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Ver.

Genealogy of Moses and Aaron CHAP. VI.

from the line of Abraham. A M. 2513. 17 y The of Gershon; and slie bare him Nadab, and A. M. 2513. B. C. 1494.

Libni, and Shimi, according to their Abihu, Eleazar, and Ithamar. families.

24 And the sons of Korah; Assir, and 18 And 2 the sons of Kohath ; Amram, and Elkanah, and Abiasaph : these are the families Izhar, and Hebron, and Uzziel: and the years of the Korhites. of the life of Kohath were a hundred thirty 25 And Eleazar, Aaron's son, took him one and three years.

of the daughters of Putiel to wife; and. h she 19 And a the sons of Merari ; Mahali and bare him Phinehas : these are the heads of Mushi : these are the families of Levi accord- the fathers of the Levites according to their ing to their generations.

familics. 20 And Amram took him Jochebed his fa- 26 These are that Aaron and Moses, i to ther's sister to wife;' and she bare him Aaron whom the Lord said, Bring out the children and Moses : and the years of the life of Am- of Israel from the land of Egypt according to ram were a hundred and thirty and seven years. their * armies.

21 And the sons of Izhar; Korah, and 27 These are they which I spake to PhaNepheg, and Zichri.

raoh, king of Egypt, m to bring out the children 22 And a the sons of Uzziel; Mishael, and of Israel from Egypt: these are that Moses Elzaphan, and Sithri.

and Aaron. 23 And Aaron took him Elisheba, daughter 28 And it came to pass on the day when the of • Amminadab, sister of Naashon, to wife; Lord spake unto Moses in the land of Egypt,

y 1 Chron. vi. 17; xxiii. 7.2 Num. xxvi. 57; I Chron. vi. "Lev. x. 1; Num. iii. 2; xxvi. 60 : Chron. vi. 3 ; xxiv. 1. 2, 18.- Chron. vi. 19; xxiii. 21. — Chap. ii. 1,2; Num. Num. xxvi. 11.- h Num. xxv. 7,11; Josh. xxiv. 33. xxvi. 59.-Num. xvi. 1; 1 Chron. vi. 37, 38. -4 Lev. x. 4; 13.- -- Chap. vii. 4 ; xii. 17, 51; Num. xxxii. 1. Chap. v. Num. ii. 30. - Ruth iv. 19, 20; 1 Chron. ii. 10; Matt. i. 4. 1,3; vii. 10,- m Ver. 13; ch. xxxii. 7; xxxii. l; Psa. Ixxvii. 20. survived twenty-seven years, though he was much the Verse 21. Korah] Though he became a rebel elder brother. By the common computation this would against God and Moses, (see Num. xvi. 1, &c.,) yet be twenty-three years : by Kennicott's computation at Moses, in his great impartiality, inserts his name among the end of Gen. xxxi., Levi's birth is placed twenty- those of his other progenitors. four years before that of Joseph ; his death, therefore, Verse 22. Uzziel] He is called Aaron's uncle, would be only three years later. But this is not the Lev. x. 4. only difficulty in ancient chronologies. Kohath, the Verse 23. Elisheba] The oath of the Lord. It is second son of Levi, according to Archbishop Usher the same name as Elizabeth, so very common among was thirty years old when Jacob came into Egypt, and Christians. She was of the royal tribe of Judáh, and lived there one hundred and three years. He attained was sister to. Nahshon, one of the princes; see Num. to nearly the same age with Levi, to one hundred and ii. 3. thirty-three years; and his son Amram, the father of Eleazar] He succeeded to the high priesthood on Moses, lived to the same age with Levi. We may the death of his father Aaron, Num. xx. 25, &c. observe here how the Divine promise, Gen. xv. 16, Verse 23. Phinehas) of the celebrated act of this of delivering the Israelites out of Egypt in the fourth person, and the most honourable grant made to him and generation was verified ; for Moses was the son of his posterity, see Num. xxv. 7-13. Amram, the son of Kohath, the son of Levi, the son Verse 26. According to their armies.] DINIY tsiof Jacob." -DODD.

