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B. C. 1715.

B. C. 1715.

Joseph's prudent counsel.


He is advanced by Pharaoh. A. M. 2289. under the hand of Pharaoh, and let 40 Thou shalt be over my house, A. M. 2289.

them keep food in the cities, and according unto thy word shall - 36 And that food shall be for store to the all my people s be ruled : only in the throne land against the seven years of famine, which will I be greater than thou. shall be in the land of Egypt; that the land 41 And Pharaohi said unto Joseph, See, I perish not through the famine.

have * set thee over all the land of Egypt. 37 And P the thing was good in the eyes of 42 And Pharaoh " took off his ring from his Pharaoh, and in the eyes of all his servants. hand, and put it upon Joseph's hand, and

38 And Pharaoh said unto his servants, Çan" arrayed him in vestures of w fine linen, * and we find such a one as this is, a man 9 in whom put a gold chain about his neck; the Spirit of God is?

43 And he made him to ride in the second 39 And Pharaoh said unto Joseph, Foras- chariot which he had ; and they cried before much as God hath showed thee all this, there him, 2 Bow the knee: and he made him is none so discreet and wise as thou art : ruler over all the land of Egypt.

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n Heb. be not cut off. Chap. xlvii. 15, 19.-—-P Psalm cv, - Heb. be armed, or, kiss. - Dan. vi. 3. Lu Esth. iii. 10; 19; Acts vii. 10.-Num. xxvii. 16; Job xxxii. 8; Prov. ii. viii. 2,8.- Esth. viii. 15.

Or, silk,

Dan. v. 7, 29. 6; Dan. iv, 8, 18; v. 11, 14; vi. 3. - Psa. cv. 21, 22; 1 Mac. y Esth. vi. 9. -2 Or, tender father ; chap. xlv. 8. a Heb. X. 53; Acts vii. 10.

Abrech. b Chap. xlii. 6; xlv. 8, 26 ; Aets vii. 10.

Verse 37. The thing was good] Pharaoh and his tion, and consequently were enveloped in cloth of the courtiers saw that the counsel was prudent, and should finest quality, it was only fine comparatively speaking, be carefully followed.

Egypt being the only place at that time where such Verse 38. In whom the Spirit of God is?] dinhe non cloth was manufactured. I have often examined the ruach Elohim, the identical words used chap. i. 2; and cloth about the bodies of the most splendidly ornacertainly to be understood here as in the preceding mented mummies, and found it sackcloth when complace. If the Egyptians were idolaters, they acknow- pared with the fine Irish linens. As this shesh apledged Joseph's God; and it is not to be supposed that pears to have been a part of the royal clothing, it was they only became acquainted with him on this occasion. probably both scarce and costly. “By comparing," The knowledge of the true God was in Egypt-long says Parkhurst, “Exod. xxv. 4, xxvi. 1, with 2 Chron. before ; but it is very likely that though they acknow- ii. 14, and Exod. xxvi. 31, with 2 Chron. iii. 14, it ledged his influence with respect to Joseph, as they appears that 73 buts, outton, is called 90 shesh; and saw most clearly that he acted under an influence far by comparing Exod. xxviii. 42, with Exod. xxxix. 28, beyond that of their magicians, for he interpreted that 73 bad, linen, is also called vu shesh; so that dreams which they could not; yet they might, notwith- shesh seems a name expressive of either of these, from standing, have their gods many and their lords many their cheerful viyid whiteness.” at this time, for we know that in religious matters they Put a gold chain about his neck} This was not were exceedingly corrupt afterwards.

merely a badge of office. The chain might be intended Verse 40. According unto thy word shall all my to point out the union which should subsist between people be ruled] Literally, At thy mouth shall all my all parts of the government—the king, his ministers, people kiss. In the eastern countries it is customary and the people ; as also that necessary dependence to kiss any thing that comes from a superior, and this which they had reciprocally on each other, as well as is done by way of testifying respect and submission. the connection which must be preserved between the In this sense the words in the text are to be under different members of the body politic, and the laws and stood : All the people shall pay the profoundest respect institutions by which they were to be governed. Its and obedience to all thy orders and commands. being of gold might be intended to show the excellence,

