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B. C. 1531.

B. C. cir. 1500.

Moses marries Zipporah.

CHAP. II. God hears the cry of his people. A. M. 2473. 20 And he said unto his daugh- time, that the king of Egypt A. M. cir. 2504.

ters, And where is he? why is it died : and the children of Israel that ye have left the man? call him, that he sighed by reason of the bondage, and they may "eat bread.

cried, and their cry came up unto God by 21 And Moses was content to dwell with reason of the bondage. the man: and he gave Moses ·Zipporah his 24 And God heard their groaning, and God daughter.

d remembered his covenant with Abraham, 22 And she bare him a son, and he called with Isaac, and with Jacob. his name

w Gershom : * for he said, I have 25 And God flooked upon the children been ' a stranger in a strange land.

of Israel, and God had respect

respect unto 23 And it came to pass '? in process of them.

Gen. xxxi. 54; xlii. 25. - Chapter iv. 25; xviii. 2. Gen. xviji. 20; chap. iii. 9; xxii. 23, 27; Deut. xxiv. 15;

That is, a stranger here. - Chap. xviii. 3.- Acts vii. 29; James v. 4.- - Chap, vi. 5, 54 Chap, vi. 5; Psa, cy. 8, 42; Heb. xi. 13, 14. — Chap. vii. 7 ; Acts vii. 30. - Num. xx. cvi. 45. Le Gen. xv. 14; xlvi. 4. - Ch. iv. 31; 1 Sam. i. 11; 16; Deut. xxvi. 7; Psa. xii. 5.

2 Sam. xvi. 12; Luke i. 25. Heb. knew.- h Chap. iii. 7.

in Judges iv. 11, Hobab; and in Judges i. 16 he was in many days from these that the king, &c. It is called 'p Keyni, which in chap. iv. we translate has already been remarked that Arehbishop Usher Kenite. Some suppose that Re-u-el was father to supposes this king to have been Ramesses Miamun, Hobab, who was also called Jethro. This is the most who was succeeded by his son Amenophis, who was likely; see the note on chap. iii. 1.'

drowned in the Red Sea when pursuing the Israelites, Verse 20. That he may eat bread.] That he may but Abul Farajius says it was Amunfathis, (Amenobe entertained, and receive refreshment to proceed on phis,) he who made the cruel edict against the Hebrew his journey. Bread, among the Hebrews, was used to children. signify all kinds of food commonly used for the support Some suppose that Moses wrote the book of Job of man's life.

during the time he sojourned in Midian, and also the Verse 21. Zipporah his daughter.] Abul Farajius book of Genesis. See the preface to the book of Job, calls her “ Saphura the black, daughter of Rewel the where this subject is considered. Midianite, the son of Dedan, the son of Abraham by Sighed by reason of the bondage] For the nature of his wife Keturah.” The Targum calls her the grand their bondage, see on chap. i. 14. daughter of Reuel. It appears that Moses obtained Verse 24. God remembered his covenant] God's Zipporah something in the same way that Jacob ob- covenant is God's engagement; he had promised to tained Rachel; namely, for the performance of certain Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, to give their posterity services, probably keeping of sheep; see chap. iii. 1. a land flowing with milk and honey, &c. They are

Verse 22. Called his name Gershom] Literally, a now under the most oppressive bondage, and this was stranger; the reason of which Moses immediately, the most proper time for God to show them his mercy adds, for I have been an alien in a strange land, and power in fulfilling his promise. This is all that is

