Imágenes de páginas

B. C. 1689.

The prophecy concerning


Gad, Asher, and Naphtali. A. M. 2315. heels, so that his rider shall fall 20 - Out of Asher his bread shall be A. M. 2315. B. C. 1689. backward.

fat, and he shall yield royal dainties. 18 m I have waited for thy salvation, O LORD! 21 P Naphtali is a hind let loose : he giveth

- Gad, a troop shall overcome him : but goodly words. he shall overcome at the last.

22 Joseph is a fruitful bough, even a fruitn Psa. xxv. 6; cxix. 166, 174; Isa. xxv. Deut. xxxiii. 20; Deuteronomy xxxiii. 24 ; Joshua xix. 24. — Deuteronomy


9. I Chron. v. 18.

xxxiii. 23.

Christ, considering the nachash above as the seducer, be here intended. From his four sons Jahzeel, Guni, and the Messiah the promised seed.

Jezer, and Shillem, which he took down into Egypt, 19. Gad, an army shall attack him,

chap. xlvi. 24, in the course of two hundred and fifteen And he shall attack in return.

years there sprang of effective men 53,400: but as This is one of the most obscure prophecies in the great increase in this way was not an uncommon case whole chapter; and no two interpreters agree in the larly to the fruitfulness of their soil, and the especial

in the descendants of Jacob, this may reser particutranslation of the original words, which exhibit a most providential care and blessing of the Almighty; to singular alliteration :

which indeed Moses seems particularly to refer, Deut. ' ; xxxiii. 23 : 0 Naphtali, satisfied with favour, and full ' yagud akeb.

with the blessing of the Lord. So that he may be re The prophecy seems to refer generally to the fre- presented under the notion of a tree planted in a rich quent disturbances to which this tribe should be ex-soil

, growing to a prodigious size, extending its branches posed, and their hostile, warlike disposition, that would in all directions, and becoming a shade for men and always lead them to repel every aggression. It is cattle, and a harbour for the fowls of heaven. likely that the prophecy had an especial fulfilment 22. The son of a fruitful (vine) is Joseph ; when this tribe, in conjunction with that of Reuben

The son of a fruitful (vine) by the fountain : and the half tribe of Manasseh, got a great victory

The daughters (branches) shoot over the wall. over the Hagarites, taking captive one hundred thou- 23. . They sorely afflicted him and contended with him; sand men, two thousand asses, fifty thousand camels,

The chief archers had him in hatred. and two hundred and fifty thousand sheep; see 24. But his bow remained in strength, 1 Chron. v. 18-22. Dr. Durell and others translate

And the arms of his hands were made strong the last word 3pv akeb, rear—“He shall invade their By the hand of the Mighty One of Jacob : rear ;" which contains almost no meaning, as it only By the name of the Shepherd, the Rock of Israel ; seems to state that though the army that invaded Gad 25. By the God of thy father, for he helped thee; should be successful, yet the Gadites would harass

And God All-sufficient, he blessed thee. their rear as they returned: but this could never be a

The blessing of the heavens from above, subject of sufficient consequence for a prophecy. The

And the blessings lying in the deep beneath, word 3pv ekeb is frequently used as a particle, signi- The blessings of the breasts and of the womb. fying in consequence, because of, on account of. After 26. The blessings of thy father have prevailed the Gadites had obtained the victory above mentioned,

Over the blessings of the eternal mountains, they continued to possess the land of their enemies

And the desirable things of the everlasting hills. till they were carried away captive. The Chaldee

These shall be on the head of Joseph, paraphrasts apply this to the Gadites going armed

And on his crown who was separated from his over Jordan before their brethren, discomfiting their

brethren. enemies, and returning back with much spoil. See Josh. iv, 12, 13, and xxii. 1, 2, 8.

