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b What is your

Joseph meets his father, and tells his. „GENESIS. brethren what to say to Pharaoh. A. M. 2298. and presented himself unto him ; trade hath been to feed cattle ; and A. M. 2298.

and he '* fell on his neck, and wept they have brought their flocks, and on his neck a good while.

their herds, and all that they have. 30 And Israel said unto Joseph,-, Now. let| 33 And it shall come to pass, when Pharaoh me die, since I have seen thy face, because shall call you, and shall say, thou art yet alive.

occupation 31 And Joseph said unto his brethren, and 34. That ye shall say, Thy servants' e trade unto his father's house, ? I will go up, and hath been abont cattle « from our youth even show, Pharaoh, and say unto him, My bre- until now, both we, and also our fathers; thren, and my father's house, which were in that ye may dwell in the land of Goshen; for the land of Canaan, are come unto me. every shepherd is an abomination unto the 32 And the men are shepherds, for a their Egyptians.

* So chap. xlv. 14.- y So Luke ii. 29, 30.-2 Chap. xlvii. 1. Ver. 32. Chap. xxx. 35; _xxxiv. 5 ; xxxvii. 12.a Heb. they are men of cattle. Chap. xlvii. 2; 3.

xlii. 32; Exod. viii. 26.

Le Chap

likely to signify a chariot, as the verb nox asar, which credited. Hordes of marauders under this name, from signifies to bind, tie, or yoke, is used ; and not.van Arabia, Syria, and Ethiopia, (whose chief occupation, chabash, which signifies to saddle.

like the Bedouin Arabs of the present day, was to keep Fell on his neck] See chap. xlv. 14.

flocks,) made a powerful irruption into Egypt, which Verse 30. Now let me die, since I have seen thy they subdued and ruled with great tyranny for 259 face] Perhaps old Simeon had this place in view when, years. Now, though they had been expelled from that seeing the salvation of Israel, he said, Lord, now let- land some considerable time before this, yet their name, test thou thy servant depart in peace, fc., Luke ii. 29. and all, persons of a similar occupation, were execrated

Verse 34. Thy servants' trade hath been about cattle) by the Egyptians, on account of the depredations and “The land of 'Goshen, called also the land of Rameses, long-continued ravages they had committed in the coun lay east of the Nilė, by which it was never overflowed, try. 3. The last and probably the best reason why and was bounded by the mountains of the Thebaid on the Egyptians abhorred such shepherds as the Israelthe south, by the Nile and Mediterranean on the west 'ites were, was, they sacrificed those very animals, the and north, and by the Red Sea and desert of Arabia ox particularly, and the sheep, which the Egyptians on the east. Ii was the Heliopolitan nome or district, held sacred. - Hence the Roman historian Tacitus, and its capital was called ON. Its proper name was speaking of the Jews, says: " Cæso ARIETE velut in Geshen, the country of grass or pasturage, or of the .contumelia Ammonis ; Bos quoque immolatur, quem shepherds, in opposition to the rest of the land which Ægypti APIM colunt.” “They sacrifice the ram in was sown after having been overflowed by the Nile.”. order to insult Jupiter Ammon, and they sacrifice the -Bruce. As this land was both fruitful and pleasant, ox, which the Egyptians worship under the name of Joseph wished to fix his family in that part of Egypt; Apis." Though some contend that this idolatry was hence he advises them to tell Pharaoh that their trade not as yet established in Egypt, and that the king-shephad been in cattle from their youth: and because every herds were either after the time of Joseph, or that shepherd is an abomination to the Egyptians, hence he Manetho by them intends the Israelites themselves; concluded that there would be less difficulty to get them yet, as the arguments by which these conjectures are quiet settlement in Goshen, as they would then be se- supported are not sufficient to overthrow those which parated from the Egyptians, and consequently have the are brought for the support of the contrary opinions, free use of all their religious customs, This scheme and as there was evidently an established religion and succeeded, and the consequence was the preservation priesthood in Egypt before Joseph's time, (for we find both of their religion and their lives, though some of the priests had a certain portion of the land of Egypt their posterity did afterwards corrupt themselves; see which was held so sacred that Joseph did not attempt Ezek. xx. 8; Amos v. 26. As it is well known that to buy it in the time of the famine, when he bought the Egyptians had cattle and flocks themselves, and all the land which belonged to the people, chap. xlvii. that Pharaoh even requested that some of Joseph's 20-22,) and as that established priesthood was in all brethren should be made rulers over his. cattle, how likelihood idolatrous, and as the worship of Apis under could it be said, as in ver. 34, Every shepherd is an the form of an ox was one of the most ancient forms abomination unlo the Egyptians ? Three reasons may of worship in Egypt, we may rest tolerably certain that be assigned for this : 1. Shepherds and feeders of cat- it was chiefly on this account that the shepherds, or tle were usually a sort of lawless, freebooting banditti, those who fed on and sacrificed these objects of their frequently making inroads on villages, &c., carrying worship, were an abomination to the Egyptians. Cal. off cattle, and whatever spoils they could find. This met has entered into this subject at large, and to his might probably have been the case formerly, for it is notes I must refer those readers who wish for farther well known it has often been the case since.' On this information. See on chap. xliii. 32. account such persons must have been universally detested. 2. They must have abhorred shepherds if Ma- On the principal subject of this chapter, the going netho's account of the hycsos or king-shepherds can be down of Jacob and his family into. Egypt, Bishop WarJoseph informs Pharaoh


