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Observations on the

CHAP. L.

character of Joseph. with hieroglyphics, the cutting of which must have more clearly seen in the providential deliverances by been done at a prodigious expense, both of time and which he was favoured. money ; the stone being so hard that we have no tools On the political conduct of Joseph there are conby which we can make any impression on it. Two flicting opinions. On the one hand it is asserted that of these are now in the British Museum, that appear he found the Egyptians a free peoplė, and that he to have belonged to some of the nobles of Egypt. availed himself of à most afflicting providence of God They are dug out of the solid stone, and adorned with to reduce them all to a state of slavery, destroyed almost innumerable hieroglyphics. One of these, their political consequence, and made their king desvulgarly called Alexander's tomb, is ten feet three potic.” In all these respects his political measures inches and a quarter long, ten inches thick in the have been strongly vindicated, not oply as being disides, in breadth at top fivè feet three inches and a rected by God, but as being obviously the best, every half, in breadth at bottom four feet two inches and a thing considered, for the safety, honour, and welfare half, and three feet ten in depth, and weighs about ten of his sovereign and the kingdom. It is true he tons. In such a coffin I suppose the body of Joseph) bought the lands of the people for the king, bat he was deposited ; and such a one could not have been farmed them to the original occupiers again, at the made and transported to Canaan at an expense that moderate and fixed crown rent of one-fifth part of the any private individual could bear. It was with incre- produce. "Thus did he provide for the liberty and dible labour and at an extraordinary expense that the independence of the people, while he strengthened the coffin in question was removed the distance of but a authority of the king by making him sole proprietor few miles, from the ship that brought it from Egypt, of the lands. · And to secure the people from farther to its present residence in the British Museum. Judge, exaction, Joseph made it a law over all the land of then, at what an expense such a coffin must have been Egypt, that Pharaoh (i. e. the king) should have only digged, engraved, and transported over the desert the fifth part; which law subsisted to the time of from Egypt to Canaan, a distance of three hundred Moses, chap. xlvii. 21-26. By this wise regulation, miles! We need not be surprised to hear of car- continues Dr. Hales, “the people had four-fifths of riages and horsemen, a very great company, when the produce of the lands for their own use, and were such a coffin was to be carried so far, with a suitable exempted from any farther taxes, the king being bound company to attend it.

to support his civil and military establishment out of Joseph's life was the shortest of all the patriarchs, the crown rents." By the original constitution of for which Bishop Patrick gives a sound physical Egypt established by Menes, and Thoth or Hermes reason-he was the son of his father's old age. It his prime minister, the lands were divided into three appears from Archbishop Ushér's Chronology that Jo- portions, between the king, the priests, and the miliseph governed Egypt under four kings, Mephramutho- tary, each party being bound to support its respective sis, Thmosis, Amenophis, and Orus." His government, establishment by the produce. See the quotations we know, lasted eighty years; for when he stood from Diodorus Siculus, in the note on chap. xlvii. 23. before Pharaoh he was thirty years of age, chap. xli. It is certain, therefore, that the constitution of Egypt 46, and he died when he was one hundred and tem. was considerably altered by Joseph, and there can be

On the character and conduct of Joseph many re- no doubt that much additional power was, by this marks have already been made in the preceding notes. alteration, vested in the hands of the king ; but as we On the subject of his piety there can be but one opi- do not find that any improper use was made of this nion. It was truly exemplary, and certainly was tried power, we may rest assured that it was so qualified in cases in which few instances occur of persevering and restricted by wholesome regulations, though they fidelity: His high sense of the holiness of God, the are pot here particularized, as completely to prevent strong claims of justice, and the rights of hospitality all abuse of the regal power, and all tyrannical usurpaand gratitude, led him, in the instance of the solicita- tion of popular rights. That the people were nothing tions of his master's wife, to aot a part which, though but' slaves to the king, the military, and the priests absolutely just and proper, can never be sufficiently before, appears from the account given by Diodorus ; praised. Heathen authors boast of some persons of each of the three estates probably allowing them a such singular constancy; but the intelligent reader certain portion of land for their own use, while cultiwill recollect that these relations stand in general in vating the rest for the use and emolument of their their fabulous histories, and are destitute of those masters. Matters, however, became more regular characteristics which truth essentially requires ; such, under the administration of Joseph ; and it is perhaps I mean, as the story of Hippolytus and Phædra, Belle- not too mueh to say, that, previously to this, Egypt rophon and Antea or Sthenobæa, Peleus and Astyda- was without a fixed regular constitution, and that it mia, and others of this complexion, which appear to was not the least of the blessings that it owed to the be marred pictures, taken from this highly finished wisdom and prudence of Joseph, that he reduced it to original which the inspired writer has fairly drawn a regular form of government, giving the people such from life.