Only in the throne will I be greater than thou.) utility, and permanence of a government constituted This, in one word, is a perfect description of a prime on wise, just, and equal laws. We are justified in minister. Thou shalt have the sole management, drawing such inferences as' these, because in aneient under me, of all state affairs.-

times, in all nations, every thing was made an emblem Verse 42. And Pharaoh took off his ring--and put or representation of some spiritual or moral subject. it upon Joseph's hand] In this ring was probably set It is strange that, probably without adverting to the the king's signet, by which the royal instruments were reasons, the chain of gold worn about the neck is in sealed; and thụs Joseph was constituted what we would different nations an emblem of civil authority. call Lord Chancellor, or Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal. Verse 43. He made him to ride in the second chaVestures of fine linen)

wy shesh, Whether this riot] That which usually followed the king's chariot mean linen or cotton is not known. It seems to have in public ceremonies. been a term by which both were denominated ; or it Bow the knee] 7708 abrech, which we translate bow may be some other substance or cloth with which we the knee, and which we might as well translate any are unacquainted. If the fine linen of Egypt was thing else, is probably an Egyptian word, the signifisuch as that which invests the bodies of the mummies, cation of which is utterly unknown. If we could supand these in general were persons of the first distinc- 1 pose it to be a Hebrew word, it might be considered

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Joseph is married to Asenath.

CHAP. XLI. Manasseh and Ephraim born. A.M. 2289. 44 And Pharaoh said unto Joseph, | food of the seven years, which A. M. cir. 2289 B. C. 1715.

B. C. cir. 1715. I am Pharaoh, and without thee were in the land of Egypt, and shall no man lift up his hand or foot in all the laid up the food in the cities : the food of land of Egypt.

the field, which was round about every city, 45 And Pharaoh called Joseph's name laid he up in the same. • Zaphinath-paaneah; and he gave him to wife 49 And Joseph gathered 'com as the sand Asenáth the daughter of Poti-pherah d priest of the sea, very much, until he left numberof On. And Joseph went out over all the ing; for it was without number. land of Egypt.

50. 8 And unto Joseph were born two sons 46 And Joseph was thirty years old when before the years of famine came, which Asehe e stood before Pharaoh king of Egypt. nath the daughter of Poti-pherah priest of And Joseph went out from the presence of On bare unto him. Pharaoh, and went throughout all the land of 51 And Joseph called the A. M. cir. 2292

« B. C. cir. 1712. Egypt.

name of the first-born i ManasFrom A. M. 2289.

47 And in the seven plenteous seh: for God, said he, hath made me forget B. C. 1715. years the earth brought forth by all my toil, and all my father's house. A. M. 2296. handfuls.

52 And the name of the second A. M. cir. 2293. B. C. 1708.

B. C. cir. 1711. 48 And he gathered up all the called he Ephraim : for God • Which in the Coptic signifies a revealer of secrets, or, the Dan. i. 19. Chap. xxii. 17; Judg. vii. 12; 1 Sam. xiii. 5; man to whom secrets are revealed. Or, prince; Exod. ii. 16; Psa. Ixxviii. 27.

—Ch. xlvi. 20; xlviii. 5. h Or. prince ; ver. 2 Sam. viii. 18 ; xx. 26. —el Sam. xvi. 21; 1 Kings xii. 6, 8; | 45; 2 Sam. viii. 18. That is, forgetting. Lk That is, fruitful. as compounded of Ix ab, father, and 77 rach, tender; Asenath, the daughter of. Poti-pherah] There is no for Joseph might be denominated a father, because of likelihood that the Poti-pherah mentioned here is the his care over the people, and the provision he was same as the Potiphar who had purchased Joseph, and, making for their preservation; and tender because of on the false accusations of his wife, cast him into prison. his youth. Or it may be compounded of an ab, fa- 1. The Scripture gives no intimation that they were ther, and 77 barech, blessing, the latter ) beth being one and the same person. 2. Poli-pherah had chileasily lost in the preceding one ; and Joseph might dren, and Potiphar was an eunuch; see on chap. have this epithet as well as the other, on account of xxxvii