The Vulgate, the Septuagint, as it stands in the meant by God's remembering his covenant, for it was Complutensian Polyglot, and in several MSS., the Sy- now that he began to give it its effect. riae, the Coptic, and the Arabic, add the following Verse 25. And God had respect unto them.] . yte words to this verse: And the name of the second he dhe vaiyeda Elohim, God knew them, i. e., he apcalled Eliezer, for the God of my father has been my proved of them, and therefore it is said that their cry help, and delivered me from the hand of Pharaoh. came up before God, and he heard their groaning. The These words are found in chap. lii. 4, but they are word yn' yada, to know, in the Hebrew Bible, as well certainly necessary here, for it is very likely that these as yırworw in the Greek Testament, is frequently used two sons were born within a short space of each in the sense of approving; and because God knewm other; for in chap. iv. 20 it is said, Moses took his had respect for and approved of, them, therefore he was wife and his sons, by which it is plain that he had determined to deliver them. For d'obs Elohim, GOD, both Gershom and Eliezer at that time. Houbigant in the last clause of this verse, Houbigant reads on 58 introduces this addition in his Latin version, and con- aleyhem, UPON THEM, which is countenanced by the tends that this is its most proper place. Notwith-| Vulgate, Septuagint, Chaldee, Coptic, and Arabic, and standing the authority of the, above versions, the appears to have been the original reading. The difclause is found in no 'copy, printed or MS., of the He- ference in the original consists in the interchange of brew text.

two letters, the 'yod and a he, Our translators inVerse 23. In process of timethe king of Egypt sert unto them, in order to make up that sense which died] According to St. Stephen, (Acts vii. 30, com- this various reading gives without trouble. pared with Exod. vii. 7,) the death of the Egyptian king happened about forty years after the escape of The farther we proceed in the sacred writings, the Moses to Midian. The words on D3777 D'DI 79 more the history both of the grace and providence of rayehi baiyamim harabbim hahem, which we translate God opens to our view. He ever cares for his creaAnd it came to pass in process of time, signify, And it tures, and is mindful of his promise. The very means

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Moses keeps the flock of

EXODUS.

Jethro at Mount Horeb. made use of to destroy his work are, in his hands, the were employed in the most laborious offices. Kings' instruments of its accomplishment.' Pharaoh orders daughters performed the office of the laundress to their the male children of the Hebrews to be thrown into own families; and the daughters of princes tended and the river ;' Moses, who was thus exposed, is found by watered the flocks. We have seen similar instances his own daughter, brought up as her own son, and from in the case of Rebekah and Rachel ; and we cannot hís Egyptian education becomes much better qualified be too pointed in calling the attention of modern delifor the great work to which God had called him; and cate females, who are not only above serving their own his being obliged to leave Egypt was undoubtedly a parents and family, but éven their own selves : the conpowerful means to wean his heart from a land in which sequence of which is, they have neither vigour nor he had at his command all the advantages and luxuries health ;' their growth, for want of healthy exercise, is of life. His sojourning also in a strange land, where generally cramped ; their natural powers are premahe was obliged to earn his bread by a very painful em- turely developed, and their whole course is rather an ployment, fitted himn for the perilous journey he was apology for living, than a state of effective life. Many obliged to take in the wilderness, and enabled him to of these live not out half their days, and their offspring, bear the better the privations to which he was in con- when they have any, is more feeble than themselves; sequence exposed.

so that the race of man where such preposterous conThe bondage of the Israelites was also' wisely per- duct is followed (and where is it not followed ?) is in mitted, that they might with less reluctance leave a a state of gradual deterioration. Parents who wish country where they had suffered the greatest oppres- to fulfil the intention of God and nature, will doubtless sion and indignities. Had they not suffered severely see it their duty to bring up their children on a different previously to their departure, there is much reason to plan. A worse than the present can scarcely be found believe that no inducements could have been sufficient out. to have prevailed on them to leave it. And yet their Afflictions, under the direction of God's providence leaving it was of infinite consequence, in the order both and the influence of his grace, are often the means of of grace and providence, as it was indispensably ne- leading men to pray to and acknowledge God, who in cessary that they should be a people separated from all the time of their prosperity hardened their necks from the rest of the world, that they might see the promises his fear. When the Israelites were sorely oppressed, of God fulfilled under their own eyes, and thus have they began to pray. If the cry of oppression had not the fullest persuasion that their law was Divine, their been among them, probably the cry for mercy had not prophets inspired by the Most High, and that the Mes- been heard. Though afflictions, considered in themsiah came according to the prophecies before delivered selves, can neither alone for sin nor improve the moral concerning him.