Verse 22. The son of a fruitful vine] This ap

pears to me to refer to Jacob himself, who was blessed 20. From Asher his bread shall be fat,

with such a numerous posterity that in two hundred And he shall produce royal dainties. and fifteen years after this his own descendants amountThis refers to the great fertility of the lot that felled to upwards of 600,000 effective men ; and the to Asher, and which appears to have corresponded figures here are intended to point out the continual with the name, which signifies happy or blessed. His growth and increase of his posterity. Jacob was a great prosperity is described by Moses in this figura- fruitful tree planted by a fountain, which because it tive way : " Let Asher be blessed with children, let was good would yield good fruit; and because it was him be acceptable to his brethren, and let him dip his planted near a fountain, from being continually watered, foot in oil ;" Deut. xxxiii. 24.

would be perpetually fruitful. The same is used and 21. Naphtali is a spreading oak,

applied to Jacob, Deut. xxxiii. 28 : The FOUNTAIN of

Jacob shall be upon a land of corn, and wine, fc. Producing beautiful branches.

The daughters, niga banoth, put here for branches, This is Bocharl's translation ; and perhaps no man shoot over or run upon the wall.] Alluding probably who understands the genius of the Hebrew language to the case of the vine, which requires to be supported will attempt to dispute its propriety ; it is as literal as by a wall, trees, &c. Some commentators have unit is correct. Our own translation scarcely gives any derstood this literally, and have applied it to the Egypsense. The fruitfulness of this tribe in children may tian women, who were so struck with the beauty of El אל שרי On the word

Joseph is blessed with


extraordinary privileges 4. M. 2315 ful boughby a well ; whose | shall bless thee with blessings of A. M. 2315. B. .

B. C. 1689. 9 branches run over the wall : heaven above, blessings of the deep 23 The archers have sorely grieved him, that lieth under, blessings of the breast'and and shot at him, and hated him :

of the womb : · 24 But his bow abode in strength, and the 26 The blessings of thy father have prevailed arms of his hands were made strong by the above the blessings of thy progenitors, a unto hands of the mighty God of Jacob; "(from the utmost bound of the everlasting hills: thence is the shepherd, w the stone of Israel :) they shall be on the head of Joseph, and on

25 * Even by the God of thy father, who the crown of the head of him that was sepashall help thee : Y and by the Almighty, ? who rate from his brethren.

9 Heb. daughters. - Chap. xxxvii. 4, 24, 28; xxxix. 20 ; xlii. * Psa. lxxx. 1. -w Isa. xxviii. 16. * Chap. xxviii. 13, 21 ; 21 ; Psa. cxviii. 13. - Job xxix. 20 ; Psa. xxxvii. 15. Psa. xxxv. 3; xliii. 23.- -y Chap. xvii. 1 ; xxxv. 11.- Deut. xxxii. cxxxii. 2, 5, Chap. xlv. 11; xlvii. 12 ; 1. 21.

13.- Deut. xxxiii. 15; Hab. iii. 6. — Deut. xxxiii. 16. Joseph as to get upon walls, the tops of houses, &c., The Almighty or All-sufficient; I read '700 h El Shadto see him as he passed by. This is agreeable to the dai, God All-sufficient ; which is the reading of the view taken of the subject by the Koran. See the Samaritan, Septuagint, Syriac, and Coptic, and of three notes on chap. xxxix. 7.

reputable MSS. in the collections of Kennicott and De Verse 23. The chief archers] o'rn bya baaley Rossi. The copies used by those ancient versions had chilstsim, the masters of arrows—Joseph's brethren, evidently 4x El, God, and not nx eth, the, a mistake who either used such weapons, while feeding their produced in later times. flocks in the deserts, for the protection of themselves Shaddai, see the note on chap. xvii. 1. and cattle, or for the purpose of hunting; and who pro- The blessing of the heavens from above] A genebably excelled in archery. It may however refer to the rally pure, clear, serene sky, frequently dropping down bitter speeches and harsh words that they spoke to and of fertilizing showers and dews, so as to make a very him, for they hated him, and could not speak peaceably fruitful soil and salubrious atmosphere. to him, chap. xxxvii. 4. Thus they sorely afflicted Blessings lying in the deep beneath] Whatever riches him, and were incessantly scolding or finding fault. could be gained from the sea or rivers, from mines and