. 36 ; for though eunuchs often kept women, the care he was taking to turn aside the heavy curse there is no proof that they had any issue by them. of the seven years of famine, by accumulating the Priest of On.) For the signification of the word blessings of the seven-years of plenty. Besides, fa-lino cohen or priest, see on chap. xiv. 18. On is renther seems to have been a name of office, and proba- dered Heliopolis (the city of the sun, Sunnan burh) bly father of the king or father of Pharaoh might sig- by the Septuagint and Anglo-Saron ; and it very nify the same as the king's ininister among us; see on likely that this Poli-pherah was intendant of that nome chap. xlv. 8. But if it-be an Egyptian word, it is or province, under Pharaoh. vain to look for its signification in Hebrew.

Joseph went out over all the land] No doubt for Verse 44. I am Pharaoh] The same as if he had the building of granaries, and appointing proper officers said, I am the 'king; for Pharaoh was the common to receive the corn in every place, as Dr. Dodd has title of the sovereigns of Egypt.

very properly conjectured. Verse 45. Zaphnath-paaneah] The meaning of this · Verse 46. Joseph was thirty years old] As he was title is as little known as that of abrech in the prece- seventeen years old when he was sold into Egypt, ding verse. Some translate it, The revealer of secrets ; chap. xxxvij. 2, and was now thirly, he must have others, The treasury of glorious comfort. St. Jerome been thirteen years in slavery. translates the whole verse in the most arbitrary manner. Slood before Pharaoh] This phrase always means Vertitque nomen ejus, et vocavit eum, lingua Ægypti- admission to the immediate presence of the sovereign, aca, Salvatorem mundi. “ And he changed his name, and having the honour of his most unlimited confidence. and called him in the Egyptian language, The saviour Among the Asiatic princes, the privilege of coming of the world.None of the Asiatic versions acknow- even to their seat, of standing before them, gc., was ledge this extraordinary gloss, and it is certainly wor- granted only to the highest favourites. thy of no regard. The Anglo-Saxon nearly copies the Verse 47. The earth brought forth by handfuls.) Vulgate : y nemde hine on Egiptisc piddaneander pælend. This probably refers principally to rice, as it grows in And named him in Egyptian, The healer of the world. tufts, a great number of stalks proceeding from the All the etymologies hitherto given of this word are, to same seed. In those years the Nile probably rose say the least of them, doubtful. I believe it also to be sixteen cubits ; see on ver. 31. an Egyptian epithet, designating the office to which Verse 50. Two sons] Whom he called by names he was now raised ; and similar to our compound terms, expressive of God's particular and bountiful providence Prime Minister, Lord-Chancellor, High-Treasurer, towards him. Manasseh, VID menashsheh, signiChief Justice, gc,

fies forgetfulness, from 700 nashah, to forget; and The dearth commences, and


: prevails over all the earth.

A. M. cir. 2293. hath caused me to be fruitful in , bread : and Pharaoh said unto all A. M. 2296. B. C. cir. 1711.

B. C. 1708 the land of my affliction. the Egyptianis, Go unto Joseph;' A. M. 2296. .53 And the seven years of plen- what he saith to you, do. B. C. 1708.

teousness, that was in the land of 56 And the famine was over all the face Egypt, were ended.

of the earth. And Joseph opened • all the 54 m And the seven years of dearth began to store-houses, and P sold unto the Egyptians ; come, according as Joseph had said : and and the famine waxed sore in the land of the dearth was in all lands; but in all the land Egypt. of Egypt there was bread.

57 . And all countries came into Egypt, to 55 And when all the land of Egypt was Joseph, for to buy corn; because that the famished, the people cried to Pharaoh for famine was so sore in all lands.

