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A. M. cir. 2287.
B. C. cir. 1717.

Dreams of the butler and baker. CHAP. XL. Joseph's interprétation of them.

5 And they dreamed a dream, 12 And Joseph said unto him, A. M. cir. 2287. both of them, each man his This is the interpretation of it:

B. C. cir. 1717.

13 and the baker of the king of Egypt, which up thine head, and restore thee unto thy place' were bound in the prison.

and thou shalt deliver Pharaoh's cup into his 6 And Joseph came in unto them in the hand, after the former manner when thou was! morning, and looked upon them, and, behold, his butler. they were sad.

14 But I think m on me when it shall be well 7 And he asked Pharaoh's officers that were with thee, and show kindness, I pray thee with him in the ward of his lord's house, saying, unto me, and make mention of me unto Pha Wherefore a look ye so sadly to-day? raoh, and bring me out of this house :

8 And they said unto him, . We have dream- 15 For indeed I was stolen away out of the ed a dream, and there is no interpreter of it. land of the Hebrews : " and here also have I And Joseph said unto them, * Do not inter- done nothing that they should put me into pretations belong to God? tell me them, I the dungeon. pray you.

16 When the chief baker saw that the in9 And the chief butler told his dream to terpretation was good, he said unto Joseph, I Joseph, and said to him, In' my dream, behold, also was in my dream, and, behold, I had a vine was before me;

three P white baskets on my head : 10 And in the vine were three branches : 17 And in the uppermost basket there was and it was as though it budded, and her blos- of all manner of a bakemeats for Pharaoh; soms shot forth ; "and the clusters thereof and the birds did eat them out of the basket brought forth ripe grapes : 11 And Pharaoh's

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my

hand : 18 And Joseph answered and said, - This is and I took the grapes, and pressed them into the interpretation thereof: The three baskets Pharaoh's

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and I
gave
the
cup

into Pha- are three days : raoh's hand.

19 • Yet within three days shall Pharaoh

upon my head.

was in

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Heb. are your faces evil? Neh. ii. 2. — Chap. xli. 15. 1 Heb. remember me with thee. -m Luke xxiii. 42.- Josh. See chap. xli. 16; Dan. ii. 11, 28, 47: -5 Ver. 18; chap: xli

. ii. 12; 1 Sam. xx. 14, 15; 2 Sam. ix. 1; 1 Kings ii. 7. Chap, 12, 25; Judg. vii. 14; Dan. ú. 36 ; iv. 19. ch Chap. xli. 26. xxxix. 20.-_Or, full of holes.-— Heb, meat of Pharaoh, the i 2 Kings xxv. 27; Psa. ii. 3 ; Jer. lii. 31. - Or, reckon. work of a baker or cook. -r Ver. 12.- Ver. 13.

suppose the word signifies a complete year; and as bunch, pressed the juice into the cup, and instantly dePharaoh called them to an account on his birthday, livered it into the hands of his master.

This was verse 20, Calmet supposes they had offended on the anciently the ;"' yayin of the Hebrews, the ovog of the preceding birthday, and thus had been one whole year Greeks, and the mustum of the ancient Latins. in prison.

Verse 12. The three branches are three days). That Verse 5. Each man according to the interpretation) is, The three branches signify three days; so, this is Not like dreams in general, the disordered workings my body, that is, this bread signifies or représents my of the mind, the consequence of disease or repletion ; body; this cup is my blood, REPRESENTS my blood; a these were dreams that had an interpretation, that is, form of speech frequently used in the sacred writings, that were prophetic.

for the Hebrew has no proper word by which our terms Verse 6. They were sad.] They concluded that signifies, represents, &c., are expressed; therefore it. their dreams portended something of great importance, says such a thing is, for represents, points out, &c. but they could not tell what.