state of the soul, yet God often uses them as means to From the example of Pharaoh's daughter, (see note bring sinners to himself, and to quicken those who, ver. 4,) and the seven daughters of Jethro, (ver: 16,) having already escaped the pollutions of the world, were we learn that in the days of primitive simplicity, and falling again under the influence of an earthly mind. in this respect the best days, the children, particularly. Of many millions besides David it may truly be said, the daughters of persons in the highest ranks' in life, . Before they were afflicted they went astray.

CHAPTER III:

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Moses keeping the flock of Jethro at Mount Horeb, the angel of the Lord appears to him in a burning bush,

1, 2. Astonished at the sight, he turns aside to examine it, 3, when God' speaks to him out of the fire, and declares himself to be the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, 4-6; announces his purpose of delivering the Israelites from their oppression, and of bringing them into the promised land, 7–9; commissions him to go to: Pharaoh, and to be leader of the children of Israel from Egypt, 10. Moses excuses himself, 11 ; and God, to encourage hin, promises him his protection, 12. Moses doubts iehether the Israelites will credit him, 13, and God reveals to him his Name, and informs him what he is to say to the people,

14-17, and instructs him and the elders of Israel to apply unto Pharaoh for permission to go three days' . journey into the wilderness, to sacrifice unto the Lord, 18 ; foretells the obstinacy of the Egyptian king,

and the miracles which he himself should work in the sight of the Egyptians, 19, 20; and promises that, on the departure of the Israelites, the Egyptians should be induced to furnish them with all necessaries for

their journey, 21, 22. 8. M.: 2592 NOW. Moseş kept the flock of backside of the desert, and came 4.2: 2:13:

Jethro his father-in-law, the to b the mountain - of God, even priest of Midian : and he led the flock to the to Horeb.

a

Chap. ii. 16.

b Chap. xviii. 5; 1 Kings xix. 8.

are not agreed on the signification of the word' yon Verse 1. Jethro his father-in-law] Concerning chothen, which we translate father-in-law, and which Jethro, see the note on chap. ii. 18. Learned men in Gen, xix. 14, we translate son-in-law. It seems to

NOTES ON CHAP. III."

A. M. 2513.
B. C. 1491.

B. C. 1491.

The angel appears to Moses,

CHAP. HI.

s out of the burning bush. 2 And the angel of the LORD ap- and see this d great sight, why the A. M. 2513.

peared unto him in a flame of fire, bush is not burned. out of the midst of a bush : and he looked, 4 And when the Lord saw that he turned and, behold, the bush burned with fire, and aside to see, God called unto hiin out of the the bush was not consumed.

midst of the bush, and said, Moses, Moses. 3 And Moses said, I will now turn aside, And he said, Here am I.

• Deut. xxxiii. 16; Isa. lxii. 9 ; Acts vii. 30.

& Psa. cxi. 2; Acts vii. 31.---- Deut. xixi. 16.

verses:

be a general term for a relative by marriage, and the formation on this subject in his Zend Avesla. The connection only in which it stands can determine its modern Parsees call fire the offspring of Ormusd, and precise meaning. It is very possible that Reuel was worship it with a vast variety of ceremonies. now dead, it being forty years since Moses came to Among the fragments attributed to Æschylus, and Midian ; that Jethro was his son, and had succeeded collected by Stanley in his invaluable edition of this him in his office of prince and priest of Midian ; that poet, p. 647, col. 1, we find the following beautiful Zipporah was the sister of Jethro ; and that consequently the word point choihen should be translated

Χωριζε θνητων τον θεον, και μη δοκει brother-in-law in this place : as we learn from Gen.