botham, their battalionsregularly arranged troops. Verse 20. His father's sister] 1977 dodatho. The As God had these particularly under his care and true meaning of this word is uncertain. Parkhurst direction, he had the name of MIXIY 0717 Yehovah observes that 717 dod signifies an uncle in 1 Sam. x. isebaoth, Lord of hosts or armies. 14; Lev. X. 4, and frequently elsewhere. It signifies “The plain and disinterested manner,” says Dr. also an uncle's son, a cousin-german: compare Jer. Dodd, “ in which Moses speaks here of his relations, xxxii. 8 with ver. 12, where the Vulgate renders 177 and the impartiality wherewith he inserts in the list dodi by patruelis mei, my paternal cousin ; and in of them such as were afterwards severely punished Amos vi. 10, for 1717 dodo, the Targum has nis'np by the Lord, are striking proofs of his modesty and karibiah, his near relation. So the Vulgate, propin- sincerity. He inserts the genealogy of Reuben and quus ejus, his relative, and the Septuagint, oi oikeLOL Simeon, because they were of the same mother with Avtov, those of their household. The best critics sup- Levi; and though he says nothing of himself, yet he pose that Jochebed was the cousin-german of Amram, relates particularly what concerns Aaron, ver. 23, who and not his aunt. See ehap: ii. 1.

married into an 'honourable family, the sister of a Bare him Aaron and Moses] The Samaritan, Sep- prince of the tribe of Judah.” tuagint, Syriac, and one Hebrew MS. add, And Mi- Verse 28. And it came to pass] Here the seventh riam their sister.. Some of the best critics suppose chapter should commence, as there is a complete endthese words to have been originally in the Hebrew text. I ing of the sixth with ver. 27, and the 30th verse of Mission of Moses and Aaron.

EXODUS. Obstinacy of Pharaoh foretold. 29 That the LORD spake unto 30 And Moses said before the A. M. 2513.

Moses, saying, "I am the LORD : Lord, Behold, I am of uncircumo speak thou unto Pharaoh, king of Egypt, all cised lips, and how shall Pharaoh hearken that I say unto thee.

unto me?

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• Ver. 2.-• Ver. 11; chap. vii. 2.

p Ver. 12; chap. iv. 10.

this chapter is intimately connected with the 1st verse counterbalanced by mental defects, and mental imperof the sueceeding.

fections often by personal accomplishments. Thus

the head cannot say to the foot, I have no need of The principal subjects in this chapter have been so thee. And God does all this in great wisdom, to hide amply considered in the notes, that little of importance pride from man, and that no flesh may glory in his remains to be done. On the nature of a covenant presence. To be contented with our formation, endow(see ver. 4) ample information may be obtained by ments, and external circumstances, requires not only referring to Gen. vi. 18, and xv. 9-18, which places much submission to the providence of God, but also the reader will do well to consult.

much of the mind of. Christ. On the other hand, Supposing Moses to have really laboured under should we feel vanity because of some personal or some defect in speech, we may consider it as wisely mental accomplishment, we have only to take a view designed to be a sort of counterbalance to his other of our whole to find sufficient cause of humiliation ; excellences : at least this is an ordinary procedure and after all, the meek and gentle spirit only is, in the of Divine Providence ; personal accomplishments are sight of God, of great price.

CHAPTER VII.

The age

The dignificd mission of Moses and Aaron to Pharaohthe one to be as God, the other as a prophet of the

Most High, 1, 2. The prediction that Pharaoh's heart should be hardened, that God might mulliply his signs and wonders in Egypt, that the inhabitants might know he alone was the true God, 3-6. of Moses and Aaron, 7. God gives them directions how they should act before Pharaoh, 8, 9. Moses turns his rod into a serpent, 10. The magicians imitale this miracle, and Pharaoh's heart is hardened, 11-13. Moses is commanded to wait upon Pharaoh next morning when he should come to the river, and threaten to turn the waters into blood if he did not let the people go, 14-18. The waters in all the land of Egypt are turned into blood, 19, 20.. The fish die, 21. The magicians imitate this, and Pharaoh's heart is again hardened, 22, 23. The Egyptians sorely distressed because of the bloody waters, 24. This plague endures seven days, 25. 4. M3543: AND the Lord said unto Moses, | 4 But Pharaoh shall not hearken 4. M. 2513.