And because several of our ancestors would understand Verse 8. There is no interpreter] They either had such words in their true, genuine, critical, and sole access to none, or those to whom they applied could meaning, Queen Mary, Bishops Gardiner, Bonner, and give them no consistent, satisfactory meaning. the rest of that demoniacal crew, reduced them to ashes

Do not interpretations belong to God?] God alone, in Smithfield and elsewhere ! the Supreme Being, knows what is in futurity; and if Verse 14. Make mention of me unto Pharaoh] One he have sent a significant dream, he atone can give the would have supposed that the very circumstance of solution.

his restoration, according to the prediction of Joseph, Verse 11. And I took the grapes and pressed them would have almost necessarily prevented him from forinto Pharaoh's cup] From this we find that wine an- getting so extraordinary a person. But what have mere ciently was the mere expressed juice of the grape, with courtiers to do either with gratitude or kindness ? out fermentation. The saky, or cup-bearer, took the Verse 15. For indeed I was stolen) naa sa gunnob

B. C. cir. 1717.

B. C. cir. 1717.

The butler is restored.

GENESIS.

The baker is hanged. A. M. cir. 2287. + lift up thy head from off thee, 21 And he y restored the A. M. cir. 2287

and shall hang thee on a tree; chief buller unto his butlership
and the birds shall eat thy flesh from off thee. again ; and ? he gave the cup into Pharaoh's

20 And it came to pass the third day, which hand :
was Pharaoh's birthday, that he made a 22 But he hanged the chief baker, as
feast unto all his servants: and he w lifted * up Joseph had interpreted to them.
the head of the chief butler and of the chief 23 Yet did not the chief butler remember
baker
among
his servants.

Joseph, but b forgat him.

Or, reckon thee, and take thy office from thee.- Matt. xiv. 6. , Ver. 13.- Neh. ii. 1, - Ver. 19.b Job xix, 14; Psa.
Mark vi. 21.- w Ver. 13, 19; Matt. xxv. 19.-* Or, reckoned.

xxxi. 12; Eccles. ix. 15, 16; Amos vi. 6.

gunnabti, stolen, I have been stolen--most assuredly I been restored to his liberty ; but, owing to the ingrati-
was stolen ; and here also have I done nothing. These tude of the chief bụtler, he was left two years longer
were simple assertions, into the proof of which he was in prison.
ready to enter if called on.

Verse 19. Lift up thy head from off thee) Thus we Many commentators have seen in every circumstance find that beheading, hanging, and gibbeting, were modes in the history of Joseph a parallel between him and of punishment among the ancient Egyptians ; but the our blessed Lord. So, “ Joseph in prison represents criminal was beheaded before he was hanged, and then Christ in the custody of the Jews; the chief burler either hanged on hooks, or by the hands. See Lam. and the chief baker represent the two thieves which V. 12.

were crucified with our Lord; and as one thief was Verse 20. Pharaoh's birthday] The distinguishing pardoned, and the other left to perish, so the chief a birthday by a feast appears from this place to have butler was restored to his office, and the chief baker been a very ancient custom.. It probably had its origin hanged.” I believe God never designed such parallels ; from a correct notion of the immortality of the soul, and I am astonished to find comparatively grave and as the commencement of life must appear of great con- judicious men trifling in this way, and forcing the feasequence to that person who believed he was to live tures of truth into the most distorted anamorphosis, so for ever. St. Matthew, xiv. 6, mentions Herod's keep that even her friends blush to acknowledge her. This ing his birthday; and examples of this kind are fre- is not a light matter; we should beware how we attriquent to the present time in most nations..

bute designs to God that he never had, and employ the Lifled up the head of the chief butler, $c.). By Holy Spirit in forming trifting and unimportant simililifting up the head, probably no more is meant than tudes. of plain, direct truth we shall find as much bringing them to trial, tantamount to what was done in the sacred writings as we can receive and compreby Jezebel and the nobles of Israel to Naboth : Set hend; let us not therefore hew out unto ourselves broken Naboth on high among the people; and set two men, cisterns that can hold no water. Interpretations of sons of Belial, to bear witness against him, &c.; 1 this kind only tend to render the sacred writings unKings xxi. 9, &c. The issue of the trial was, the certain ; to expose to ridicule all the solemn types and baker alone was found guilty and hanged; and the figures which it really contains; and to furnish pretexts butler, being acquitted, was restored to his office. to infidels and irreligious people to scoff at all spiritu

Verse 23. Yet did not the chief butler remember ality, and lead them to reject the word of God entirely, Joseph] Had he mentioned the circumstance to Pha- as incapable of being interpreted on any fixed or raraoh, there is no doubt that Joseph's case would have tional plan. The mischief done by this system is really been examined into, and he would in consequence have incalculable. See the observations on chap. xxxvü,

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CHAPTER XLI.