"Ομοιον αυτω σαρκινον καθεσταναι. xxxiv. 9, Deut. vii. 3, Josh. xxix. 12, and other places, Ουκ οισθα δ' αυτον ποτε μεν ως πυρ φαινεται that it simply signifies to contract affinity by marriage. Απλάστον όρμη" ποτε δ' ύδωρ, ποτε δε γνoφος. If this conjecture be right, we may well suppose that,

“Distinguish God from mortal men; and do not Reuel being dead, Moses was continued by his brother-: in-law Jethro in the same employment he had under knowest him not : sometimes indeed he appears as a

suppose that any thing fleshly is like unto him. Thou his father. Mountain of God] Sometimes named Horeb, at sometimes as thick darkness.” The poet proceeds :

formless and impetuous Fire, sometimes as water, other times Sinai. The mountain itself had two peaks ; one was called Horeb, the other Sinai.

Horeb was

Τρεμει δ' ορη, και γαια, και πελωριος probably the primitive name of the mountain, which

Βυθός θαλασσης, κωρεων υψος μεγα, was afterwards called the mountain of God, because “Όταν επιβλεψη γοργον ομμα δεσποτου. God appeared upon it to Moses; and Mount Sinai, '30, “ The mountains, the earth, the deep and extensive froor 39. seneh, a bush, because it was in a bush or sea, and the summits of the highest mountains tremble bramble, in a flame of fire, that this appearance was whenever the terrible eye of the Supreme Lord looks made.

down upon them.” Verse 2. The angel of the Lord] Not a created These are very remarkable fragments, and seem all angel certainly; for he is called in Jehovah, ver. 4, to be collected from traditions relative to the different &c., and has the most expressive attributes of the manifestations of God to the Israelites in- Egypt, and Godhead applied to him, ver. 14, &c. Yet he is an in the wilderness. Moses wished to see God, but he angel, yeso malach, a messenger, in whom was the could behold nothing but an indescribable glory : noname of God, chap. xxiii. 21; and in whom dwelt all thing like mortals, nothing like a human body, appear. the fulness of the Godhead bodily, Col. ii. 9; and who, ed at any time to his eye, or to those of the Israelites. in all these primitive times, was the Messenger of the “ Ye saw no manner of similitude,” said Moses, “ covenant, Mal. iii. 1. And-who was this but Jesus, the day that the Lord spake unto you in Horeb, out the Leader, Redeemer, and Saviour of mankind ? See of the midst of the FIRE," Deut. iv. 15. · But somethe note on Gen. xvi. 7..

times the Divine power and justice were manifested • A flame of fire, out of the midst of a bush) Fire was, by the indescribable, formless, impetuous, consuming not only among the Hebrews but also among many flame ; at other times he appeared by the water which other ancient nations, á very significant emblem of the he brought out of the flinty rock; and in the thick Deity. God accompanied the Israelites in all their darkness on Horeb, when the fiery law proceeded from journeyings through the wilderness as a pillar of fire his right hand, then the earth quaked and the mountain by night ; and probably a fire or flame in the holy of trembled ; and when his terrible eye looked out upon holies, between the cherubim, was the general symbol the Egyptians through the pillar of cloud and fire, of his presence ; and traditions of these things, which their chariot wheels were struck off, and confusion and must have been current in the east, have probably given dismay were spread through all the hosts of Pharaoh ; birth, not only to the pretty general opinion that God Exod. xiv. 24, 25. appears in the likeness of fire, but to the whole of the And the bush was not consumed.] · 1. An emblem Zoroastrian system of fire-worship. It has been re- of the state of Israel in its various distresses and perported of Zoroaster, or Zeradusht, that having retired secutions : it was in the fire of adversity, but was not to a mountain for the study of wisdom, and the benefit consumed. 2. An emblem also of the state of the of solitude, the whole mountain was one day enveloped Church of God in the wilderness, in persecutions often, with flame, out of the midst of which he came with in the midst of its enemies, in the region of the shadow out receiving any injury; on which he offered sacrifices of death-yet not consumed. 3. An emblem also of to God, who, he was persuaded, had then appeared to the state of every follower of Christ : cast down, but him. M. Anquetil du Perron gives much curious in-' not forsaken ; grievously tempted, but not destroyed ;

on

God converses with Moses,

EXODUS.

and makes known his purpose. A.M. 2513. 5 And he said, Draw not nigh and i have heard their cry k by rea- A. M. 2513. B. C. 1491.