of his father's arrival burton, in his Divine Legation of Moses, makes the | and unconfounded with the natives, the ancient Egypfollowing judicious reflections : “ The promise God 'tians being by numerous institutions forbidden all felmade to Abraham, to give his posterity the land of Ca- lowship with strangers, and bearing besides a particular naan, could not be performed till that family was grown aversion to the profession of the Israelites, who were strong enough to take and keep possession of it. In shepherds. Thus the natural dispositions of the Is the meantime, therefore, they were necessitated to raelites, which in Egypt occasioned their superstitions, reside among idolaters, and to reside unmixed; but and in consequence the necessity of a burdensome ritual, whoever examines their history will see that the Is- would. in any other country have absorbed them into raelites had ever a violent propensity to join themselves Gentilism, and confounded them with idolaters. From to Gentile nations, and practise their manners., God the Israelites going into Egypt arises a new occasion therefore, in his infinite wisdom, brought them into to adore the footsteps of Eternal Wisdom in his disEgypt, and kept them there during this period, the only pensations to his chosen people.”. place where they could remain for so long a time safe


Joseph informs Pharaoh that his father and brethren are arrived in Goshen, 1. He presents five. of his

brethren before the king, 2, who questions them concerning their occupation; they inform him that they are shepherds, and request permission to dwell in the land of Goshen, 3, 4. : Pharaoh consents, and desires that some of the most active of them should be made rulers over his cattle, 5, 6. Joseph presents his father to Pharaoh, 7, who questions him concerning his age, 8, to which-Jacob returns an affecling answer, and blesses Pharaoh, 9, 10. Joseph places his father and family in the land of Rameses, (Goshen,) and furnishes them with provisions, 11, 12. The famine prevailing in the land, the Egyptians deliver up all their money to Joseph to get food, 13–15. The next year they bring their cattle, 16, 17.' The third, their lands and their persons, 18-21. The land of the priests Joseph does not buy, as it was a royal grant to them from Pharaoh, 22. The people receive seed to sow the land on condition that they shall give a fifth part of the produce to the king, 23, 24. The people agree, and Joseph makes it a law all over Egypt, 25, 26. The Israelites multiply exceedingly, 27. Jacob, having lived seventeen years in Goshen, and being one hundred and forty-seven years old, 28, makes Joseph promise not to bury him in Egypt, but in

Canaan, 29, 30. Joseph promises and confirms it with an oath, 31,
AM2298 THEN Joseph + came and told | unto Pharaoh, • Thy servants are 4. M. 2298.
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Pharaoh, and, said, My father shepherds, both we, and also, our and my brethren, and their flocks, and their fathers. herds, and all that they have, are come out of 4 (They said moreover unto Pharaoh,) 'For the land of Canaan ; and, behold, they are in to sojourn in the land are we come ; for thy the land of Goshen.