Pharaoh's dream of the seven well-favoured and seven ill-favoured kine, 1-4. His dream of the seven full

and seven thin ears of corn, 5–7. The magicians and wise men applied to for the interpretation of them, but could give no solution, 8. The chief butler recollects and recommends Joseph, 9-13. Pharaoh commands him to be brought out of prison, 14. Joseph appears before Pharaoh, 15, 16. Pharaoh repeats his dreams, 17–24. Joseph interprets them, 25–32, and gives Pharaoh directions how to provide against the approaching scarcity, 33–36. Pharaoh, pleased with the counsel, appoints Joseph to be superintendent of all his affairs, 37-41. Joseph receives the badges of his new office, 42, 43, and has his powers defined, 44; receives a new name, and marries Asenath, daughter of Poti-Pherah, priest of ON, 45. Joseph's age when brought before Pharaoh, 46.* Great fertility of Egypt in the seven plenteous years, 47. Joseph hoards up the grain, 48, 49. Ephraim and Manasseh born, 50–52. The seven years of famine commence with great rigour, 53–55. Joseph opens the storehouses to the Egyptians, 56. People from the neigh. bouring countries come to Egypt to buy corn, the famine being in all those lands, 57.

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Pharaoh's prophetic dreams

CHAP. XLI.

of the kine and ears of corn A. M: 2289. AND it came to pass at the end time ; and, behold, seven ears of 4: M: 2289

of two full years, that Pharaoh corn came up upon one stalk, drank * dreamed ; and, behold, he stood' by the and good. river.

6 And, behold, seven thin ears and blasted 2 And, behold, there came up out of the with the east wind sprung up after them. river seven well-favoured kine and fat-flesh-long And the seven thin ears devoured the ed; and they fed in a meadow..

seven rank and full 'ears. And Pharaoh 3 And, behold, seven other kine came up awoke, and, behold, it was a dream. after them out of the river, ill-favoured and 8 And it came to pass in the morning, that lean-fleshed ; -and stood by the other kine his spirit was troubled; and he sent and called upon the brink of the river.

for all the magicians of Egypt, and all the .4 And the ill-favoured and lean-fleshed kine : wise men thereof: and Pharaoh told them did eat up the seven well-favoured and fat his dreams; but there was none that could kipe. So Pharaoh awoke.

interpret them unto Pharaoh. 5 And he slept and dreamed the second 9 Then spake the chief butler unto Pharaoh,

· Chap. xxxvi. 5-10; xl. 5; Esth. vi. l; Dan. ii. 1-3; iv. 5;

Matt. xxvii. 19.- Ezek. xxix. 3, 9. - See ver. 17-27.

d Heb. fal.

.-. Dan. ii. 1; iv.5, 19.- Exodus vii. 11, 22; Isa. xxix. 14; Dan. 20; ii. 2; iv. 7.—Matt. ii. 1.

חרטמים

NOTES ON CHAP. XLI.

a part of it; nor was I free from an asthmatic sensaVerse 1. Two full years] ng'on shenatha- tion till I had been some months in Italy, at the baths yim yamim, two years of days, two complete solar of Poretta, near two years afterwards."— Travels, vol. revolutions, after the events mentioned in the preced- vi. p. 462. On another occasion the whole company ing chapter.

were made ill by one of these pestilential blasts, so The river.) The Nile, the cause of the fertility of that they had scarcely strength to load their camels. Egypt.

Ibid. p. 484 The action of this destructive wind is Verse 2. There came up out of the river seven referred to by the Prophet Hosea, chap. xiii. 15 : well-favoured kine] This must certainly refer to the Though he be fruitful among his brethren, an East hippopotamus or river horse, as the circumstances of wind shall come, the wind of the Lord shall come up coming up out of the river and feeding in the field FROM THE WILDERNESS, and his spring shall become characterize that animal alone, The hippopotamus is DRY, and his fountain shall be dried up : he shall spoil the well-known inhabitant of the Nile, and frequently the treasure of all pleasant vessels. by night comes out of the river to feed in the fields, Verse 8. Called for all the magicians] or in the sedge by the river side.