B. C. 1491. hither: (put off thy shoes from son of their task-masters; for ! I. off thy feet, for the place whereon thou standest know their sorrows; is holy ground.

8 And m I am come down to deliver them 6 Moreover he said, sI am the God of thy out of the hand of the Egyptians, and to bring father, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, them up out of that land unto a good land and the God of Jacob. And Moses hid his and a large, unto a land flowing with milk face ; for h he was afraid to look upon God. and honey ; unto the place of the Canaanites,

9 And the LORD said, I have surely seen and the Hitites, and the Amorites, and the the affliction of my people which are in Egypt, Perizzites, and the Hivites, and the Jebusites.

"Chap. xix. 12; Josh. v. 15; Acts vii. 33. - Gen. xxviii. 13; Gen. xviii. 21; ch. ii. 25. m Gen. xi. 5, 7; xvii. 21 ; 1. 24. ver. 15; chap. iv.5; Matt. xxii. 32; Mark xii. 26; Luke xx. 37; * Ch. vi. 6, 8; xii. 51. Deut. i. 25; viii. 7, 8, 9.—p Ver. Acts vii. 32. -So 1 Kings xix. 13; :Isa. vi. 1,5; Neh. ix. 9; 17; chap. xiii. 5 ; xxxiii. 3; Num. xiii. 27 ;-Deut. xxvi. 9, 15; Psa. cvị. 44; Acts vii. 34. i Ch. ii. 23, 24. k Chap. i. 11. Jer. xi. 5 ; xxxii. 22 ; Ezek. xx. 6:- -9 Gen. x. 18.

walking through the fire, but still unconsumed! Why their shoes at the door. It would be a great affrent are all these preserved in the midst of those things not to attend to this mark of respect when visiting ; which have a natural tendency to destroy them ? Be- and to enter a temple without pulling off the shoes cause God is IN THE MIDST OF THEM; it was this that would be an unpardonable-offence."---Ward. preserved the bush from destruction; and it was this The place whereon thou standesi is holy ground.] It that preserved the Israelites ; and it is this, and this was now particularly sanctified by the Divine prealone, that preserves the Church, and holds the soul sence; but if we may credit Josephus, a general opiof every genuine believer in the spiritual life. He in nion had prevailed that God dwelt on that mountain ; whose heart Christ dwells not by faith, will soon be and bence the shepherds, considering it as sacred consumed by the world, the flesh; and the devil. ground, did not dare to feed their flocks there. Moses,

Verse 5. Put off thy shoesIt is likely that from however, finding the soil to be rich and the pasturage this circumstance all the eastern nations have agreed good, boldly drove his flock thither to feed on it. to perform all the acts of their religious worship bare- Antiq., b. ii., c. xii., s. I. footed. All the Mohammedans, Brahmins, and Par. Verse 6. I am the God of thy father] Though the sees do so -still. The Jews were remarked for this in word '3x abi, father, is here used in the singular, St. the time of Juvenal ; .hence he speaks of their per- Stephen, quoting this place, Acts vii. 32, uses the forming their sacred rites barefooted ; Sat. vi., ver.158: plural, o Deus TWD Tatepuv qov, The God of thy Observant ubi festa mero pede sabbatà reges.

