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Flies come over all the land.

CHAP. VIII.

Pharaoh desires their removal.

B. C. 1491.

B. C. 1491.

to your

sign be.

A. M. 2513. the LORD in the midst of the | Aaron, and said, Go ye, sacrifice A. M. 2513. earth,

God in the land. 23 And I will put ba division between my 26 And Moses said, It is not meet so to do; people and thy people ; ¢ to-morrow shall this for we shall sacrifice the abomination of the

Egyptians to the Lord our God: lo, shall 24 And the LORD.did so : änd d there came we sacrifice the abomination of the Egyptians a grievous swarm of flies into the house of before their eyes, and will they not stone us? Pharaoh, and into his servants' houses, and 27 We will go three days' journey into into all the land of Egypt: the land was the wilderness, and sacrifice to the LORD our corrupted by reason of the swarm of flies. · God, as he shall command-us. 25 And Pharaoh called for Moses and for 28 And Pharaoh said, I will let you go,

e

h

Heb. a redemption. Le Or, by tomorrow. - d Psa. lxxviii. 45; 'Gen. xliii. 32; xlvi. 31; Deut. vii. 25, 26; xii. 31.-Chap. cv. 31; Wisd. xva. 9.- - Or, destroyed

ni. 18. to Chap. iii. 12.

Verse 23. And I will put a division] nga peduth, ferent kinds of animals in order to escape. Jupiter a redemption, between my people and thy people; God hid himself in the body of a ram, Apollo in that of a hereby showing that he had redeemed them from those crow, Bacchus in a goat, Diana in a cat, Juno in a plagues to which he had abandoned the others. white heifer, Venus in a fish, and Mercury in the bird

Verse 24. The land was corrupted] Every thing ibis ; all which are summed up by Ovid in the followwas spoiled, and many of the inhabitants destroyed, ing lines :being probably stung to death by these venomous insects. This seems to be intimated by the psalmist,

Duxque gregis fit Jupiter

Delius in corvo, proles Semeleža capro, " He sent divers sorts of flies among them, which DE

Fele soror Phæbi, nivea Saturnia vacca,
VOURED them,” Psa. lxxviii. 45.
In ancient times, when political, domestic, and per-

*Pisce Venus latuit, Cyllenius ibidis alis.

Metam., 1. v.,

fab. v., l. 328. sonal cleanliness was but little attended to, and offal of different kinds permitted to 'corrupt in the streets

How the gods fled to Egypt's slimy soil, and breed vermin, flies multiplied exceedingly, so that

And hid their heads beneath the banks of Nile ; we read in ancient authors of whole districts being How Typhon from the conquer'd skies pursued laid waste by them; hence different people had deities,

Their routed godheads to the seven-mouth'd food; whose office it was to defend them against flies.

Forced every god, his fury to escape, Among these we may reckon Baalzebub, the fly-god

Some beastly form to take, or earthly shape. of Ekron ; Hercules, muscarum abactor, Hercules, the

Jove, so she sang, was changed into a ram, expeller of flies, of the Romans; the Muagrus of the From whence the horns of Libyan Ammon came; Eleans, whom they invoked against pestilential swarms

Bacchus a goat, Apollo was a crow, of flies; and hence Jupiter, the supreme god of the

Phæbe a cat, the wife of Jove a cow, heathens, had the epithets of Απομνιος and Μυωδης,

Whose hue was whiter than the falling snow; because he was supposed to expel flies, and defend his Mercury, to a nasty ibis turn'd, worshippers against them. See Dodd.

The change obscene, afraid of Typhon mourn'd, Verse 25. Sacrifice to your God in the land.] That

While Venus from a fish protection craves, is, Ye shall not leave Egypt, but I shall cause your

*And once more plunges in her native waves.

MAYNWARING. worship to be tolerated here.