See, I have made thee *a god unto you, that I may lay my hand to Pharaoh : and Aaron thy brother shall be upon Egypt, and bring forth mine armies, and o thy prophet.

my people the children of Israel, out of the 2 Thou shalt speak all that I command land of Egypt, by great judgments. thee : and Aaron thy brother shall speak unto 5 And the Egyptians i shall know that I am Pharaoh, that he send the children of Israel the Lord, when I k stretch forth mine hand qut of his land:

upon Egypt, and bring out the children of 3 And d I will harden Pharaoh's heart, and Israel from among them.. * multiply my ' signs and my wonders in the 6 And Moses and Aaron I did as the LORD land of Egypt.

commanded them, so did they. a Chap. iv. 16; Jer. i. 10. 6 Chap. iv. 16. - Chap. iv. 15. | 8 Chap.x. 1; xi. 9.- Lh Chap, vị. 6. i Ver. 17; chap. viii, 22; Chap. iv. 21.- Le Chap. xi. 9.- Chap. iv. I.

xiv. 4, 18; Psa. ix. 16. — Chap. iii. 20. — Ver. 2. NOTES ON CHAP. VII.

that I may have the greater opportunity to multiply Verse 1. I have made thee a god] At thy word my wonders in the land, that the Egyptians may know every plague shall come, and at thy command each that I only am Jehovah, the self-existent God. See shall be removed. Thus Moses must have appeared on chap. iv. 21.. as a god to Pharaoh.

Verse 5. And bring out the children of Israel] Shall be thy prophet.] Shall receive the word from Pharaoh's obstinacy was either caused or permitted in thy mouth, and communicate it to the Egyptian king, mercy to the Egyptians, that he and his magicians ver. 2.

being suffered to oppose Moses and Aaron to the utVerse 3. I will harden Pharaoh's heart] I will termost of their power, the Israelites might be brought permit his stubbornness and obstinacy still to remain, l out of Egypt in so signal a manner, in spite of all The rod becomes a serpent.

CHÅP. VII.
.

The magicians imitate it. A M. 2513. 7 And Moses was m fourscore

10 And Moses and Aaron went A. M. 2513. B. C. 1491.

B. C. 1191. years old, and Aaron fourscore and in unto Pharaoh, and they did three years old, when they spake unto Pharaoh. so as the LORD had commanded : and Aaron

8 And the LORD spake unto Moses and unto cast down his rod before Pharaoh, and Aaron, saying,

before his servants, and it became à 9 When Pharaoh shall speak unto you, serpent. saying, #Show a miraele for you i then thou 11. Then Pharaoh also called the wise men shalt say unto Aaron, • Take thy rod, and and s the sorcerers : now the magicians of cast it before Pharaoh, and it shall become Egypt, they also did in like manner with a serpent.

their enchantments. Deut. xxix. 5; xxxi. 2; xxxiv. 7; Acts vii, 23, 30. Isa. p Verse 9.- -9 Chap. iv. 3. -r Gen. xli. 8. * 2 Tim. iii. 8. ri. 11; John ii. 18; vi, 30. - Chap, iv. 2, 17.

t Ver. 22; chap. vali. 7, 18.

n

כשפים ;Sorcerers

the opposition of the Egyptians, their king, and their xliv. 19; Isa. xiii. 22 ; xxxiv. 13 ; xxxv. 7 ; xliii. 20; gods, that Jehovah might appear to be All-mighty and Jer. ix. 11, &c., &c.; and also a dragon, serpent, or All-sufficient.

whale, Job vii. 12 ; Psa. xci. 13; Isa. xxvii. 1 ; li. 9 ; Verse 7. Moses was fourscore years old] He was. Jer. li. 34 ; Ezek. xxix. 3 } xxxii. 2; and is termed, in forty years old when he went to Midian, and he had our translation, a sea-rronster, Lam. iv. 3. As it was tarried forty years in Midian ; (see chap. ii. 11, and a rod or staff that was changed into the tannion in the Aets vi. 30 ;) and from this. verse it appears that cases mentioned here, it has been supposed that an Aaron was three years older than Moses. We have ordinary serpent is what is intended by the word, be: already seen that Miriam their sister, was older than cause the size of both might be then pretty nearly either, chap. ii. 4.

equal : but as a miracle was wrought on the occasion, Verse 9. Show a miracle for you] A miracle, nove this circumstance is of no weight; it was as easy for mopheth, signifies an effect produced in nature which God to change the rod into a crocodile, or any other creais opposed to its laws, or such as its powers are inade- ture, as to change it into an adder or common snake. quate to produce. As Moses and Aaron professed to

Verse 11. Pharaoh-called the wise men] 0311 have a Divine mission, and to come to Pharaoh on

chacamim, the men of learning.