an interest in the safety of the state as was well calHis fidelity to his master is not less evident, and culated to insure their exertions to defend the nation, God's approbation of his conduct is strongly marked; and render the constitution fixed and permanent. for he caused whatsoever he did to prosper, whether * It is well known that Juslin, one of the Roman a slave in the house of his master, a prisoner in the historians, has made particular and indeed honourable dungeon, or a prime minister by the throne, which is mention of Joseph's administration in Egypt, in the a full proof that his ways 'pleased him; and this is account he gives of Jewish affairs, lib. xxxvi. cap. 2,

e

Importance of the

GENESIS.

book of Genesis. How the relation may have stood in Trogus Pompe- of the earth by a flood, noticed, then the Almighty ius, from whose voluminous works in forty-four books Creator is next introduced as the RESTORER and Preor volumes Justin abridged his history, we cannot tell, SERVER of the world ; and thus the history of Provi as the work of Trogus is irrecoverably lost; but it is dence commences : a history in which the mind of evident that the account was taken in the main from man is alternately delighted and confounded with the the Mosaic history, and it is written with as much infinitely varied plans of wisdom and mercy -in precandour as can be expected from a. prejudiced and serving the human species, counteracting the evil unprincipled heathen.

propensities of men and devils by means of gracious Minimus ætate inter fratres Joseph fuit, co “Jo- influences conveyed through religious institutions, seph was the youngest of his brethren, who, being planting and watering the seeds of righteousness which envious of his excellent endowments, stole him and himself had sowed in the hearts of men, and leading privately sold him to a company of foreign merchants, forward and maturing the grand purposes of his grace by whom he was carried into Egyptį where, having in the final salyation of the human race. diligently cultivated magic arts, he became, in a short After giving a minutely detailed account of the time, a prime favourite with the king himself. For peopling of the earth, ascertaining and settling the

was the most sagacious of men in explaining pro- bounds of the different nations of nkind, the sacred digies ; and he was the first who constructed the writer proceeds with the history of one family only: science of interpreting dreams. Nor was there any | but he chooses that one through which, as from an thing relative to laws human or Divine with which he ever-during fountain, the streams of justice, grace, seemed unacquainted ; for he predicted a failure of the goodness, wisdom, and truth, should emanate. Here crops many years before it took place; and the in- we see a pure well of living water, springing up anto habitants of Egypt must have been famished had not eternal life, restrained in its particular influence to the king, through his counsel, made an edict to pre-one people till, in the fulness of time, the fountain serve the fruits for several years. And his experi- should be opened in the house of David for sin and ments were so powerful, that the responses appear to for uncleanness in general, and the earth filled with have been given, not by man, but by God.” Tanta- the knowledge and salvation of God; thus by means que experimenta ejus fuerunt, ut non ab homine, sed a of one family, as extensive a view of the economy of Deo, responsa dari viderentur. I believe Justin refers providence and grace is afforded as it is possible for here, in the word experimenta, to his figment of magi- the human mind to comprehend. cal incantations eliciting oracular answers. Others In this epitome how wonderful do the workings of have translated the words : “ So excellent were his Providence appear! An astonishing concatenated train regulations that they seemed rather to be oracular of stupendous and minute events is laid before us ; responses, not given by man, but by God.”

and every transaction is so distinctly marked as every I have already compared Joseph with his father where to exhibit the finger, the hand, or the arm of Jacob, see chap. xlviii. 12, and shall make no apology God! But did God lavish his providential cares and for having given the latter a most decided superiority. attention on this one family, exclusive of the rest of Joseph was great; but his greatness came through his intelligent offspring ? No: for the same superinthe interposition of especial providences. Jacob was tendence, providential direction, and influence, would great, mentally and practically great, under the ordi- be equally seen in all the concerns of human life, in nary workings of Providence; and, towards the close the preservation of individuals, the rise and fall of of his life, not less distinguished for piety towards kingdoms and states, and in all the mighty REVOLUGod than his son Joseph was in the holiest period of tions, natural, moral, and political, in the universe, his life.