Verse 26. We shall sacrifice the abomination of the These animals therefore became sacred to them on Egyptians] That is, The animals which they hold account of the deities, who; as the fable reports, had sacred, and will not permit to be slain, are those taken refuge in them. • Others suppose that the reason which dur customs require us to sacrifice to our God; why the Egyptians would not sacrifice or kill those and should we do this in Egypt the people would rise creatures was their belief in the doctrine of the mein a mass, and stone us to death. Perhaps few people tempsychosis, or transmigration of souls; for they were more superstitious than the Egyptians. Almost feared lest in killing an animal they should kill a every production of nature was an object of their reli- relative or a friend. This doctrine is still held by the gious worship: the suns moon, planets, stars, the Hindoos. river Nile, animals of all sorts, from the human being Verse 27. And sacrifice to the Lordas he shall to the monkey, dog, cat, and ibis, and even the onions command us.] It is very likely that neither Moses and leeks which grew in their gardens. Jupiter was nor Aaron knew as yet in what manner God would be adored by them under the form of a ram, Apollo under worshipped; and they expected to receive a direct the form of a crow, Bacchus under that of a goat, and revelation from him relative to this subject, when they Jung under that of a heifer. - The reason why the should come into the wilderness. Egyptians worshipped those animals is given by Eu- Verse 28. I will let you go--only ye shall not go sebius, viz., that when the giants made war on the very far away] Pharaoh relented because the hand gods, they were obliged to take refuge in Egypt, and of God was heavy upon him; but he was not willing assume the shapes or disguise themselves under dif- ' to give up his gain. The Israelites were very profit

B. C.

B. C. 1491.

The flies are removed, and

EXODUS.

Pharaoh hardens his neart. A M. 2513. that ye may sacrifice to the LORD 30 And Moses went out from A. M. 2513.

your God in the wilderness ; only Pharaoh, and ' entreated the LORD.
ye
shall not go very

far
away:

i entreat for me. 31 And the LORD did according to the word 29 And Moses said, Behold, I go out from of Moses; and he removed the swarms thee, and I will entreat the Lord that the of flies from Pharaoh, from his servants, swarms of flies may depart from Pharaoh, and from his people ; there remained not from his servants, and from his people, to- one. morrow : but let not Pharaoh k deal deceitfully 32 And Pharaoh m hardened his heart any more in not letting the people go to sa- at this time also, neither would he let the crifice to the Lord.

people go.

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i Ver. 8; chap. ix. 28; 1 Kings xiii. 6.

k Ver. 15.Ver. 12.

um Ver. 15; chap. iv. 21.

able to him ; they were slaves of the state, and their 3. The lice both on man and beast through the hard labour was very productive : hence he professed whole land, and the innumerable swarms of flies, gase a willingness, first to tolerate their religion in the land, such proofs of their reality as to put the truth of these (ver. 25 :) or to permit them to go into the wilderness, miracles out of question for ever. It was necessary so that they went not far away, and would soon return. that this point should be fully proved, that both the How ready is foolish man, when the hand of God Egyptians and Israelites might see the finger of God presses him sore, to compound with his Maker! He in these awful works. will consent to give up some sins, provided God will 4. To superficial observers only do “Moses and the permit him to keep others.

magicians appear to be nearly matched.” The power Entreal for me.] Exactly similar to the case of of God was shown in producing and removing the Simon Magus, who, like Pharaoh, fearin the Divine plagues. In certain cases the magicians imitated the judgments, begged an interest in the prayers of Peter, production of a plague, but they had no power to Acts viii. 24.

remove any. They could not seem to remove the Verse 31. The Lord did according to the word of bloody colour, nor the putrescency from the waters Moses] How powerful is prayer! God permits his through which the fish were destroyed, though they servant to prescribe even the manner and time in could imitate the colour itself; they could not remove which he shall work.

the frogs, the lice, or swarms of flies, though they He removed the swarms] Probably by means of a could iinitate the former and latter; they could by strong wind, which swept them into the sea.

dexterity of, hand or diabolic influence produce serVerse 32. Pharaoh hardened his heart at this time pents, but they could not bring one forward that could also] See ver. 15. This hardening was the mere swallow up the rod of Aaron. In every respect they effect of his self-determining obstinacy. He preferred fall infinitely short of the power and wondersul energy his gain to the will and command of Jehovah, and evidenced in the miracles of Moses and Aaron. The God made his obstinacy the means of showing forth opposition therefore of those men served only as a foil his own power and providence in a supereminent to set off the excellence of that power by which these degree.

messengers of God acted.