; ) the most extraordinary occasion, making a most singu- cashshephim, those who reveal hidden things ; probalar and unprecedented demand, it was natural to sup- bly from the Arabic root LT kashafa, to reveal, pose, if Pharaoh should even give them an audience, uncover, &c., signifying diviners, or those who prethat he would require them to give him some proof by tended to reveal what was in futurity, to discover an extraordinary sign that their pretensions to such a things lost, to find hidden treasures, &c. Magicians, Divine mission were well founded and incontestable: 307 chartummey, decypherers of abstruse writings. For it appears to have ever been the sense of man- See the note on Gen. xli. 8.. kind, that he who has a Divine mission to effect some They also did in like manner with their enchantextraordinary purpose can give a supernatural proof ments.] The word d'unh lahalim, comes from ons that he has got this extraordinary commission. latrat, to burn, to set on fire; and probably signifies

Take thy rod] This rod, whether a common staff, such incantations as required lustral fires, sacrifices, an ensign of office, or a shepherd's crook, was now fumigations, burning of incense, aromatic and odoriconsecrated for the purpose of working miracles ; and ferous drugs, &c., as the means of evoking departed is indifferently called the rod of God, the rod of Mo- spirits or assistant demons, by whose ministry, it is ses, and the rod of Aaron. God gave it the miracu- probable, the magicians in question wrought some of lous power, and Moses and Aaron used it indifferently their deceptive miracles : for as the term miracle sig.

Verse 10. It became a serpent.) ;tannin. What nifies properly something which exceeds the powers kind of a serpent is here intended, learned men are of nature or art to produce, (see ver. 9,) hence there not agreed. From the manner in which the original could be no miracle in this case but those wrought, word is used in Psa. Ixxiv. 13 ; Isa. xxvii. 1; 11. 9.; through the power of God, by the ministry of Moses Job vii. 12; some very large creature, either aquatic and Aaron. There can be no doubt that real serpents or amphibious, is probably meant; some have thought were produced by the magicians. On this stbject that the crocodile, a well-known Egyptian animal, is there are two opinions: 1st, That the serpents were here intended. In chap. iv. 3 it is said that this rod such as they, either by juggling or sleight of hand, was changed into a serpent, but the original word had brought to the place, and had secreted till the there is und nachąsh, and here j'in tannin, the same time of exhibition, as our common conjurers do in the word which we translate whale, Gen. i. 21.

public fairs, &c. 2dly, That the serpents were brought As und nachash seems to be a term restricted to no by the ministry of a familiar spirit, which, by the one particular meaning, as has already been shown on magic flames already referred to, they had evoked for Gen. iii. ; so the words y'un tannin, o'g'in tanninim, the purpose.

Both these opinions admit the serpents D'in tannim, and nin tannoth, are used to signify dif- to be real, and no illusion of the sight, as some have ferent kinds of animals in the Scriptures. The word supposed. is supposed to signify the jackal in Job xxx. 29; Psa. The first opinion appears. to me insufficient to acVol. I. ( 22 )

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God threatens to turn the

EXODUS:

waters of the river into blooii. A. M. 2513 12 For they cast down every man 16 And thou shalt say unto him, A. M. 2513. B. C. 1491.

his rod, and they became serpents: * The LORD God of the Hebrews but Aaron's rod swallowed up their rods. hath sent me unto thee, saying, Let my people

13 And he hardened Pharaoh's heart, that he go, ý that they may serve me in the wilderhearkened not unto them; u as the LORD ness: and, behold, hitherto thou wouldest had said.

not hear. 14 And the Lord said unto Moses, " Pha- 17 Thus saith the Lord, In this a thou shalt raoh's heart is hardened, he refuseth to let know that I am the Lord: behold, I will the people go.

smite with the rod that is in mine hand upon 15 Get thee unto Pharaoh in the morning; the waters which are in the river, and a they lo, he goeth out unto the water; and thou shall be turned b to blood. shalt stand by the river's brink against he 18 And the fish that is in the river shall die, come ; and w the rod which was turned to a and the river shall stink; and the Egyptians serpent shalt thou take in thine land.

shall c loathe to drink of the water of the river. Chap. iv. 21 ; ver. 4.:-" Chap. viii. 15; x. 1, 20, 27. -w Ch. y Chap. iii. 12, 18; v. 1, 3. z Chap. y. 2 ; ver. 5. Chán. iv, 2, 3; ver. 10. S* Chap. iii, 18.

iv. 9. b Rev. xvi. 4, 6.--- Ver. 24. count for the phenomena of the case referred to. If where persons are determined to think and act after a the magicians' threw down their rods, and they became predetermined plan, arguments, demonstrations, and serpents after they were thrown down, as the text ex- even miracles themselves, are lost on them, as in the pressly says, ver. 12, juggling or sleight of hand had ease of Pharaoh here, and that of the obstinale Jews nothing farther to do in the business, as the rods were in the days of our Lord and his apostles. then out of their hands. IF Aaron's rod swallowed up Verse 15. Lo, he goeth out unto the water] Probatheir rods, their sleight of hand was no longer con- bly for the purpose of bathing, or of performing some cerned. A man, by dexterity' of hand, may so far religious ablution. Some suppose he went out to pay impose on his spectators as to appear to eat a rod; adoration to the river Nile, which was an object of relibut for rods lying on the ground to become serpents, gious worship among the ancient Egyptians.