servants have no pasture for their flocks ; & for 2 And he took some of his brethren, even the famine is sore in the land of Canaan : now fiye men, and presented them unto Pharaoh. therefore, we pray thee, let thy servants h dwell

3 And Pharaoh said unto his brethren, in the land of Goshen. • What is your occupation ? And they said 5 And Pharaoh spake unto Joseph, saying, Chap. ilvi. 31.— Chap. xl. 10; xlvi. 28: Acts vii. 13. Chap. xv. 13; Deut. xxvi. 5.5 Chapxli. 27, 30, 31, 50, 56; d Chap. xlvi. 33. Chap. xlvi, 34.

xliii. 1 ; Acts vii. 11.- - Chap. xlvi. 34.

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family which he had just now brought into Egypt, and Verse 2. He took some of his brethren] There is to do himself honour. 4. Joseph took five of the something very strange in the original ; literally trans- youngest of his brethren. 5. He took five of the eldest Jated it signifies " from the end or extremity (778pp of his brethren. 6. He took five from the extremity miktseh) of his brethren he took five men.” This has or end of his brethren, i. e., some of the eldest and been understood six different ways. 1. Joséph took some of the youngest, viz., Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Isfive of his brethren that came first to hand-at random, sachar, and Benjamin.-Rab. Solomon. It is certain without design or choice. 2. Joseph took five of the that in Judges 'xviii. 2, the word may be understood meanest-looking of his brethren to present before Pha- as implying dignity, valour, excellence, and pre-emiraoh, fearing if he had taken the sightļiest that Pha- nence : And the children of Dan sent of their family rach would detain them for his service, whereby their rive men dnipo-miktsotham, not from their coasts, religion and morals might be corrupted. 3. Joseph but of the most eminent or excellent they had; and it took five of the best made and finest-looking of his is probable they might have had their eye on what Jobrethren, and presented them before Pharaoh, wishing seph did here when they made, their choice, choosing to impress his mind with a favourable opinion of the I the same number, five, and of their principal men, as

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over my

Jacob is introduced to Pharaoh. GENESIS. He and his sons placed in Goshen A. M. 2298. Thy father and thy brethren are

el 10 And Jacob o blessed Pha- B.: 2298. come unto thee :

raoh, and went out from before 6 · The land of Egypt is before thee; in Pharaoh. the best of the land make thy father and bre-l ii And Joseph placed his father and his thren to dwell ; k in the land of Goshen let brethren, and gave them a possession in the them dwell ; and if thou knowest any men of land of Egypt, in the best of the land, in the activity among them, then make them rulers land of a Rameses, 'as Pharaoh had comcattle.

manded, 7 And Joseph brought in Jacob his father, 12 And Joseph nourished his father, and his and set him before Pharaoh : and Jacob brethren, and all his father's household, with blessed Pharaoh.

bread, according to their families. 8 And Pharaoh said unto Jacob,. ' How old 13 And there was no bread'in all the land; art thou ?

for the famine was very sore,

that the land 9 And. Jacob said unto Pharaoh, m The days of Egypt, and all the land of Canaan, fainted of the years of my pilgrimage are a hundred by reason of the famine. and thirty years : few and evil have the days 14 'And Joseph gathered up A. M. cir. 2300 of the years of my life been, and • have not all the money that was found in attained unto the days of the years of the the land of Egypt, and in the land of Canaan, life of my fathers, in the days of their for the corn which they bought: and Joseph pilgrimage.

brought the money into Pharaoh's house.

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Chap. xx. 15.- Ver. 4.- Heb. how many are the days 9 Exod. i. 11 ; xii. 37. Ver. 6. Or, as a little child is of the years of thy life?—m Heb. xi. 9, 13; Psa. xxxix. 12. nourished, - Heb. according to the little ones ; chap. I. 21. Job xiv. I. - Chap. xxv. 7; xxxv. 28.- Ver. 7.