were God, as in the preceding instances, to give us

the detailed history; but what was done in the family Thus terminates the Book of Genesis, the most of Abraham, was done in behalf of the whole human ancient record in the world ; including the history of race. This specimen is intended to show us that God two grand subjects, Creation and PROVIDENCE, of does-work, and that against him and the operations of each of which it gives a summary, but astonishingly his hand, no might, no counsel, no cunning of men or minute, and detailed account. From this book almost devils, can prevail; that he who walks uprightly walks all the ancient philosophers, astronomers, chronologists, securely; and that all things work together for good and historians have taken their respective data ; and to them who love God; that none is so ignorant, low, all the modern improvements and accurate discoveries or lost, that God cannot instruct, raise up, and save. in different arts and sciences have only served to con- In a word, he shows himself by this history to be the firm the facts detailed by Moses ; and to show that all invariable friend of mankind, embracing every opporthe ancient writers on these subjects have approached tunity to do them good, and, to speak after the manner to or receded from TRUTH and the phenomena of na- of men, rejoicing in the frequent recurrence of such ture, in proportion as they have followed the Mosaic opportunities; that every man, considering the subhistory.

ject, may be led to exclaim in behalf of all his fellows, In this book the CREATIVE POWER and ENERGY of BEHOLD HOW HE LOVETH THEM! God are first introduced to the reader's notice, and On the character of Moses as a HISTORIAN and PHI-, the mind is overwhelmed with those grand creative LOSOPHER (for in his legislative character he does not acts by which the universe was brought into being. yet appear) much might be said, did the nature of this When this account is completed, and the introduction work admit

, But as brevity has been everywhere of sin, and its awful consequences in the destruction studied, and minute details rarely admitted, and only Objections against the

CHAP. L.

Mosaic chronology answered where absolutely necessary, the candid reader will ex- in assigning a comparatively recent date, not only to euse any deficiencies of this kind which he may have his own nation, but to the universe itself, he must have already noticed.

been actuated by motives essentially different from Of the accuracy and impartiality of Moses as a those which have governed all other ancient historians historian, many examples are given in the course of and chronologists." the notes, with such observations and reflections as the The generally acknowledged extravagance and absubjects themselves suggested ; and the succeeding surdity of all the chronological systems of ancient books will afford many opportunities for farther remarks times, the great simplicity and harmony of that of on these topics.

Moses, its facts evidently borrowed by others, though The character of Moses as a philosopher and chro- disgraced by the fables they have intermixed with nologist, has undergone the severest, scrutiny. A class them, and the very late invention of arts and sciences, of philosophers, professedly. infidels, have assailed the all tend to prove, at the very first view, that the MoMosaic account of the formation of the universe, and saic account, which assigns the shortest duration to that of the general deluge, with such repeated attacks the earth, is the most ancient and the most likely to as sufficiently prove that, in their apprehension, the be true. But all this reasoning has been supposed to pillars of their system must be shaken into ruin if be annihilated by an argument brought against the those accounts could not be proved to be false. Tra- Mosaic account of the creation by Mr. Patrick Bryditions, supporting accounts different from those in done, F. R. S., drawn from the evidence of different the sacred history, have been borrowed from the most eruptions of Mount Ætna. The reader may find this barbarous as well as the most civilized nations, in in his. “ Tour through Sicily and Malta,” letter vii., order to bear on this argument. These, backed by where, speaking of his acquaintance with the Canovarious geologic observations made in extensive travels, nico Recupero at Catania, who was then employed on experiments on the formation of different strata or writing a natural history of Mount Ætna, he says : beds of earth, either by inundations or volcanic erup-“ Near to a vault which is now thirty feet below tion, have been alt condensed into one apparently ground, and has probably been a burying-place, there strong but strange argument, intended to overthrow is a draw-well where there are several strata of lavas, the Mosaic account of the creation. · The argument (i. e., the liquid matter formed of stones, &c., which may be stated thus : “ The account given by Moses is discharged from the mountain in its eruptions,) with of the time when God commenced his creative acts earth to a considerable thickness over each stratum, is too recent ; for, according to his Genesis, six thou- Recupero has made use of this as an argument to sand years bave not yet elapsed since the formation of prove the great antiquity of the eruptions of this mounthe universe; whereas a variety of phenomena prove tain. For if it requires two thousand years and upthat the earth : itself must have existed, if not from wards to form but a scanty soil on the surface of a eternity, yet at least fourteen if not twenty thousand lava, there must have been more-than that space of years." This I call a strange argument, because it time between each of the eruptions which have formed is well known that all the ancient nations in the world, these strata. But what shall we say of a pit they the Jews excepted, have, to secure their honour and 'sunk near to Jaci, of a great depth? They pierced respectability, assigned to themselves a duration of the through seven distinct lavas, one under the other, the most improbable length; and have multiplied months, surfaces of-which were parallel, and most of them weeks, and even days, into years, in order to support covered with a thick bed of rich earth. Now, says their pretensions to the most remote antiquity. The he, the eruption which formed the lowest of these millions of years which have been assumed by the lavas, if we may be allowed to reason from analogy, Chinese and the Hindoos have been ridiculed for their must have flowed from the mountain at least fourteen manifest absurdity, even by those philosophers who thousand years ago! Recupero tells me, he is exhave brought the contrary charge against the Mosaic ceedingly embarrassed by these discoveries, in writing account? So notorious are the pretensions to remote the history of the mountain ; that Moses hangs like a ancestry and remote eras, in every false and fabricated dead weight upon him, and blunts all his zeal for insystem of family pedigree and national antiquity, as to quiry, for that he really has not the conscience to make produce doubt at the very first view of their subjects, his mountain so young as that prophet makes the and to cause the impartial inquirer after truth to take world. every step with the extreme of caution, knowing that “ The bishop, who is strenuously orthodox, (for it is in going over such accounts he everywhere treads an excellent see,) has already warned him to be upon on a kind of enchanted ground.