chartummim. The word here used may probably Verse 6. Blasted with the east wind] It has been mean no more than interpreters of abstruse and diffivery properly observed that all the mischief done to cult subjects ;- and especially of the Egyptian hierocorn or fruit, by blasting, smutting, mildews, locusts, glyphics, an art which is now entirely lost. It is most &c., is attributed to the east wind. See Exod. x. 13.; likely that the term is Egyptian, and consequently its xiv. 21 ; Psa. Ixxviii. 26; Ezek. xvii. 10; Jonah iv. 8 etymology must remain unknown to us. If Hebrew, Io Egypt it iş peculiarly destructive, because it comes Mr. Parkhurst's definition may be as good as any : through the parched deserts of Arabia, often destroy- “ onn cheret, a pen or instrument to write or draw ing vast numbers of men and women. The destruc- with; and on tam, to perfect or accomplish; those who tive nature of the simoom or smoom is mentioned by were perfect in drawing their sacred, astrological, and almost all travellers. Mr. Bruce speaks of it in his hieroglyphical figures or characters, and who, by means Travels in Egypt. On their way to Syene, Idris of them, pretended to extraordinary feats, among which their guide, seeing one of these destroying blasts was the interpretation of dreams. They seem to have coming, cried out with a loud voice to the company, been such persons as Josephus (Ant., lib. ii., c. 9, s. 2) * Fall upon your faces, for here is the simoom !!! “I calls 'lepoypaupateic, sacred scribes, or professors of saw,” says Mr. B., “ from the S. E. a haze come, in sacred learning." colour like the purple part of the rainbow, but not so Wise men] 179993n chacameyha, the persons who, compressed or thick. It did not oceupy twenty yards according to Porphyry, "addicted themselves to the in breadth, and was about twelve feet high from the worship of God and the study of wisdom, passing ground. It was a kind of blush upon the air, and it their whole life in the contemplation of Divine things. moved very rapidly, for I scarce could turn to fall Contemplation of the stars, self-purification, arithmetic, upon the ground, with iny head northward, when I felt and geometry, and singing hymns in honour of their the heat of its current plainly upon my face. We all gods, was their continual employment.”—See Dodd. lay flat upon the ground, as if dead, till Idris told us It was probably among these that Pythagoras conit was blown over. The meteor or purple haze which versed, and from whom he borrowed that modest name I saw, was indeed passed, but the light air that still by which he wished his countrymen to distinguish him, blew was of a heat to threaten suffocation. For my viz., o ocopos, a philosopher, simply, a lover of wisdom. part, I found distinctly in my breast that I had imbibed Verse 9. I do remember my faults] It is not posIn my

we

pret it.

Pharaoh calls Joseph, and

GENESIS.

repeats liis dreams to him A. M. 2289. saying, I do remember my faults 16 And Joseph answered Pha- A. M. 2289. B. C. 1715.

B. C. 1715. this day :

raoh, saying, "It is not in me: 10 Pharaoh was h wroth with his servants,

God shall give Pharaoh an answer of peace. i and put me in ward in the captain of the 17 And Pharaoh said unto Joseph, guard's house, both me and the chief baker: dream, behold, I stood upon the bank of the

11 And dreamed a dream in one night, river. I and he; we dreamed each man according 18 And, behold, there came up out of the to the interpretation of his dream.

river seven kine, fat-fleshed, and well favour12 And there was there with us a young ed; and they fed in a meadow : man, a Hebrew, 'servant to the captain of the 19 And, behold, seven other kine came up guard; and we told him, and he “ interpreted after them, poor, and very ill-favoured and to us our dreams; to each man, according to lean-fleshed, such as I never saw in all the his dream, he did interpret.

land of Egypt for badness : . 13 And it came to pass, as he interpreted

he interpreted 20 And the lean and the ill-favoured kine to us, so it was; me he restored unto mine did eat up the first seven fat kine; office, and him he hanged.