Verse 24. But his bow remained in strength] The minerals in the bowels of the earth, and from abundant more he was persecuted, either by his brethren or in springs in different parts of his inheritance. Our transEgypt, the more resplendent his uprightness and vir- |lation of this line is excessively obscure : Blessings tues shone : and the arms—hís ežtended power and of the deep that lieth under. What is it that lies uninfluence, of his hands-plans, designs, and particular der the deep? By connecting nana bircoth, blessings, operations of his prudence, judgment, discretion, $c., with nyan robetseth, lying, all ambiguity is avoided, were all rendered successful by the handthe power and the text speaks a plain and consistent sense. ful succour and protection, of the Mighty One of Ja- The blessings of the breasts and of the womo.) A cobthat God who blessed and prospered all the coun- numerous offspring, and an abundance of cattle. The sels and plans of Jacob, and protected and increased progeny of Joseph, by Ephraim and Manasseh, amounthim also when he was in a strange land, and often un- ed at the first census or enumeration (Num. i.) to 75,900 der the power of those who sought opportunities to men, which exceeded the sum of any one tribe ; Juoppress and defraud him.

dah, the greatest of the others, amounting to no more By the name of the Shepherd; the Rock of Israel] than 74,600. Indeed, Ephraim and Manasseh had Jehovah, and El-Elohey Israel ; see chap. xxxiii. 20. multiplied so greatly in the days of Joshua, that a comThis appears to me to refer to the subject of the thirty- mon lot was not sufficient for them. See their comsecond chapter, where Jacob wrestled with God, had plaint, Josh. xvii. 14. God's name revealed to him, and his own name changed Verse 26. The blessing of thy father, fc.) The from Jacob to Israel, in consequence of which he built blessings which thy father now prays for and pronounces an altar, and dedicated it to God, who had appeared to are neither temporal nor transitory; they shall exceed him under the name of Elohey-Israel, the strong God in their duration the eternal mountains, and in their of Israel ; which circumstance led him to use the term value and spiritual nature all the conveniences, comRock, which, as an emblem of power, is frequently forts, and delicacies which the everlasting hills can given to God in the sacred writings, and may here re- produce. They shall last when the heavens and the fer to the stone which Jacob set up. It is very pro- earth are no more, and shall extend throughout eterbable that the word shepherd is intended to apply to nity. They are the blessings which shall be commuour blessed Lord, who is the Shepherd of Israel, the nicated to the world by means of the Messiah. good Shepherd, John X. 11-17; and who, beyond all The Jerusalem Targum paraphrases the place thus : controversy, was the person with whom Jacob wrestled. “The blessing of this father shall be added unto the See the notes on chap. xvi. 7, and xxxii. 24. blessings wherewith thy fathers Abraham and Isaac,

Verse 25. The God of thy father] How frequently, who are likened to mountains, have blessed thee; and God is called the God of Jacob none needs be told who they shall exceed the blessings of the four mothers, reads the Bible.

Sarah, Rebekah, Rachel, and Leah, who are likened God All-sufficient] Instead of '70 ns eth Shaddai, to the hills : all these blessings shall be a crown of

_b Ch. xxii. 16. - Ver. 29.

Prophecy concerning Benjamin. CHAP. XLIX.

Jacob's dying request. A. M. 2315. 27 Benjamin shall raven as a Canaan,) " which Abraham bought A. M. 2315. B. C. 1689.

B. C. 1689. wolf: in the morning he shall devour with the field of Ephron the Hitthe

prey, d and at night he shall divide the spoil. tite for a possession of a burying-place. 23 All these are the twelve tribes of Israel : 31 (i There they buried Abraham and Sarah and this is it that their father spake unto them, his wife ; k there they buried Isaac and Reand blessed them ; every one according to bekah his wife ; and there I buried Leah.) his blessing he blessed them.