FATHERS ; and that this is the meaning the following

words prove: The God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, The ancient Greeks did the same. Jamblichus, in the and the God of Jacob. These were the fathers of life of Pythagoras, tells us that this was one of his Moses in a direct line. This reading is confirmed by maxims, AvvhodnToc -Ove kai TPOOKUVEL, Offer sacrifice the Samaritan and by the Coptic. Abraham was the and worship with your shoes off. And Solinus asserts father of the Ishmaelites, and with him was the covethat no person was permitted to enter into the templenant first made. ISAAC was the father of the Edomof Diana, in Crete, till he had taken off his shoes. Sites as well as the Israelites, and with him was the Ædem Numinis (Diana) præterquam nudus vestigio covenant renewed. JACOB was the father of the nullus licito ingreditur.” Tertullian observes, de je- twelve patriarchs, who were founders of the Jewish junio, that in a time of drought the worshippers of nation, and to him were the promises particularly conJupiter deprecated his 'wrath, and prayed for rain,firmed. Hence we see that the Arabs and Turks in walking barefooted. “Cum stupet cælum, ēt are general, who are descendants of Ishmael ; the Edomannus, nudipedalia, denunciantur.” It is probable that ites, now absorbed among the Jews, (see the vote on diyya nealim, in the text, signifies sandals, translated Gen. xxy. 23,) who are the descendants of Esar ; by the Chaldee 5730 sandal, and x6700 sandala, (see and the Jewish people, wheresoever scattered, who Gen. xiv. 23,) which was the same as the Roman so- are the descendants of Jacob, are all heirs of the prolea, a sole alone, strapped about the foot. As this sole mises included in this primitive covenant ; and their must let in dust, gravel, and sand about the foot in gathering in with the fulness of the Gentiles may be travelling, and render it very uneasy, hence the cus. confidently expected. tom of frequently washing the feet in those countries And Moses hid his face] For similar acts, see the where these sandals were worn. Pulling off the shoes passages referred to in the margin. He was afraid to was, therefore, an emblem of laying aside the pollu- look--he was overawed by God's présence, and daztions contracted by walking in the way of sin.. Let zled with the splendour of the appearance. those who name the Lord Jesus Christ depart from Verse 7. I have surely seen] 1287 78Traoh raithi, iniquity. In our western countries reverence is ex- seeing, I have seen—I have not only seen the afflicpressed by pulling off the hat; but how much more tions of this people because I am omniscient, but I have significant is the eastern custom! “The natives of considered their sorrows, and my eye affects my heari. Bengal never go into their own houses with their shoes Verse 8. And I am come down to deliver them) on, nor into the houses of others, but always leave This is the very purpose for which I am now come

B. C. 1491.

God commissions Moses

CHAP. III.

to go to Pharaoh. A. M. 2513. 9 Now therefore, . behold, - the should bring forth the children of A. M. 2513. B. C. 1491.

cry of the children of Israel is Israel out of Egypt? come unto me: and I have also seen the 12 And he said, 'Certainly I will be with

oppression wherewith the Egyptians oppress thee; and this shall be a token unto thee that them.

I have sent thee: When thou hast brought 10 Come now therefore, and I will send forth the people out of Egypt, ye shall serve thee unto Pharaoh, that thou mayest bring God upon this mountain. forth my people the children of Israel out of 13 And Moses said unto God, Behold, when Egypt.

I come unto the children of Israel, and shall 11 And Moses said unto God, • Who am I, say unto them, The God of your fathers hath that I should go unto Pharaoh, and that I sent me unto you; and they shall say to me,

Chap. ü. 23.—- Chap. i. 11, 13, 14, 22.