“ For,” and one of these to devour all the rest so that it alone says Plutarch, De Iside., ovdev oŮtw Tiun ALJUTTIOLS remained, required something more than juggling.us ó Nechos "nothing is in greater honour among How much more rational at once to allow that these the Egyptians than the river Nile.” Some of the magicians had familiar spirits who could assume all ancient Jews supposed that Pharaoh himself was a shapes, change the appearances of the subjects on magician, and that he walked by the river early each which they operated, or suddenly convey one thing morning for the purpose of preparing magical rites, &c. away and substitute another in its place! Nature has Verse 17. Behold, I will smite] Here commences no such power, and art no such influence as to pro- the account of the Ten plagues which were inflicted duce the effects attributed here and in the succeeding on the Egyptians by Moses and Aaron, by the comchapters to the Egyptian magicians.

mand and through the power of God. According to Verse 12. Aaron's rod swallowed up their rods.] Archbishop Usher these ten plagues took place in the As Egypt was remarkably addicted to magic, sorcery, course of one month, and in the following order :&c., it was necessary that God should permit Pha- The first, the waters turned into blood, took place, raoh's wise men to act to the utmost of their skill in he supposes, the 18th day of the sixth month ; ver. 20. order to imitate the work of God, that his superiority The second, the plague of frogs, on the 25th day might be clearly seen, and his powerful working in- of the sixth month; chap. viii. 1. contestably ascertained ; and this was fully done whend The third, the plague of lice, on the 27th day of Aaron's rod swallowed up their rods. We have al- the sixth month; chap. viii. 16. ready seen that the names of two of the chief of these The fourth, grievous swarms of Flies, on the 29th magicians were Jannes and Jambres ; see cháp. ii. 10, day of the sixth month'; chap. viii. 24. and 2 Tim. iii. 8. Many traditions and fables con- The fifth, the grievous MURRAIN, on the 2d day of cerning these may be seen in the eastern writers. the seventh month; chap. ix. 3.

Verse 13. And he hardened Pharaoh's heart] pin" The sixth, the plague of boils and BLAINS, on the oyna vaiyechezak leb Paroh, “ And the heart of 3d day of the seventh month; chap. ix. 10., Pharaoh was hardened," the identical words which in The seventh, the grievous hall, on the 5th day of ver. 22 are thus translated, and which should have the seventh month; chap. ix. 18. been rendered in the same way here, lest the harden- The eighth, the plague of Locusts, on the 8th day ing, which was evidently the effect of his own obsti- of the seventh month; chap. x. 12. nate shutting of his eyes against the truth, should be The ninth, the THICK DARKNESS, on the 10th day of attributed to God. See on chap. iv. 21.

Abib, (April 30,) now become the first month of the JewVerse 14. Pharaoh's heart is hardened] 722 cabed, ish year; chap. x. 22. But see the note on chap. xii. 2. is become heavy or stupid ; he receives no conviction, The tenth, the SLAYING the FIRST-BORN, on the 15th notwithstanding the clearness of the light which shines of Abib;. chap. xii. 29. But most of these dates are We well know the power of prejudice : 1 destitute of proof. 322

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The first plague of Egypt.

CHAP VII.

The waters turned into blood. 19 And the LORD spake unto sight of Pharaoh, and in the sight A. M. 2513.

Moses, Say unto Aaron, Take thy of his servants; and all the & waters rod, and d stretch out thine hand. upon the that were in the river were turned to blood. waters of Egypt, upon their streams, upon 21 And the fish that was in the river died; their rivers, and upon their ponds, and upon and the river stank, and the Egyptians h could all their e pools of water, that they may be- not drink of the water of the river; and tome blood; and that there may be blood there was blood throughout all the land of chroughout all the land of Egypt, both in Egypt. vessels of wood, and in vessels of stone. 22 And the magicians of Egypt did so with

20 And Moses and Aaron did so, as the Lord their enchantments: and Pharaoh's heart was commanded; and he lifted up the rod, and hardened, neither did he hearken unto them; smote the waters that were in the river, in the k as the LORD had said.