his guard ; and not to pretend to be a better natural When in the midst of these a writer is found who, historian than Moses, nor to presume to urge any thing without saying a word of the systems of other nations, that may in the smallest degree be deemed contradicprofesses to give a simple account of the creation and tory to his sacred authority." peopling of the earth, and to show the very conspicu- Though Mr. Brydone produces this as ous part that bis own people acted among the various against revelation, bishops, and orthodoxy, yet the dations of the world, and who assigns to the earth sequel will prove that it was good advice, and that and to its inhabitants a duration comparatively but as the bishop was much better instructed than either Reof yesterday, he comes forward with such a variety cupero or Brydone, and that it would have been much of claims to be heard, read, and considered, as no to their credit had they taken his advice. other writer can pretend to. And as he departs from I have given, however, this argument at length; the universal cụstom of all writers on similar subjects, and even in the insidious dress of Mr. Brydone, whose The geology and astronomy

a sneer

GENESIS.

of the book of Genesis. faith in Divine revelation appears to have been upon | ing a minute philosopher to rob us of our religion." a par with that of Signior Recupero, both being built In this, as well as in all other cases, the foundation stands nearly on the same foundation; to show from the sure, being deeply and legibly impressed with God's seal answer how slight the strongest arguments are, pro- See also Dr. Greaves's Lectures on the Pentateuch. duced from insulated facts by prejudice and partiality, There is a very sensible paper written by Don Jowhen brought to the test of sober, candid, philosophi- seph Gioeni* on the eruption of Ætna in 1781; in cal investigation, aided by an increased knowledge of which, among many other valuable observations, I find the phenomena of nature. “ In answer to this argu- the following note : "I was obliged to traverse the ment,” says Bishop Watson, (Letters to Gibbon,)“ it current of lava made by the eruption of 1766, the most might be urged that the time necessary for converting ancient of any that took this direction, viz., Bronte. lavas into fertile fields must be very different, accord- I saw several streams of lava which had crossed others, ing to the different consisteneies of the lavas, and and which afforded me evident proofs of the fallacy of their different situations with respect to elevation and the conclusions of those who seek to estimate the depression, or their being exposed to winds, rains, and period of the formation of the beds of lava from the other circumstances ; as for instance, the quantity of change they have undergone. - Some lava of earlier askes deposited over them, after they had cooled, &c., date than others still resist the weather, and present a &c., just as the time in which heaps of iron slag, vitreous and unaltered surface, while the lava of later which resembles lava, are covered with verdure, is date already begin to be covered with vegetation.”—See different at different furnaces, according to the nature Pinkerton on Rock, vol. ii., p. 395. of the slag and situation of the furnace; and something On the geology and astronomy of the book of Geneof this kind is deducible from the account of the Canon sis, much has been written, both by the enemies and (Recupero) himself, since the crevices in the strata are friends of revelation ; but as Moses has said but very often full of rich good soil, and have pretty large trees little on these subjects, and nothing in a systemalic growing upon them. But should not all this be thought way, it is unfair to invent a system pretendedly colsufficient to remove the objection, I will produce the lected out of his words, and thus make him accountcanon an analogy in opposition to his analogy, and able for what he never wrote. There are systems of which is grounded on more certain facts.