Chap. xli. 30; Acts vii. ll.- - Chap. xli. 56.

did Joseph, because the mission was important, to go had always lived a migratory or wandering life, in difand search out the land. But the word may be under, ferent parts of Canaan, Mesopotamia, and Egypt, stood simply as signifying some ; out of the whole of scarcely ever at rest ; and in the places where he lived his brethren he took only five men, &c.

longest, always exposed to the fatigues of the field and Verse 6. In the best of the land make thy father the desert. Our word pilgrim comes from the French and brethren to dwell; in the land of Goshen let them pelerin and pelegrin, which are corrupted from the Latin dwell] . So it appears that the land of Goshen was the peregrinus, an alien, stranger, or foreigner, from the best of the land of Egypt.

adverb peregre, abroad, not at home. The pilgrim was Men of activity) Sin Vix anshey.chayil, stout or a person who took a journey, long or short, on some robust men--such as were capable of bearing fatigue, religious account, submitting during the time to many and of rendering their authority respectable. hardships and privations. A more appropriate term

Rulers over my cattle.] mapa mikneh signifies not could not be conceived to express the life of Jacob, only cattle, but possessions or 'property of any kind; and the motive which induced him to live such a life, though moșt usually cattle are intended, because in an- His journey to Padan-aram or Mesopotamia excepted, - cient times they constituted the principal part of a the principal part of his journeys were properly pilo man's property The word may be taken here in a grimages,: undertaken in the course. of God's provimore extensive sense, and the circumstances of the dence on a religious account. case seem obviously to require it. If every shepherd Have' not attained unto the life of my fathers) was an abomination to the Egyptians, however we may Jacob lived in the whole one hundred and forty-seven understand or qualify the expression, is it to be sup- years ; Isaac his father lived one hundred and eighty; posed that Pharaoh should desire that the brethren of and Abraham his grandfather, one hundred and seventyhis prime minister, of his chief favourite, should be five. These were days of years in comparison of the employed in some of the very meanest offices in the lives of the preceding patriarchs, some of whom lived land ? We may therefore safely understand Pharaoh nearly ten centuries ! as expressing his will, that the brethren of Joseph Verse 14. Gathered up all the money] i.e., by selling should be appointed as overseers or superintendents of corn out of the public stores to the people ; and this his domestic concerns, while Joseph superintended he did till the money failed, ver. 15, till all the money those of the state.

was exchanged for corn, and brought into Pharaoh's Verse 7. Jacob blessed Pharaoh.) Saluted him on treasury. Besides the fifth part of the produce of the his entrance with Peace be unto thee, or some such seven plentiful years, Joseph had bought additional com expression of respect and good will. For the mean- with Pharaoh's money to lay up against the famine that ing of the term. to bless, as applied to God and man, was to prevail in the seven years of dearth; and it is see on chap. ü. 3.

very likely that this was sold out at the price for which Verse 9. The days of the years of my pilgrimage] it was bought, and the fifth part, which belonged to muda megurai, of my sojourning or wandering. Jacob Pharaoh, sold out at the same price. And as money

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Joseph buys all the land


of Egypt for Pharaoh. A, M. 2301. 15. And when money failed in both we and our land ? buy us and A. M. 2302.

B. C. 1702. the land of Egypt, and in the land our land for bread, and we and of Canaan, all the Egyptians came unto Joseph, our land will be servants unto Pharaoh : and and said, Give us bread: for w why should give us seed, that we may live, and not die, that we die in thy présence ? for the money faileth. the land be not desolate.

16 And Joseph said, Give your cattle ; and 20 And Joseph bought all the land of Egypt I will give you for your cattle, if money fail. for Pharaoh ; for the Egyptians' sold every

17 And they brought their cattle unto Jo- man his field, because the famine prevailed seph : and Joseph' gave them bread in ex- over them : so the land became Pharaoh's. , change for horses, and for the flocks, and for 21 (And as for the people, he removed them the caule of the herds, and for the asses; and to cities, from one end of the borders of he : fed them with bread for all their cattle, Egypt even to the other end thereof.)

22 y Only the land of the ? priests bought 18 When that year was ended, he not; for the priests had a portion assigned

they came unto him the second them of Pharaoh, and did eat their portion year, and said unto him, We will not hide it which Pharaoh gave them: wherefore they from my lord, how that our money is spent ; sold not their lands. my lord also hath our herds of cattle; there 23 Then Joseph said unto the A. M. 2203. is not aught left in the sight of my lord, but people, Behold, I have bought you our bodies and our lands :

this day and your land for Pharaoh : lo, here 19 Wherefore shall we die before thine eyes, is seed for you, and ye shall sow the land. w Ver. 19.-Heb. led them.- Ezra vii. 24.