« Chap. viii. 5, 6, 16; ix. 22 ; x, 12, 21; xiv. 21, 26.-Heb. cv. 29; Rev. viii. 9.-h Ver. 18.- Ver. 11; chap. viii. 7,8; gathering of their waters. - Chap. xvii. 5.- Psa. lxxviii. 44; Wisd. xvii. 7.— (Prov. xxix. 1; Isa. xxvi. 11; Jer. v. 3; xxxvi. 24.

Verse 18. The Egyplians shall loathe to drink of verse ; loathe to drink of that for which they had been the water]

The force of this expression cannot be accustomed to long, and will rather choose to drink of well felt without taking into consideration the peculiar well water, which in their country is detestable !"pleasantness and great salubrity of the waters of the Observations, vol. iii., p. 564. Nile. “ The water of Egypt," says the Abbe Mas- Verse 19. That there may be bloodboth in vessels crier, “is so delicious, that one would not wish the of wood, and in vessels of stone.) Not only the Nile heat to be less, or to be delivered from the sensation itself was to be thus changed into blood in all its of thirst. The Turks find it so exquisite that they. branches, and the canals issuing from it, but all the excite theinselves to drink of it by eating salt. It is water of lakes, ponds, and reservoirs, was to undergo a common saying among them, that if Mohammed had a similar change. And this was to extend even to the drank of it he would have besought God that he might waler already bronght into their houses for culinary never die, in order to have had this continual gratifi- and other domestic purposes. As the water of the cation. When the Egyptians undertake the pilgrim-, Nile is known to be very thick and muddy, and the age of Mecca, or go out of their country on any other Egyptians are obliged to filter it through pots of a kind account, they speak of nothing but the pleasure they of white earth,' and sometimes through a paste made shall have at their return in drinking of the waters of of almonds, Mr. Harmer supposes that the vessels of the Nile. There is no gratification to be compared to wood and stoné mentioned above may refer to the prothis; it surpasses, in their esteem, that of seeing their cess of filtration, which no doubt has been practised relations and families. All those who have tasted of among them from the remotest period. - The meaning this water allow that they never met with the like in given above I think to be more natural. any other place. When a person drinks of it for the

The first plague.

The waters turned into BLOOD. first tiiné he can scarcely be persuaded that it is not a water prepared by art; for it has something in it in, Verse 20. All the waterswere turned to blood.} expressibly agreeable and pleasing to the taste ; and it Not merely in appearance, but in reality; for these should have the same rank among waters that cham- changed waters became corrupt and insalubrious, so paign has among wines. But its most valuable quality that even the fish that were in the river died; and the is, that it is exceedingly salutary. It never incom- smell became highly offensive, so that the waters could modes, let it be drank in what quantity it may: this is not be drank; ver. 21. so true that it is no uncommon thing to see some per- Verse 22. And the magiciansdid so] But if all sons drink three buckets of it in a day without the the water in Egypt was turned into blood by Moses, least inconvenience! When I pass 'such encomiums where did the magicians get the water which they on the water of Egypt it is right to observe that I changed into blood? This question is answered in speak only of that of the Nile, which indeed is the verse 24. The Egyptians digged round about the only water drinkable, for their well water is detestable river for water to drink, and it seems that the water and unwholesome! · Fountains are so rare that they obtained by this means was not bloody like that in the are a kind of prodigy in that country ; and as to rain river : on this water therefore the magicians might water, that is out of the question, as scarcely any falls operate. Again, though a general commission was in Egypt.”

given to Moses, not only to turn the waters of the river “A person,” says Mr. Harmer, “who never before (Nile) into blood, but also those of their streams, rivers, heard of the deliciousness of the Nile water, and of ponds, and pools; yet it seems pretty clear from verse the large quantities which on that account are drank 20 that he did not proceed thus far, at least in the first of it, will, I am sure, find an energy in those words instance; for it is there stated that only the waters of of Moses to Pharaoh, The Egyptians shall loathe to the river were turned into blood. Afterwards the plague drink of the water of the river, which he never ob- doubtless became general.". At the commencement served before. They will loathe to drink of that water therefore of this plague, the magicians might obtain which they used to prefer to all the waters of the uni- other water to imitate the miracle ; and it would not

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