21 And when they had * eaten them up, it 14 • Then Pharaoh sent and called Joseph, could not be known that they had eåten them; and they brought 9 him hastily 'out of the but they were still ill-favoured, as at the bedungeon: and he shaved himself, and changed ginning. So I awoke. his raiment, and came in unto Pharaoh. 22' And I saw in my dream, and, behold,

15 And Pharaoh said unto Joseph, I have seven ears came up in one stalk, full and dreamed a dream, and there is none that can good : interpret it : * and I have heard say of thee, 23 And, behold, seven ears, withered, thin, that i thou canst understand a dream to inter- and blasted with the east wind, sprung up

after them : Chapter xl. 2, 3. i Chapter xxxix, 20. Lk Chapter xl. 5. i Or, when thou hearest a dream, thou canst interpret it. 1 Chap. xxxvij. 36.- Chap. xl. 12, &c. + Chapter xl. 22. Dan. si. 30; Acts iii. 12; 2 Cor. 111. 5. - Chup. xl. 8; Dan. • Psa. cv. 20.-p Dan. ii. 25. Heb. made him run. — 1 Sam. 1. 22, 28, 47; iv. 2.--"Ver. 1.- Heb. come to the inward ii. 8; Psa. cxiii. 7, 8. — * Ver. 12; Psa. xxv. 14; Dan. v. 16.

parts of them.

- Or; small. sible he could have forgotten the circumstance to which he will send thee, or answer thee, peace ; thou shalt he here alludes ; it was too intimately connected with have prosperity (DISC shelom) howsoever ominous all that was dear to him, to permit him ever to forget thy dreams may appear. By this answer he not only it. But it was not convenient for him to remember this conciliated the mind of the king, but led him to expect before; and probably he would not have remembered his help from that God from whom alone all comfort, it now, had he not seen, that giving this information in protection; and prosperity, must proceed, such a case was likely to serve his own interest. We

Verse 18. Seven kine, fat-fleshed] See on ver. 2. are justified in thinking evil of this man because of his And observe farther, that the seven fat and the seven scandalous neglect of a person who foretold the rescue lean kine coming out of the same river plainly show; of his life from imminent destruction, and who, being at once, the cause both of the plenty and the dearth. unjustly confined, prayed to have his case fairly repre- It is well known that there is scarcely any rain in sented to the king that justice might be done him ; but Egypt; and that the country depends for its fertility this courtier, though then in the same circumstances on the overflowing of the Nile; and that the fertility himself, found it convenient to forget the poor, friend is in proportion to the duration and quantity of the less Hebrew slave!

overflow. We may therefore safely conclude that the Verse 14. They brought him hastily out of the dun- seven years of plenty were owing to an extraordinary geon) Pharaoh was in perplexity on account of his overflowing of the Nile ; and that the seven years of dreams; and when he heard of Joseph, he sent imme- dearth were occasioned by a very partial, or total want diately to get him brought before him. He shaved of this essentially necessary inundation. Thus then . himself--having let his beard grow all the time he the two sorts of cattle, signifying years of plenty and was in prison, he now trimmed it, for it is not likely want, might be said to come out of the same river, as that either the Egyptians or Hebrews shaved them- the inundation was either complete, partial, or wholly selves in our sense of the word : the change of raiment restrained. See on ver. 31. was, no doubt, furnished out of the king's wardrobe ; Verse 21. And when they had eaten them up, fc.] as Joseph, in his present circumstances, could not be Nothing can more powerfully mark the excess and sesupposed to have any changes of raiment.

.verity of the famine than creatures of the beeve or of Verse 16 It is not in me, &c.]. wyha biladai, with the hippopotamus kind eating each other, and yet without or independently of me~ I am not essential to thy out any effect; remaining as lean and as wretched as. comfort, God himself has thee under his care. And they were before. A sense of want increases the

1

A. M. 2299.
B. C. 1715.

B. C. 1715.

Joseph interprets the

CHAP. XLI.

two dreams of Pharaoh 24 And the thin ears devoured years of famine; and all the plenty A. M. 2289.

the seven good ears : and · I told shall be forgotten in the land of this unto the magicians; but there was none Egypt; and the famine shall consume the that could declare it to me.'

land; 25 And Joseph said unto Pharaoh, The 31 And the plenty shall not be known in dream of Pharaoh is one : • God hath showed the land by reason of that famine following ; Pharaoh what he is about to do.

for it shall be very * grievous. 26 The seven good kine are seven years ; 32 And for that the dream was doubled unto and the seven good ears are seven years ": the Pharaoh twice; it is because the bathing is dream is one.