32 The purchase of the field and of the 29 And he charged them, and said unto cave that is therein was from the children of them, I • am to be gathered unto my people : Heth. í bury me with my fathers in the cave that 33 And when Jacob had made an end of is in the field of Ephron the Hittite.

commanding his sons, he gathered up his feet 30 In the cave that is in the field of Mach- into the bed, and yielded up the ghost, and pelah, (which is before Mamre in the land of was gathered unto his people.

• Sudg. xx. 21, 25; Ezek. xxii. 25, 27. dNum. xxiii. 24; Esth. I Ch. xlvii. 30; 2 Sam. xix. 37.--- Ch. 1. 13.vii. 11; Ezek. xxxix. 10; Zech. xiv. 1,7.-€ Ch. xv. 15; xxv. 8. Chap. xxiii. 19; xxv. 9. -* Chap. xxxv. 29.magnificence on the head of Joseph, and on the crown In the morning, according to Mr. Ainsworth, “sigof the head of him who was a prince and governor in nifies the first times ; for Ehud of Benjamin was the the land of Egypt.”

second judge that saved the Israelites from the hands 27. Benjamin is a ravenous wolf :

of the Moabites, Judg. iii. 15, &c. Saul of BenjaIn the morning he shall devour the prey,

min was the first king of Israel ; he and his son were And in the evening he shall divide the spoil. great warriors, making a prey of many enemies,

1 Sam. xi. 6, 7, 11; xiv. 13, 15, 47, 48. And the This tribe is very fitly compared to a ravenous wolf, because of the rude courage and ferocity which they of Benjamin delivered the Jews from a great destruc

evening, the laller times; for Mordecai and Esther have invariably displayed, particularly in their war with the other tribes, in which they killed more men than tion, and slew their enemies, Esth. viii. 7, 9, 11; ix.

5, 6, 15, 16." the whole of their own numbers amounted to. “ This last tribe,” says Dr. Hales, " is compared to That is, guided by the unerring Spirit of prophecy,

Verse 28. Every one according to his blessing) a wolf for its ferocious and martial disposition, such Jacob now foretold to each of his sons all the importas was erinced by their contests with the other tribes, ant events which should take place during their sucin which, after two victories, they were almost exter- cessive generations, and the predominant characteristic minated, Judg. xix., xx.” Its union with the tribe of of each tribe ; and, at the same time, made some comJudah seems to be intimated in their joint conquests, paratively obscure references to the advent of the expressed nearly in the same terms : “Judah went up Messiah, and the redemption of the world by him. from the prey;" “Benjamin devoured the prey.” Moses in his parallel prophecy, Deut. xxxiii. 12, confirms this this it appears that the cave at Machpelah was a com

Verse 29. Bury me with my fathers, fc.] 'From by signifying that the sanctuary should be fixed in his lot, and that he should continue as long as the exist- indeed the first public burying-place mentioned in his

mon burying-place for Hebrews of distinction; and ence of the temple itself :

tory. From ver. 31 we find that Abraham, Sarah, The beloved Of The Lord shall dwell with him Isaac, Rebekah, and Leah, had been already deposited in safety,

there, and among them Jacob wished to have his bones And shall cover him all the day long,

laid; and he left his dying charge with his children to And shall dwell between his shoulders.

bury him in this place, and this they conscientiously Deut. xxxiii. 12.