2 Or, princes ; chap. xli. 45 ; 2 Sam. viii. 18. at that time could not be plentiful, the cash of the whole Verse 21. And as for the people, he removed them to nation was thus exhausted, as far as that had circulated cities] It is very likely that Joseph was influenced among the common people.

by no political motive in removing the people to the Verse 16. Give your cattle] This was the wisest cities, but merely by a motive of humanity and prumeasure that could be adopted, both for the preserva- dence. As the corn was laid up in the cities he found tion of the people and of the cattle also. As the people it more convenient to bring them to the place where had not grain for their own sustenance, consequently they might be conveniently fed ; each being within the they could have none for their cattle ; hence the cattle reach of an easy distribution. Thus then the country were in the most imminent danger of starving; and the which could afford no sustenance was abandoned for people also were in equal danger, as they must have the time being, that the people might be fed in those divided a portion of that bought for themselves with places where the provision was deposited. the cattle, which for the sake of tillage, &c., they Verse 22. The land of the priests bought he not] wished of course to preserve till the seven years of From this verse it is natural to infer that whatever the famine should end. The cattle being bought by Joseph religion of Egypt was, it was established by law and were supported at the royal expense, and very likely supported by the state. Hence when Joseph bought returned to the people at the end of the famine ; for all the lands of the Egyptians for Pharaoh, he bought how else could they cultivate their ground, transport not the land of the priests, for that was a portion astheir merchandise, &c., &c. ? For this part of Jo- signed them by Pharaoh ; and they did eat—did live seph's conduct he certainly deserves high praise and on, that portion. This is the earliest account we have no censure,

of an established religion supported by the state. Verse 18. When that year was ended] The sixth Verse 23. I have bought you this day and your land year of the famine, they came unto him the second for Pharaoh] It fully appears that the kingdom of year, which was the last or seventh year of the famine, Egypt was previously to the time of Joseph a very in which it was necessary to sow the fand that there limited monarchy. The king had his estates ; the might be a crop the succeeding year; for Joseph, on priests had their lands ; and the common people their whose prediction they relied, had foretold that the fa- partrimony independently of both.

The land of Ra. mine should continue only seven years, and consequently meses or Goshen appears to have been the king's land, they expected the eighth year to be a fruitful year pro- ver. 11. The priests had their lands, which they did vided the land was sowed, without which, though the not sell to Joseph, ver. 22, 26 ; and that the people inundation of the land by the Nile might amount to the had lands independent of the crown, is evident from sixteen requisite cubits, there could be no crop. the purchases Joseph made, ver. 19, 20; and we may

Verse 19. Buy us and our land for bread] In times conclude from those purchases that Pharaoh had no of famine in Hindostan, thousands of children have power to levy taxes upon his subjects to increase his been sold to prevent their perishing. In the Burman own revenue until he had bought the original right empire the sale of whole families to discharge debts which each individual had in his possessions. And is very common.- Ward's Customs.

when Joseph bought this for the king he raised the VOL. I. ( 18 )


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The Israelites are multiplied.


Jacob's death draws neur. 24 And it shall come to pass in 28 And Jacob lived in the land A. M. 2315.

the increase, that ye shall give the of Egypt seventeen years : so f the fifth part unto Pharaoh, and four parts shall whole age of Jacob was a hundred forty and be your own, for seed of the field, and for seven years. your food, and for them of your households, 29 And the time 6 drew nigh that Israel must and for food for your little ones.

die ; and he called his son Joseph, and said 25 And they said, Thou hast saved our unto him, If now I have found grace in thy lives : " let us find grace in the sight of my sight, - put, I pray thee, thy hand under my lord, and we will be Pharaoh's servants. thigh, and ideal kindly and truly with me;

26 And Joseph made it a law over the land bury me not, I pray thee, in Egypt: of Egypt unto this day, that Pharaoh should 30 But 'I will lie with my fathers, and thou have the fifth part; except the land of the shalt carry me out of Egypt, and m bury me • priests only, which became not Pharaoh's. in their burying-place. And he said, I will

27 And Israel a dwelt in the land of Egypt, do as thou hast said. in the country of Goshen ; and they had pos- 31 And he said, Swear unto me; and he sessions therein, and grew, and multiplied sware unto him.

grew, and multiplied sware unto him. And Israel bowed himself exceedingly.

upon the bed's head.