this kind, the preconceived fictions of their agthors, “ Ætna and Vesuvius resemblé each other in the for which they have sought support and credit by torcauses which produce their eruptions, in the nature of tured meanings extracted from a few Hebrew roots, their lavas, and in the time necessary to mellow' them and then dignified them with the title of The Mosaic into soil fit for vegetation; or, if there be any slight System of the Universe. This has afforded infidelity difference in this respect, it is probably not greater a handle which it has been careful to turn to its own than what subsists between different lavas of the same advantage. On the first chapter of Genesis, I have mountain. This being admitted, which no philosopher given a general view of the solar system, without prewill deny, the canon's (Recupero's) analogy will prove tending that I had found it there. I have also venjust nothing at all if we can produce an instance of tured to apply the comparatively recent doctrine of seven different lavas, with interjacent strata of vegeta- caloric to the Mosaic account of the creation of light ble earth, which have flowed from Mount Vesuvius previous to the formation of the sun, and have supwithin the space, not of fourteen thousand, but of ported it with such arguments as appeared to me to somewhat less than one thousand seven hundred years; render it at least probable : but I have not pledged for then, according to our'analogy, a stratum of lava Moses to any of my explanations, being fully convinced may be covered with vegetable soil in about two hun- that it was necessarily foreign from his design to enter dred and fifty years, instead of requiring two thousand into philosophic details of any kind, as it was his grand for that purpose.

object, as has been already remarked, to give a history “The eruption of Vesuvius, which destroyed Her- of Creation and PROVIDENCE' in the most abridged culaneum and Pompeii, is rendered still more famous form of which it was capable. 'And who, in so few by the death of Pliny, recorded by his nephew in his words, ever spoke so much? By Creation I mean the letter to Tacitus. This event happened-A. D. 79 ; production of every being, animate and inanimate, but we are informed by unquestionable authority, (Re- material and intellectual. And by Providence, not marks on the nature of the soil of Naples and its only the preservation and government of all being, vicinity, by Sir William Hamilton, Philos. Transact., but also the various and extraordinary provisioñis made vol. Ixi.,.p. 7,) that the matter which covers the an- by Divine justice and mercy for the comfort and final cient town of Herculaneum is not the produce of one salvation of man. These subjects I have endeavoured eruption only, for there are evident marks that the to trace out through-every ehapter of this book, and to matter of six eruptions has taken its course over that exhibit them in such a manner as appeared to me tho which lies immediately over the town, and was the best calculated to promote glory to God in the highest, cause of its destruction. The strata are either of and upon earth PEACE AND GOOD WILL AMONG MEN. lava or bugnt matter with veins of good soil between Observations on ihe Jewish manner of DIVIDING", and

You perceive,” says the bishop," with what ease a litlle attention and increase of knowledge may

READING the Law and the PROPHETS. remove a great difficulty ; but had we been able to say The ancient Jews divided the whole law of Moses nothing in explanation of this phenomenon, we should into fifty-four sections, which they read in their synanot have acted a very rational part in making our

* The Chevalier Gioeni' was an inhabitant of the first region ignorance the foundation of our infidelity, or suffer- of Ætna

them.

IN THE SYNAGOGUES

EVERY SABBATH DAY.

Jewish division of the Pentateuch. CHAP. L.

Masoretical notes. gogues in the course of the fifty-two Sabbaths in the These sections have their technical names, from the year, joining two of the shortest twice together, that words with which they commence; and are marked in the whole might be finished in one year's space ; but the Hebrew Bibles with three boo pe's, which are an in their intercalated years, in which they added a month, abbreviation for wyd parashah, a section or division ; they had fifty-four Sabbaths, and then they had a sec. and sometimes with three ODD samech's, which are an tion for each Sabbath : and it was to meet the exigency abbreviation for the word 970 seder, or 8770 sidra, an of the intercalated years that they divided the law into order, a full and absolute division. The former are fifty-four sections at first. When Antiochus Epiphanes generally called ning parashioth, distinctions, divi. forbade the Jews on pain of death to read their law, sions, sections ; the latter 0'170 sedarim, orders, arthey divided the prophets into the same number of sec- rangements ; as it is supposed that the sense is more tions, and read them in their synagogues in place of full and complete in these than in the parashioth. See the law; and when, under the Asmoneans, they re- the Tables, &c., at the end of the Book of Deuteronomy, covered their liberty, and with it the free exercise of where all these matters, and others connected with their religion, though the reading of the law was re-them, are considered in great detail, sumed, they continued the use of the prophetic sections, reading them conjointly with those in the law. To MASORETIC Noies on the Book of GENESIS: this first division and mode of reading the law there is a reference, Acts xv. 21: For Moses of old time At the end of all the books in the Hebrew Bible, hath in every city them that preach him, being READ the Masoretes have affixed certain notes, ascertaining