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Ephraim, d'ox ephrayim, fruitfulness, from ho pa- the preceding chapter, so his Spirit in Joseph led to rah, to be fruitful; and he called his sons by these the true interpretation of them. What a proof do all names, because. God had enabled him to forget all his these things give us of a providence that is so general toil, disgrace, and affliction, and had made him fruitful as to extend its influence to every part, and so partiin the very land in which he had suffered the greatest cular as to notice, influence, and direct the most misfortune and indignities.

minute circumstances ! Surely God “has way every Verse 54. The seven years oj* dearth began to come] where, and all things serve his will." Owing in Egypt to the Nile not rising more than 2. Dreams have been on one hand superstitiously twelve or thirteen cubits; (see on ver. 31 ;) but there regarded, and on the other skeptically disregarded. must have been other causes which affected other That some are prophetic there can be no doubt; that countries, not immediately dependent on the Nile, others are idle none can hesitate to believe. Dreams though remotely connected with Egypt and Canaan. may be divided into the six following kinds : 1. Those

The dearth was in all lands] AH the countries which are the mere nightly result of the mind's redependent on the Nile... And it appears that a general flections and perplexities during the business of the drought had taken place, at least through all Egypt day. 2. Those which spring from a diseased state of and Canaan ; for-it is said, ver.-57, that the famine the body, occasioning startings, terrors, &c. 3. Those was sore in all lands-Egypt and Canaan, and their which spring from an impure state of the heart, menrespective dependencies.

tal repetitions of those acts ,or images of illicit pleaVerse 55. When all the land of Egypt was famished] sure, riot, and excess, which form the business of a As Pharaoni, by the advice of Joseph, had exacted a "profligate life. 4. Those which proceed from a disfifth part of all the grain during the seven years of eased mind, occupied with schemes of pride, ambition, plenty, it is very likely that no more was left than grandeur, &c. These, as forming the characteristic what was merely necessary to supply the ordinary conduct of the life, are repeatedly reacted in the deep demand bothí in the way of home consumption, and watches of the night, and strongly agitate the soul with for the purpose of barter or sale to neighbouring illusive enjoyments and disappointments. 5. Those countries.

which come immediately from Satan, which instil Verse 56. Over all the face of the earth] The thoughts and principles opposed to truth and righteousoriginal, y 187 130 ho col peney haarets, should be ness, leaving strong impressions on the mind suited to translated, all the face of that land, viz., Egypt, as it its natural bent and turn, which, in the course of the is explained at the end of the verse.

day, by favouring circumstances, may be called into Verse-57. All countries came into Egyptto buy) action. 6. Those which come from God, and which As there had not been a sufficiency of rains, vapours, necessarily lead to him, whether prophetic of future &c., to swell the Nile, to effect a proper inundation in good or evil, or impressing holy purposes and heavenly Egypt, the same cause would produce drought, and resolutions. Whatever leads away from God, truth, consequently scarcity, in all the neighbouring coún- and righteousness, must be from the source of evil ; tries; and this may be all that is intended in the text. whatever leads to obedience to God, and to acts of be

nevolence to man, must be from the source of good1. As the providence of God evidently led the but- ness and truth. Reader, there is often as much superler and baker of Pharaoh, as well as the king himself, stition in disregarding as in attending to dreams ; and to dream the prophetic dreams mentioned in this and he who fears God will escape it in both.



Jacob sends his ten sons


to Egypt to buy food.

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CHAPTER XLII. Jacob sends his ten sons to Egypt to buy corn, 1–3 ; but refuses to permit Benjamin to go, 4.. They arrive

in Egypt, and bow themselves before Joseph, 5, 6. He treats them roughly and calls them spies, 7-10. They defend themselves, and give an account of their family, 11-13. He appears unmoved, and puts them all in prison for three days, 14-17.' On the third day he releases them on condition of their bringing Benjanin, 18-20. Being convicted by their consciences, they reproach themselves with their cruelty to their brother Joseph, and consider themselves under the displeasure of God, 21-23. Joseph is greatly affected, delains Simeon as a pledge for Benjamin, orders their sacks to be filled with corn, and the purchase money to be put in each man's sack, 24, 25. When one of them is going to give his ass provender he discovers his money in the mouth of his sack, at which they are greatly alarmed, 26–28. They come to their father in Canaan, and relate what happened to them in their journey, 29–34. On emptying their · sacks, each man's money is found in his sack's mouth, which causes alarm both to them and their father, 35. Jacob deplores the loss of Joseph and Simeon, and refuses to let Benjamin go, though Reuben offers his

two sons as pledges for his safety, 36–38. 8. M: 2297. NOW when - Jacob" saw that of the land : and Joseph's brethren. 6. M.: 2207:

there was corn in Egypt, Jacob came, and ? bowed down themsaid unto his sons, Why do ye look one upon selves before him with their faces to the earth. another?

