

resentment was not dissembled we have the fullest Hassan Sabat, one of those petty princes formerly proof in his depriving these two sons of the birthright, known in Asia and Europe by the title Sheekh-ul-jibel, which otherwise they had doubtless enjoyed. See or old man of the mountain, being required by an chap. xlix. 5, 7, where some additional circumstances ambassador to do homage to his master, the Sultan are related. Malekshah Jelaleddin, without giving any answer, Verse 31. Should he deal with our sister as with a ordered one of his attendants to poniard himself, and harlot ?). On this outrage alone they vindicated their another to leap from the battlements of the tower; flagitious conduct. The word harlot first occurs here: and he was instantly obeyed! Then turning to the the original is not wibio pilegesh, which we render conambassador, he said, Seventy thousand are thus at-cubine, (see its explanation chap. xxii. 24,) but 1731 tentive to my commands. Let this be my answer.'” |zonah, which ordinarily signifies one who prostilutes On a principle of this kind we may account for the herself to any person for hire. Our word harlot is prompt obedience of the people of Hamor.

said to have been derived from a very odd circumstance: Verse 25. On the third day, when they were sore) Robert, duke of Normandy, seeing a fine-looking counWhen the inflammation was at the height, and a fever try girl dancing with her companions on

the ensued which rendered the person utterly helpless, her to his bed. She was the daughter of a skinner, and his state critical, Simeon and Levi, the half and her name was Arlotta ; and of her William, surbrothers of Dinah, took each man his sword, probably named The Conqueror, was born. Hence it is said all assisted by that portion of the servants which helped such women were from her called harlots, as William them to take care of the flock, came on the city boldly, himself was usually termed the Bastard. But horelet, noa betach, securely-without being suspected, and the diminutive of whore, is not a less likely derivation. being in no danger of meeting with resistance, and slew all the males. Great as the provocation was, Solomon has very properly said, My son, enter nol and it certainly was very great, this was an act of un- into the path of the wicked, and go nol in the way of paralleled treachery and cruelty.

evil men; avoid it, pass not by it, turn from it, and Verse 27. The sons of Jacob] The rest of Jacob's ! pass away, Prov. iv. 14, 15. Had not Dinah gone

green, took

Jacob commanded to go to

GENESIS.

Bethel and build an altar.

out to see the daughters of the land, and very possibly of the most base and infamous designs. The simple, at one of their idolatrous festivals, she had not suffered unsuspecting Shechemites agreed to the proposal ; and the foul disgrace mentioned in this chapter. Not only when rendered by this religious rite incapable of deprudence dictates that young women should keep at fending themselves, they were basely murdered by home, but God expressly commands it, Tit. ii. 5. Dinah Simeon and Levi, and their city destroyed. Jacob, got among idolaters, and thus partook of their iniqui- to his great honour, remonstrated against this barbarous ties; and this led to the most base and cruel transac- and bloody act, committed apparently under the sanction upon record. How true is the saying, Those who tion of religion; and God showed his abhorrence of wander out of the way of understanding shall abide it by directing the patriarch, in his dying moments, to in the congregation of the dead! In the case before proscribe them from the blessings of the covenant, so us blame seems to attach to all parties.

that they barely retained a name among the tribes of 1. It was wrong in Jacob to suffer his daughter, alone Israel, being in general small, and ever disreputable, and unprotected, to visit the daughters of the land. except merely in the service of the sanctuary, in which

2. It was excessively wicked in Shechem to take Levi was employed. How often since, notwithstandthis advantage of the daughter of a respectable stran- ing this solemn warning, has the pure and benevolent ger, who had sought his friendship, and came to sojourn religion of God been made, by wicked and designing among his people, and whose righteous dealing they men, a political stalking-horse to serve the basest puré must have witnessed for at least seven years past. In poses, and a covert to the worst of crimes ! But shall his behalf we may say, and it would be unjust not to we find fault with the holy religion of the blessed God say it, that having done the mischief, and sinned deeply because wicked men have abused it? God forbid ! against the laws of hospitality, he wished to make all Were it not so good as it really is, it would be incathe reparation in his power; and therefore in the most pable of such abuse. An evil cannot be abused, a frank and liberal manner he not only offered, but most good may; and the greater and the more acknowledged pressingly entreated, permission to take Dinah to wife. the good, the more liable to abuse. As every good is This was the utmost he could do in such a case. And so capable of being abused, does he act wisely who in this he is à saint.of the first order when compared argues against the use of the thing on this account? with the noble and ignoble profligates who, while blas- Shall we say that various kinds of grain, fruits, and pheming the Christian name by continuing to assume aliments are a curse, because wicked men abuse them it, commit all kinds of breaches on the virtue of simple to the purposes of drunkenness and gluttony ? This females, and the peace of respectable families, and not would argue an utter perversion of all reason : and is only make no reparation, but glory in their shame. it not on such a pretext as this that many persons have

3. It was diabolical in Jacob's sons to slay a whole ventured to call in question even the truths of Christribe for the offence of one man, and especially as that tianity ? one had offered to make all the restitution in his power. Whatever such men may be determined to think on They required that Hamor, Shechem, and all their sub- the subject of this chapter, with the unprejudiced reader 'ects should be circumcised before they could conscien- the ample and detailed relation which we have here of

ously consent to give their sister to Shechem in mar- this barbarous transaction will appear an additional proof riage. This required conformity was made the cloak of the veracity and impartiality of the sacred historian

2

CHAPTER XXXV.
Jacob is commanded of God to go to Beth-el, and to build an altar there, 1. His exhortation to his family

to put away all strange gods, fc., 2, 3. They deliver them all up, and Jacob hides them in the earth, 4,
They commence their journey, 5 ; come to Luz, 6 ; build there the altar El-beth-el, 7. Burial place of
Deborah, Rebekah's nurse, 8. God appears again unto Jacob, 9. Blesses him and renews the promises,
10-13. To commemorate this manifestation of God, Jacob sets up a pillar, and calls the place Beth-el,
14, 15. They journey to Ephrath, where Rachel, after hard labour, is delivered of Benjamin, and dies,
16-19. Jacob sets up a pillar on her grave, 20. They journey to Edar, 21. While at this place,
Reuben defiles his father's bed, 22. Account of the children of Jacob, according to the mothers, 23–26.
Jacob comes to Mamre to his father Isaac, who was probably then in the one hundred and fifty-eighth year

of his age, 27. Isaac dies, and is buried by his sons Esau and Jacob, 29. 8. M. cir . 9246. AND God said unto Jacob, God, 5 that appoared unto thee 4. M. cir. 2256.

Arise, go up to Beth-el, when thou fleddest from the
and dwell there : and make there an altar unto face of Esau thy brother.
a Chap. xxviii. 19. - Chap. xxviii. 13.

Chap. xxvii. 43.
NOTES ON CHAP. XXXV:

seems that while he was reflecting on the horrible Verse 1. Arise, go up to Beth-el] The transaction act of Simeon and Levi, and not knowing what to that had lately taken place rendered it unsafe for Jacob do, God graciously appeared to him, and commanded to dwell any longer at the city of Shechem; and it him to go up to Beth-el, build an altar there, and

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