5. The courage, constancy, and faith of Moses, are 1. As every false religion proves there is a true worthy of the most serious consideration. Had he one, as a copy, however marred or imperfect, shows not been fully satisfied of the truth and certainty of there was an original from which it was taken, so his Divine mission, he could not have encountered such false miracles prove that there were genuine miracles, a host of difficulties ; had he not been certain of the and that God chooses at particular times, for the most issue, he could not have persevered amidst so many important purposes, to invert the established order of discouraging circumstances; and had he not had a deep nature, and thus prove his omnipotence and universal acquaintance with God, his faith in every trial must agency. That the miracles wrought at this time were have necessarily failed. So strong was this grace in real we have the fullest proof: The waters, for in-him that he could even pledge his Maker to the perstance, were not turned into blood in appearance formance of works concerning which he had not as yet merely, but were really thus ehanged. · Hence the consulted him! He therefore let Pharaoh fix the very people could not drink of them; and as blood in a time on which he would wish to have the plague revery short time, when exposed to the air, becomes moved ; and when this was done, he went to God by putrid, so did the bloody waters; therefore all the fish faith and prayer to obtain this new miracle ; and God that were in the river died.

in the most exact and circumstantial manner fulfilled 2. No human power or ingenuity could produce the word of his servant. such frogs as annoyed the land of Egypt. This also 6. From all this let us learn that there is a God was a real, not an imaginary, plague. Innumerable who worketh in the earth ; that universal nature is un-, multitudes of these animals were produced for the der his control; that he can alter, suspend, counteract, purpose; and the heaps of their dead carcasses, which or invert its general laws whensoever he pleases; and putrefied and infected the land, at once demonstrated that he can save or destroy by the most feeble and the reality of the miracle.

most contemptible instruments. We should therefore

A pestilence among the cattle

CHAP. IX.

of Pharaoh is threatened. deeply reverence his eternal power and Godhead, and and could, not be confounded. Reader, how secure look with respect on every creature he has made, as mayest thou rest if thou hast this God for thy friend ! the meanest of them may, in his hand, become the in. He was the Protector and Friend of the Israelites strument of our salvation or our ruin.

through the blood of that covenant which is the very 7. Let us not imagine that God has so bound him-charter of thy salvation : trust in and pray to him as self to work by general laws, that those destructions Moses did, and then Satan and his angels shall be cannot take place which designate a particular provi- bruised under thy feet, and thou shalt not only be predence. Pharaoh and the Egyptians are confounded, served from every plague, but be crowned with his afflicted, routed, and ruined, while the land of Goshen loving kindness and tender mercy. He is the same and the Israelites are free from every plague ! No to-day that he was yesterday, and shall continue the blood appears in their streams; no frogs, lice, nor flies, same for ever. Hallelujah, the Lord God omnipotent in all their borders! They trusted in the true God, 'reigneth !

CHAPTER IX.

5, 6.

The Lord sends Moses to Pharaoh to inform him that, if he did not let the Israeliles depart, a ilestructive

pestilence should be sent among his cattle, 1-3 ;. while the cattle of the Israelites should be preserved, 4. The neri day this pestilence, which was the fifth plague, is sent, and all the catlle of the Egyptians die,

Though Pharaoh finds that not one of the cattle of the Israelites had died, yet, through hardness, of heart, he refuses to let the people go, 7. Moses and Aaron are commanded to sprinkle handfuls of ashes froin the furnace; that the sixth plague, that of boils and blains, might come on man and beast, 8, 9; which having done, the plague takes place, 10. The magicians cannot stand before this plague, which they · can neither imitate nor remove, 11. Pharaoh's heart is again hardened, 12. God's qwful message to

Pharaoh, with the threat of more severe plagues than before, 13-17. The seventh plague of rain, hail, and fire threatened, 18. The Egyptians commanded to house their cattle that they might not be destroyed, 19. Those who feared the word of the Lord brought home their servants and cattle, and those who did not regard that word left their cattle and servants in the fields, 20, 21.. The storm of hail, thunder, and, lightning takes place, 22–24. It nearly desolates the whole land of Egypt, 25, while the land of Goshen escapes, 26. Pharaoh confesses his sin, and begs an interest in the prayers of Moses and Aaron, 27, 28. Moses promises to intercede for him, and while he promises that the storm shall cease, he foretells the con tinuing obstinacy of both himself and his servants, 29, 30. The flax and barley, being in a state of matut rity, are destroyed by the tempest, 31; while the wheat and the rye, not being grown up, are preserved, 32. Moses obtains a cessation of the storm, 33. Pharaoh and his servants, seeing this, harden their hearts,

and refuse to let the people go, 34, 35. B. : 2513. THEN the Lord 'said untol 2 For if thou brefuse to let them A. M. 2513.

Moses, Go in unto Pharaoh, go, and wilt hold them still, . and tell him, Thus saith the LORD God of

c. the Hebrews, Let my people go, that they thy cattle which is in the field, upon the may serve me.

horses, upon the asses, upon the camels, upon a Chap. viii. 1.- Chap. viii. 2.

Chap. vii. 4.