2 Chap. xxxiii. 15.—b Verse 22. -c Or, princes ; verse 22. Chap. xxiv. 2. Chap. xxiv. 49.- So chap. I. 25. d Ver. 11.

Chap. xlvi. 3. - Heb. the days of the years of '2 Sam. xix. 37.mCh. xlix. 29; L. 5, 13. Chap. xlvii. his life ; see ver. 9. - So Deut. xxxi. 14; 1 Kings ii. 1. 2; 1 Kings i. 47; Heb. xi. 21.

crown an ample revenue, though he restored the lands, cious men will consider what Joseph did by Divine by obliging each to pay one fifth of the product to the appointment as a prophet of God, and what he did king, ver. 24. And it is worthy of remark that the merely as a statesman from the circumstances of the people of Egypt well understood the distinction be- case, the complexion of the times, and the character tween subjects and servants ; for when they came to of the people over whom he presided. When this is sell their land, they offered to sell themselves also, and dispassionately done, we shall see much reason to said : Buy us and our land, and we and our land will adore God, applaud the man, and perhaps in some be servants unto Pharaoh, ver. 19.

cases censure the minister. Joseph is never held up Diodorus Siculus, lib. i., gives the same account of tó our view as an unerring prophet of God.

He was the ancient constitution of Egypt. “ The land,” says an honoured instrument in the hands of God of saving he, was divided into three parts : 1. One belonged two nations from utter ruin, and especially of preto the Priests, with which they provided all sacri- serving that family from which the Messiah was to fices, and maintained all the ministers of religion. spring, and of perpetuating the true religion among 2. A second part was the KING'S, to support his court them. In this character he is represented in the and family, and to supply expenses for wars if they sacred pages. His conduct as the prime minister of should happen. Hence there were no taxes, the king Pharaoh was powerfully indicative of a deep and conhaving so ample an estate. 3. The remainder of the summate politician, who had high notions of preroga-land belonged to the sueJECTS, who appear (from the tive, which led him to use every prudent means to account of Diodorus) to have been all soldiers, a kind aggrandize his master, and at the same time to do of standing militia, liable, at the king's expense, to what he judged best on the whole for the people he serve in all wars for the preservation of the state." | governed. See the conclusion of the 50th chapter. This was a constitution something like the British ; Verse 29. Put--thy hand under my thigh] See the government appears to have been mired, and the on chap. xxiv. 2. monarchy properly limited, till Joseph, by buying the Verse 30. I will lie with my fathers) As God had land of the people, made the king in some sort de- promised the land of Canaan to Abraham and his spotic. But it does not appear that any improper use posterity, Jacob considered it as a consecrated place, was made of this, as in much later times we find it under the particular superintendence and blessing of still a comparatively limited monarchy.

God : and as Sarah, Abraham, and Isaac were interred Verse 24. Ye shall give the fifth part unto Pharaoh] near to Hebron, he in all probability wished to lie, not This is precisely the case in Hindostan ; the king has only in the same place, but in the same grave; and it the fifth part of all the crops.

is not likely that he would have been solicitous about Verse 26. And Joseph made it a law] That the this, had he not considered that promised land as being people should hold their land from the king, and give a type of the rest that remains for the people of God, him the fifth part of the produce as a yearly tax. and a pledge of the inheritance among the saints in Beyond this it appears the king had no farther de- light. mands. The whole of this conduct of Joseph has Verse 31. And Israel bowed himself upon the bed's been as strongly censured by some as applauded by head.) Jacob was now both old and feeble, and we others. It is natural for men to run into extremes in may suppose him reclined on his couch when Joseph attacking or defending any position. Sober and judi- I came; that he afterwards "sat up erect (see chap. 258

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