performed. See chap. I. 13. In the morning, fc.] These expressions have been Verse 33. He gathered up his feet into the bed] It variously understood. The sense given above is that is very probable that while delivering these prophetic in which the principal interpreters agree ; but Houbi- blessings Jacob sat upon the side of his bed, leaning gant protests against the prophecy signifying the con- upon his staff; and having finished, he lifted up his tinuance of this tribe, as the words, “ in the morning feet into the bed, stretched himself upon it, and devouring the prey," and " in the evening dividing the erpired ! spoil,” are supposed to imply ; " because,” he observes, And was gathered unto his people.) The testimony “after the return from the Babylonish captivity, this that this place bears to the immortality of the soul, tribe is no more mentioned.” But this may be ac- and to its existence separate from the body, should counted for from the circumstance of its being asso- not be lightly regarded. In the same moment in ciated with that of Judah, (see 1 Kings xii. 21-24,) which Jacob is said to have gathered up his feet into after which it is scarcely ever mentioned but in that the bed, and to have expired, it is added, and was union. Being thus absorbed in the tribe of Judah, it gathered unto his people. It is certain that his body continued from the morning till the evening of the Jew- was not then gathered to his people, nor till seven ish dispensation, and consequently till the Lion of the weeks after; and it is not likely that a circumstance, tribe of Judah was seen in the wilderness of Israel. so distant in point both of time and place, would

Jacob's sons supposed to have

GENESIS. given rise to the ancient Zodiac. have been thus anticipated, and associated with facts cannot pretend to say ; but that the twelve signs were that took place in that moment. I cannot help there at that time known in Egypt and Chaldea, there can fore considering this an additional evidence for the be little doubt. immateriality of the soul, and that it was intended 2. We have now seen the life of Jacob brought to by the Holy Spirit to convey this grand and conso- a close ; and have carefully traced it through all its latory sentiment, that when a holy man ceases to live various fortunes, as the facts presented themselves in among his fellows, his soul becomes an inhabitant of the preceding chapters. Isaac his father was what another world, and is joined to the spirits of just men might properly be called a good man ; but in strength made perfect.

of mind he appears to have fallen far short of his

father Abraham, and his son Jacob. Having left the 1. It has been conjectured (see the note, chap. management of his domestic concerns to Rebekah his xxxvii. 9) that the eleven stars that bowed down to wife, who was an artful and comparatively irreligious Joseph might probably refer to the signs of the Zodiac, woman, the education of his sons was either neglected which were very anciently known in Egypt, and are or perverted. The unhappy influence which the presupposed to have had their origin in Chaldea. On cepts and example of his mother had on the mind this supposition Joseph's eleven brethren answered of her son we have seen and deplored. Through the to eleven of these signs, and himself to the twelfth. mercy of God Jacob outlived the shady part of his General Vallancy has endeavoured, in his Collectanea own character, and his last days were his brightest de Rebus Hibernicis, vol. vi., part ii., p. 343, to trace and his best. He had many troubles and difficulties out the analogy between the twelve sons of Jacob in life, under which an inferior mind must have necesand the twelve signs of the Zodiac, which Dr. Hales sarily sunk ; but being a worker together with the (Analysis, vol. ii., p. 165) has altered a little, and providence of God, his difficulties only served in geneplaced in a form in which it becomes more generally ral to whet his invention, and draw out the immense applicable. As this scheme is curious, many readers resources of his own mind. He had to do with an who may not have the opportunity of consulting the avaricious, procrastinating relative, as destitute of above works will be pleased to find it here. That humanity as he was of justice. Let this plead somethere is an allusion to the twelve signs of the Zodiac, thing in his excuse. He certainly did outwit his and probably to their ancient asterisms, may be readily father-in-law; and yet, probably, had no more than credited ; but how far the peculiar characteristics of the just recompense of his faithful services in the the sons of Jacob were expressed by the animals in successful issue of all his devices. From the time in the Zodiac, is a widely different question.

which God favoured him with that wonderful mani1. Reuben/"Unstable (rather pouring out) as

festation of grace at Peniel, chap. xxxii., he became

He had frequent discoveries of God waters"—the sign AQUARIUS, represented as a

before, to encourage him in journeys, secular affairs, man pouring out waters from an urn. 2. Simeon and Levi—"The united brethren"_&c.; but none in which the heart-changing power of

Divine the sign GéminI or the Twins.