To the the number of greater and smaller sections, chapters, second division and conjoint reading of the law and verses, and letters. These they deemed of the greatest the prophets we also find a reference, Acts xii, 15 : importance, in order to preserve the integrity of their And after the reading of the LAW AND THE PROPHETS, law, and the purity of their prophets. And to this the rulers of the synagogue sent unto them, saying, end 'they'not only numbered every verse, word, and fc. And that the prophets were read in this way in letter, but even went so far as to ascertain how often our Lord's time, we have a proof, Luke iv. 16, &c., each letter of the alphabet occurred in the whole Bible ! where, going 'into the synagogue to read on the Sab Thus sacredly did they watch over their records in orbath day, as was his custom, there was delivered unto 'der to prevent every species of corruption. him the book of the Prophet Isaiah : and it appears The sum of all the verses in Bereshith (Genesis) that the prophetical section for that Sabbath was taken is 1534. And the memorial sign of this sum is 75 from the sixty-first chapter of his prophecies. aleph x signifying 1000; final caph 7500;-lamed 5 30,

Of these sections the book of Genesis contains and daleth 7 4.=1534. twelve :

The middle verse of Genesis is the furtieth of chap. The first, called novna bereshith, begins chap. i. xxvii.: By thy sword shalt thou live. ver. 1, and ends chap. vi. ver, 8.

The PARASHIOTH; or greater sections, are twelve, The SECOND, called na Noach, begins chap. vi. ver. The symbol of which is the word oli zeh, This, Exod. 9, and ends chap. xi.

mi. 15 : And This is my memorial to all generations. The Taird, called 75 75 lech lechu, begins chap. xii., Where zain ? stands for 7, and he 1 for 5.–12. and ends chap. xviii.

The SEDARIM, or orders, (see above) are forty-three. The FOURTH, called XT1 vaiyera, begins chap. xviii., The symbol of whích is the word da gam. Gen. xxvii. and ends chap. xxii.

33 : Yes (oa gam) and he shall be blessed. Where The Fifth, called in Chaiyey Sarah, begins gimet a stands for 3, and memo for 40.=43. chap. xxiji., and ends chap. xxv. ver. 18.

The PERAKIM, or modern division of chapters, are The sixth, called nisin toledoth, begins chap. xxv. fifty; the symbol of which is 75 lecha, Isa. xxxii. 2 : ver. 19, and ends chap. xxviii. ver. 9.

We have waited FOR THEE. Where lamed stands for .' The sevENTH, called XX" vaiyetse; begins chap. 30, and caph 7 for 20.=50.xxviii. ver. 10, and ends chap. xxxii. ver. 3.

The open sections are 43, the close sections 48; 'The EIGHTH, called ho'i vaiyishlach, begins chap. total 91 : the numerical sign of which is x3 tse, get xxxii. ver. 4, and ends chap. xxxvi.

THEE OUT, Exod. xi. 8, where tsaddi x stands for 90, The NINTH, called pui vaiyesheb, begins chap. and aleph N for 1.=91, Xxxvii., and ends chap. xl.

The number of letters is, about 52,740 ; but this The TENTH, called ypa mikkets

, begins chap. xli., last is more a matter of .conjecture and computation and ends chap. xliv. ver. 17.

than of certainty, and on it no dependence can safely The ELEVENTH, called a'i vaiyiggash, begins chap. be placed, it being a mere' multiplication by twelve, the xliv. ver. 18, and ends chap. xlvii. ver. 27,

number of sections, of 4395, the known number of The Twelft#, called 'n' vayechi, begins chap. xlvii. letters in the last or twelfth section of the book. On ver. 28, and ends chap. I.

this subject see Buxtorf's Tiberias, p. 181.

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