i established by God, and God will shortly -27 And the seven thin and ill-favoured kine bring it to pass. that came up after them; are seven years ; 33. Now therefore let Pharaoh look out a and the seven empty ears, blasted with the man discreet and wise, and set him over the east wind, shall be • seven years of famine.

land of Egypt. 28 « This is the thing which I have spoken 34 Let Pharaoh do this, and let him appoint unto Pharaoh : what God is about to do, he officers over the land, and take up the fifth showeth unto Pharaoh.

part of the land of Egypt in the seven plen29 Behold, there come d seven years of teous years : great plenty throughout all the land of Egypt: 35 And m let them gather all the food of 30 And there shall • arise after them seven those good years that come, and lay up corn

i Ver. 8; Daniel iv. 7.-+ Dan. ii. 28, 29, 45; Rev. iv. 1. Heb. heavy. Num. xxiii. 19; Isa. xlvi. 10, 11: Li-Or, $2 Kings viri. 1.- Ver. 25. d Verse 47. - Ver. 54. prepared of God. - Or, overseers. Proverbs vi. 6, 7, 8 "Chap. xlvii. 13.

in Ver. 48.

appetite, and stimulates the digestive powers to unusual “ The ordinary height of the inundations is sixteen cuaction; hence the concoction of the food becomes

very

bits. When the waters are lower than this standard, rapid, and it is hurried through the intestines before its they do not overflow the whole ground; when above nutritive particles can be sufficiently absorbed ; and this standard, they are too long in running off. In the thus, though much is eaten, very little nourishment is first case the ground is not saturated ; by the second, derived from it. And when they had eaten them up, the waters are detained so long on the ground that it could not be known that they had eaten them; but seed-time is lost. The province marks both. If it they were still ill-favoured, as at the beginning. A rise only twelve cubits, a famine is the consequence. most nervous and physically correct description. Even at thirteen cubits hunger prevails ; fourleen

Verse 25. God halh showed Pharaoh what he is cubits produces general rejoicing ; fifteen, perfect about to do.) · Josephi thus shows the Egyptian king security; and sixteen, all the luxuries of life.” that though the ordinary cause of plenty or want is When the Nile rises to eighteen cubits-it prevents the river Nile, yet its inundations are under the direc- the sowing of the land in due season, and as necessaiion of God : the dreams are sent by him, not only to rily produces a famine as when it does not overflow signify beforehand the plenty and want, but to show its banks. also that all these circumstances, however fortuitous Verse 33. A man discreet and wise] As it is imthey may appear to man, are under the direction of an possible that Joseph could have foreseen his own ele. overruling Providence.

vation, consequently he gave this advice without any Verse 31. The plenty shall not be known in the land reference to himself. The counsel therefore was either by reason of that famine following] As Egypt de- immediately inspired by God, or was dictated by policy, pends for its fertility on the flowing of the Nile, and prudence, and sound sense. this flowing is not always equal, there must be a point Verse 34. Let him appoint officers) po pekidim, to which it must rise to saturate the land sufficiently, visiters, overseers: translated by Ainsworth, bishops ; in order to produce grain sufficient for the support of see chap. xxxix. 1. its inhabitants. Pliny, Hist. Nat., lib. V., cap. 9, has Take up the fifth part of the land] . What is still given us a scale by which the plenty and dearth may called the meery, or that part of the produce which is be ascertained; and, from what I have been able to claimed by the king by way of tar. It is probable collect from modern travellers, this scale may be yet that in Joseph's time it was not so much as a fifth part, considered as perfectly correct. Justum incrementum most likely a tenth: but as this was an extraordinary est cubitorum xvi. Minores aquæ non omnia rigant, occasion, and the earth brought forth by handfuls, ver. ampliores 'delinent, tardius, recedendo. serendi 47, the king would be justified in requiring a fifth; and tempora absumunt, solo madente, iLLÆ non dant, si-s from the great abundance, the people could pay this liente. Ulrumque reputat - provincia. In xii. cubitis increased tax without feeling it to be oppressive. famem sentit. In xiii. eliamnum esurit; xiv. cubita Verse 35. Under the hand of Pharaoh] To be comhilaritatem afferunt ; xv. securitalem ; xvi. delicias. I pletely at the disposal of the king.

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