grace was so abundantly revealed. Happy he 3. Judah—“ The strong lion"—the sign Leo.

whose last days are his best! We can scarcely con4. Asher—" His bread shall be fat”--the sign exhibited at the deathbed of Jacob. This great man

more noble or dignified than that Virgo or the Virgin, generally represented as

was now one hundred and forty-seven years of age ; holding a full ear of corn. 5. Issachar—“ A strong ass” or ox, both used in enfeebled, yet with a mind in perfect vigour, and a

though his body, by the waste of time, was greatly husbandry—the sign Taurus or the Bull. h. and 7. Dan—“A serpent biting the horse's hope full of immortality, he calls his numerous family

together, all of them in their utmost state of prosheels”-Scorpio, the Scorpion. On the celes

perity, and gives them his last counsels, and his tial sphere the Scorpion is actually represented dying blessing. His declarations show that the secret as biling the heel of the horse of the archer of the Lord was with him, and that his-candle shone Sagittarius ; and Chelæ, "his claws,” origin- bright upon his tabernacle. Having finished his work,

ally occupied the space of Libra. 8. Joseph_" His bow remained in strength"—the determined that while he was able to help himself

with perfect possession of all his faculties, and being sign SagitTARIUS, the archer or bow-man ; com

none should be called in to assist, (which was one of monly represented, even on the Asiatic Zodiacs, the grand characteristics of his life,) he, with that with his bow bent, and the arrow drawn up to the dignity which became a great man and a man of God, headthe bow in full strength.

stretched himself upon his bed, and rather appears to 9. Naphtalı—by a play on his name, ho taleh, the have conquered death than to have suffered it. Who, ram--the sign Aries, according to the rabbins.

seeing the end of this illustrious patriarch, can help 10. Zebulun—" A haven for ships”—denoted by exclaiming, There is none like the God of Jeshurun! CANCER, the crab.

Let Jacob's God be my God! Let me die the death 11. Gad—“ A troop or army”—reversed, dag, a fish of the righteoŭs, and let my last end be like his ! —the sign Pisces.

Reader, God is still the same : and though he may 12. Benjamin—"A ravening wolf”—CAPRICORN, which on the Egyptian sphere was represented

not make thee as great as was Jacob, yet he is ready

to make thee as good; and, whatever thy past life by a goat led by Pan, with a wolf's head.

may have been, to crown thee with loving-kindness What likelihood the reader may see in all this, I and tender mercies, that thy end also may be peace.

a neno man.

ceive a


Joseph mourns for the


death of his father.


Joseph bewails the death of his father, and commands the physicians to embalm him, 1, 2. The Egyptians

mourn for him seventy days, 3. Joseph begs permission from Pharaoh to accompany his father's corpse to Canaan, 4, 5. Pharaoh consents, 6. Pharaoh's domestics and elders, the elders of Egypt, Joseph and his brethren, with chariots, horsemen, &c., form the funeral procession, 7–9. They come to the threshing, floor of Atad, and mourn there seven days, 10, The Canaaniles call the place Abel-Mizraim, 11. They bury Jacob in the cave of Machpelah, 12, 13. Joseph relurns to Egypt, 14. His brethren, fearing his displeasure, send messengers to him to entreat his forgiveness of past wrongs, 15–17. They follow, and prostrate themselves before him, and offer to be his servants, 18. Joseph receives them affectionately, and assures them and thçirs of his care and protection, 19-21. Joseph and his brethren dwell in Egypt, and he sees the third generation of his children, 22, 23. · Being about to die, he prophecies the return of the children of Isrdel from Egypt, 24, and causes them to swear that they will carry his bones to Canaan, 25.

Joseph dies, aged one hundred and ten years ; is embalmed, and put in a coffin in Egypt, 26. A. M. 2315.

AND Joseph fell upon his fa-{ 2 And Joseph commanded his ser- 4. M. 2315. B. C. 1689.