—Psa. cv. 26; Jer. i. 6. - Genesis xxxi. 3; Deut. xxxi. 23; Josh. i. 5; Mic. vi. 4.- See chap. vi. 12; 1 Sam. xviii. 18; Isa. vi. 5,8; Rom. viii. 31,

down upon this mountain, and for which I manifest Verse 12. Certainly I will be with thee] Thia myself to thee.

great event shall not be left to thy wisdom and to thy Large-land] Canaan, when compared with the power ; my counsel shall direct thee, and my power small tract of Goshen, in which they were now situat- shall bring all these mighty things to pass. ed, and where, we learn, from chap. i. 7, they were And this shall be a token) · Literally, And this to straitened for room, might be well called a large land. thee for a sign, i. e.; this miraculous månifestation of See a fine description of this land Deut. viii. 7. the burning bush shall be a proof that I have sent

A land flowing with milk and honey) Excellent for. thee; or, My being with thee, to encourage thy heart, pasturage, because abounding in the most wholesome strengthen thy hands, and enable thee to work miraherbage and flowers; and from the latter an abundance cles, shall be to thyself and to others the evidence of of wild honey was collected by the bees. Though cul- thy Divine mission. tivation is now almost entirely neglected in this land, Ye shall serve God upon this mountain.] This was becatise of the badness of the government and the not the sign, but God shows him, that in their return scantiness of the inhabitants, yet it is still good for from Egypt they should take this mountain in their pasturage, and yields an abundance of honey." The way, and should worship him in this place. There terms used in the text to express the fertility of this may be a prophetic allusion here to the giving of the land, are commonly used by ancient authors on similar law on Mount Sinai. As Moses received his comsubjects. It is a metaphor taken from a breast pro-mands here, so likewise should the Israelites receive ducing copious streams of milk. Homer calls Argos theirs in the same place. After all, the Divine Being ovhap apovpns, the breast of the country, as affording seems to testify a partial predilection for this mounstreams of milk and honey, Il. ix., ver. 141. Șo Virgil :- tain, for reasons that are not expressed. · See the Prima tulit tellus, eadem vos ubere lato

note on ver. 5. Accipiet." Æn., lib. iii., ver. 95.

Verse 13. They shall sayWhat is his name?) « The land that first produced you shall receive you

Does not this suppose that the Israelites had an idolaagain into its joyous bosom."

trous notion even of the Supreme Being ? They had The poets feign that Bacchus, the fable of whom and had gods many and lordș many; and Moses con

probably drank deep into the Egyptian superstitions, they have taken from the history of Moses, produced jectured that, hearing of a supernatural deliverance, rivers of milk and honey, of water and wine :

they would inquire who that "God was by whom it was Ρει δε γαλάκτι πεδoν, ,

to be effected. The reasons given here by the rabΡει δ' οινω, ρει δε μελισσαν

bins are too refined for the Israelites at this time. Nextapi.. EURIP. Bacch., Enod., ver. 8.

" When God,” say they, "judgeth his creatures, he is « The land flows with milk; it flows also with wine ; called o'n bx Elohim ; when he warręth against the it flows also with the nectar of bees, (honey.)” This wicked, he is called ninay T'sebaoth; but when he seems to be a mere poetical copy from the Pentateuch, showeth mercy unto the world, he is called 717 Yewhere the sameness of the metaphor -and the corre- hovah.It is not likely that the Israelites had much spondence of the descriptions are obvious.

knowledge of God'or of his ways at the time to which Place of the Canaanites, fc.) See Gen, xv. 18, &c. the sacred text refers ; it is certain they had no writ

Verse 11. Who am Ithat I should bring] He ten word. The book of Genesis, if even written, (for was so satisfied that this was beyond his power, and some suppose it had been composed by Moses during all the means that he possessed, that he is astonished his residence in Midian,) had not yet been communithat even God himself should appoint hím, to this cated to the people; and being so long without any work! Such indeed was the bondage of the children revelation, and perhaps without even the form of Diof Israel, and the power of the people by whom they vine worship, their minds being degraded by the state were enslaved, that had 'not their deliverance come of bondage in which they had been so long held, and through supernatural means, their escape had been seeing and hearing little in religion but the superstiutterly impossible,

tions of those among whom they sojourned, they could

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