7 And Joseph saw his brethren, and he 2 And he said, Behold, I have heard that knew them, but made himself strange unto there is corn in Egypt: get you down thither, them, and spake & roughly unto them; and and buy for us from thence; that we may said unto them, Whence come ye? And they blive, and not die.

said, From the land of Canaan to bùy food. 3 And Joseph's ten brethren went down to 8 (And Joseph knew his brethren, but they buy corn in Egypt.

knew not him.) 4 But Benjamin, Joseph's brother, Jacob 9 And Joseph, 1 remembered the dreams sent not with his brethren; for he said, « Lest which he dreamed of them,' and said unto peradventure mischief befall him.

them, Ye are spies; to see the nakedness of 5 And the sons of Israel came to buy corn the land ye are come. among those that came : for the famine was 10 And they said unto him, Nay, my lord, d in the land of Canaan.

but to buy food are thy servants come. 6 And Joseph was the governor over the 11 We are all one man's sons; we are true land, and he it was that sold to all the people men, thy servants are no spies.

- Chap. xliii. 8; Psa. cxviii. 17; Isa. xxxviii. 1. Chap. xli. 41. Chap. xxxvii. 7.—- Heb. hard things with
Ć Ver. 38.

Ch Chap. xxxvii. 5, 9.

medan governors of Egypt, &c., took the title of Verse 1. Jacob saw that there was corn] That is, sultan? Jacob heard from the report of others that there was

Bowed down themselves before him] Thus fulfilling plenty in Egypt. The operations of one sense, in the prophetic dream, chap. xxxvii. 7, 8, which they Hebrew, are often put for those of another. Before

had taken every precaution to render null and void. agriculture was properly known and practised, famines But there is neither might nor counsel against the Lord. were frequent ; Canaan seems to have been peculiarly Verse 9.

] vexed by them. There was one in this land in the attem, ye are footmen, trampers about, footpads, vagatime of Abraham, chap. xii. 10 ; another in the days of bonds, lying in wait for the property of others ; persons Isaac, chap. xxvi. 1; and now a third in the time of who, under the pretence of wishing to bay corn, desire Jacob. To this St. Stephen alludes, Acts vii

. 11 : only to find out whether the land be so defencelėss there was great affliction, and our fathers found no that the tribes to which ye belong (see ver. 11) may sustenance. Verse 6. Joseph was the governor] 0:40 shallit, an settle in it themselves ; or, having plundered it, retire

attack it successfully, drive out the inhabitants, and intendant, a proiector, from who shalat, to be over 'as to their deserts. This is a frequent custom among a protector ; hence boho shelatim, shields, or arms the Arabs to the present day. Thus Joseph spake for protection and defence, 2 Sam. viii

. 7; and 71957 roughly to them merely to cover that warmth of affecshilton, power and authority, Eccles. viii. 4, 8; and tion which he felt towards them; and that being thus nence the Arabic w lelu sultan, a lord, prince, or brought, apparently, into straits and dangerous circumking, from blus salata, he obtained and exercised stances, their consciences might be awakened to reflect dominion, he ruled. Was it not from this very cir-on and abhor their own wickedness. cumstance, Joseph being shallit, that all the Moham- Verse 11. We are all oné man's sons] We do not

a Acts vii. 12.


Ld Acts vii. 11.


A. M. 2297.
B. C. 1707.

A. M. 2297.
B. C. 1707.

are come.

Joseph deals roughly


with his brethren. 12 And he said unto them, Nay, thren be bound in the house of

your but to see the nakedness of the prison : go ye, carry corn for the land ye

famine of your houses : 13 And they said, Thy servants are twelve 20 But o bring your youngest brother unto brethren, the sons of one man in the land of me : so shall your words bé verified, and ye Canaan; and, behold, the youngest is this day shall not die. And they did so. with our father, and one i is not.