B. C. 1689. ther's face, and wept upon vants the physicians to embalm his him, and kissed him.

father; and the physicians embalmed Israel.

- Chapter xlvi. 4.

-62 Kings xiii. 14. Ver. 26; 2 Chron. xvi. 14; Matt. xxvi. 12; Mark xiv. 8; xvi. 1; Luke xxiv. I


thus preserved ;' and though the work had been done Verse 1. Joseph fell upon his father's face] Though for some thousands of years, the very feathers were this aet appears to be suspended by the unnatural divi. in.complete preservation, and the colour of the plumage sion of this verse from the preceding chapter, yet we discernible. The account of this curious process, the may rest assured it was the immediale consequence of articles used, and the manner of applying them, I subJacob's death."

join from Herodotus and Diodorus Siculus, as also the Verse 2. The physicians] D'x57 ropheim, the Realers, manner of their mournings and funeral solemnities, those whose business it was to heal or restore the body which are highly illustrative of the subjects in this from sickness by the administration of proper medi- chapter. cines ; and when death took place, to heal or preserve

“When any man of quality dies," says Herodotus, it from dissolution by embalming, and thus give it a

“all the women of that family besmear their heads and sort of immortality or everlasting duration. The ori- 1 faces with dirt'; then, leaving the body at home, they ginal word on chanal, which we translate to embalm, go lamenting up and down the city with all their relahas undoubtedly the same meaning with the Arabic tions; their apparel being girt abõut them, and their bishanata, which also signifies to embalm, or' to pre- breasts left naked. On the other hand the men, having serve from putrefaction by the application of spices, likewise their clothes girt about them, beat themselves. &c., and hence elbis hantat, an embalmer. The These things being done, they carry the dead body to word is used to express the reddening of leather ; and be embalmed; for which there are certain persons approbably the ideal meaning may be something analogous pointed who profess this art., These, when the body to our tanning, which consists in removing the moisture, is brought to them, show to those that bring it certain and closing up the pores so as to render them imper- models of dead persons in wood, according to any of vious to wet. This probably is the grand principle in which the deceased may be painted. One of these embalming ; and whatever effects this, will preserve they say is accurately made like to one whom, in 'such flesh as perfectly as skin. . Who can doubt that a hu- a mátter, I do not think lawful to name ; TOV OVK dolov man muscle, undergoing the same process of tanning ποιουμαι το ονομα επι τοιουτω πρηγματι ονομαζειν ; (proas the hide of an ox, would not become equally incor- bably Osiris, one of the principal gods of Egypt, is ruptible ? I have seen a part of the muscle of a hu- here intended ;) then they show a second inferior to it, man thigh, that, having come into contact with some and of an easier price ; and next a third, cheaper than tanning matter, either in the coffip or in the grave, was the former, and of a very small value ; which being in a state of perfect soundness, when the rest of the seen, they ask them after which model the deceased body had been long reduced to earth; and it exhibited shall be represented. When they have agreed upon the appearance of a thick piece of well tanned leather the price they depart ; and those with whom the dead

In the art of embalming, the Egyptians excelled all corpse is left proceed to embalm it after the following pations in the world ; with them it was a common prac- manner : First of all, they with a crooked iron draw lice. Instances of the perfection to which they car- the brain out of the head through the nostrils ; next, ried this art may be seen in the numerous mummies, with a sharp Æthiopic stone they cut up that part of as they are called, which are found in different Euro- the abdomen called the ilia, and that way draw out all pean cabinets, and which have been all brought from the bowels, which, having cleansed and washed with Egypt. This people not only embalmed men and wo- palm wine, they again rinse and wash with wine permen, and thus kept the bodies of their beloved relatives fumed with pounded odours : then filling up the belly from the empire of corruption, but they embalmed use- with pure myrrh and cassia grossly powdered, and all ful animals also. I have seen the body of the Ibris other odours except frankincense, they sew it up again. VOL. I. ( 19 )



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