21 And they said one to another, We are 14 And Joseph said unto them. That is it verily guilty concerning our brother, in that that I spake unto you, saying, Ye are spies : we saw the anguish of his soul, when he

15 Hereby ye shall be proved : * By the besought us, and we would not hear; a therelife of Pharaoh ye shall not go forth hence, fore is this distress come upon us. except your youngest brother come hither. 22 And Reuben answered them, saying,

16 Send one of you, and let him feieh your "Spake I not unto you, saying, Do not sin brother, and ye shall be kept in prison, that against the child; and ye would not hear? your words may be proved, whether there be therefore, behold, also his blood is required. any truth in you : or else by the life of Pha- 23 And they knew not that Joseph underraoh surely ye are spies.

stood them; for the spake unto them by an 17 And he m put them all together into ward interpreter. three days.

24 And he turned himself about from them, 18 And Joseph said unto them the third and wept; and returned to them again, and day, This do, and live ; * for I fear God: communed with them, and took from them 19 If

ye be true men, let one of your bre- Simeon, and bound him before their eyes.

i Chap. xxxvii, 30; Lam. v. 7; see chap. xliv. 20.See P Job xxxvi. 8, 9; Hos. v. 15.- Prov. xxi. 13; Matt. vii. 2. 1 Sam. i. 26 ; xvii. 55 ; Judith xi. 7. Heb. bound. m Heb. - Chap. xxxvi. 21. Chap. ix. 5; 1 Kings ii. 32; 2 Chron. gathered. -- Lev. xxv. 43 ; Neh. v. 15.-0 Ver. 24; chapter xxiv. 22 ; Psa. ix. 12; Luke xi. 50, 51.1 Heb. an interpreter xliii. 57 xliv. 23.

was between them.

belong to different tribes, and it is not likely that one seems to say to his brethren, I am a worshipper of the family would make a hostile attempt upon a whole true God, and ye have nothing to fear. kingdom. This seems to be the very ground that Verse 21. We are verily guilty] How finely are Joseph took, viz., that they were persons belonging to the office and influence of conscience exemplified in different tribes. Against this particularly they set up these words ! It was about twenty-lwo years since their defence, asserting that they all belonged to one they had sold their brother, and probably their confamily ; and it is on the proof of this that Joseph puts science had been lulled asleep to the present hour. them, ver. 15, in obliging them to leave one as a God combines and brings about those favorable, eirhostage, and insisting on their bringing their remaining cumstances which produce attention and reflection, brother; so that he took exactly the same precautions and give weight to the expostulations of conscience. to detect them as if he had had no acquaintance with How necessary to hear its voice in time, for here it them, and had every reason to be suspicious. may be the instrument of salvation ; but if not heard

Verse 13. One is not.) An elliptical sentence, One in this world, it must be heard in the next; and there, is not alive.

in association with the unquenchable fire, it will be the Verse 15. By the life of Pharaoh) nyno'n chey never-dying worm. Reader, has not thy sin as yet Pharoh, Pharaoh liveth. As if he had said, As surely found thee out ? , Pray to God to take away the veil as the king of Egypt lives, so surely shall ye not go from thy heart, and to give thee that deep sense of hence unless your brother come hither. Here there- guilt which shall oblige thee to flee for refuge to fore is no oath ; it is just what they themselves make the hope which is set before thee in the Gospel of it in their report to their father, chap. xliii. 3: the Christ. man did solemnly protest unto us; and our translators Verse 23. For he spake unto them by an interpreter.} should not have put it in the form of an oath, espe- Either there was a very great difference between the cially as the original not only will bear another ver- two languages as then spoken, or Joseph, to prevent sion, but is absolutely repugnant to this in our sense all suspicion, might affect to be ignorant of both. We of the word.

have many evidences in this book that the Egyptians, Verse 18. I fear God] 7 8 Onben ne eth ha- Hebrews, Canaanites, and Syrians, could understand elohiin ani yare, literally translated the passage runs each other in a general way, though there are also thus, I also fear the gods; but the emphatic 17 ha is proofs that there was a considerable difference between probably added by Joseph, both here and in his con- their dialects. versation with Pharaoh, the more particularly to point Verse 24. Took-Simeon and bound him before out the eminence and perfection of the Supreme Being their eyes.] This was retaliation, if, as the rabbins as contradistinguished from the gods of Egypt. He suppose, it was Simeon who bound Joseph, and put him

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