B. C. 1491.

NOTES ON CHAP. IX.

signifies to be active, brisk, or lively, all which are proVerse 1. The LORD God of the Hebrews] It is very per appellatives of the horse, especially in Arabia and likely that the term Lord, 710' Yehovah, iş used here Egypt. Because of their activity and swiftness they to point out partieularly his eternal power and God were sacrificed and dedicated to the sun, and perhaps head; and that the term God, ohx Elohey, is intended it was principally on this account that God prohibited to be understood in the sense of Supporter, Defender, the use of them among the Israelites. Protector, &c. Thus saith the self-existent, omnipo- A very grievous murrain.] The murrain is a very tent, and eternal Being, the Supporter and Defender contagious disease among cattle, the symptoms of which of the Hebrews, “ Let my people go, that they may are a hanging down and swelling of the head, abunworship me."

dance of gum in the eyes, rattling in the throat, diffi

culty of breathing, palpitation of the heart, staggering, The fifth plaguethe MURRAIN.

a hot breath, and a shining tongue; which symptoms Verse 3. The hand of the Lord] The power of God prove that a general inflammation has taken place. manifested in judgment.

The original word 777 deber is variously translated. . Upon the horses) d'oid susim. This is the first The Septiagint bave davatos, death ; the Vulgate has place the horse is mentioned ; a creature for which pestis, a plague or pestilence; the old Saxon version, Egypt and Arabia were always famous. Do sus is cpealme, from cpealan, to die, any fatal disease. Our supposed to have the same meaning with vv sas, which | English word murrain comes either from the French

B. C. 1491.

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a boil

upon beast.

Murrain, the fifth plague.

EXODUS.

Boils, the sixth plugue. A. M. 2513. the oxen, and upon the sheep: 8 And the LORD said unto Moses A. M. 2573. B. C. 1491.

there shall be a very grievous and unto Aaron, Take to you handmurrain.

fuls of ashes of the furnace, and let Moses 4 And the LORD shall sever between the sprinkle it toward the heaven in the sight of cattle of Isracl, and the cattle of Egypt: and Pharaoh. there shall nothing die of all that is the chil- 9 And it shall become small dust in all the dren's of Israel.

land of Egypt, and shall be & a boil breaking 5 And the Lord appointed a'set time, say- forth with blains upon man, and upon beast, ing, To-morrow the Lord shall do this thing throughout all the land of Egypt. in the land.

10 And they took ashes of the furnace, and 6 And the Lord did that thing on the mor- stood before Pharaoh ; and Moses sprinkled row, and all the cattle of Egypt died : but it up toward heaven; and it became h of the cattle of the children of Israel died not breaking forth with blains upon man and one.

7 And Pharaoh sent, and, behold, there was '11 And the i magicians could not stand not one of the cattle of the Israelites dead. before Moses, because of the boils; for the And the heart of Pharaoh was hardened, boil was upon the magicians, and upon all the and he did not let the people go.

Egyptians. d Chapter viii. 22. Psa. lxxviii. 50.- Chapter vii. 14; Deuteronomy xxviii. 27. Chapter viii. 18, 19; viii, 32. Rev. xvi. 2.

2 Tim. iii. 9. mourir, to die, or from the Greek japalvw maraino, to the Hebrews, now yielded the instruments of their pungrow lean, waste away. The term mortality would ishment ; for every particle of those ashes, formed by be the nearest in sense to the original, as no particular unjust and oppressive labour, seemed to be a boit or disorder is specified by the Hebrew word.

a blain on the tyrannic king and his cruel and hardVerse 4. The Lord shall sever] See on chap. viii. 22. hearted people.

Verse 5. To-morrow the Lord shall do this] By țhus Verse 9. Shall be a boil] {'na shechin. This word foretelling the evil, he showed his prescience and pow- is generally expounded, an inflammatory swelling, a er; and from this both the Egyptians and Hebrews burning boil ; one of the most poignant afflictions, not must see that the mortality that ensued was no casualty, immediately mortal, that can well affect the surface of but the effect of a predetermined purpose in the Divine the human body: If a single boil on any part of the justice.

body throws the whole system into a fever, what anVerse 6. All the cattle of Egypt died] That is, All guish must a multitude of them on the body at the the cattle that did die belonged to the Egyptians, but same time occasion ! not one died that belonged to the Israelites, ver. 4 and Breaking forth with blains] nyayos ababuoth, sup6. That the whole stock of cattle belonging to the posed to come from a baah, to swell, bulge oul; any Egyptians did not die we have the fullest proof, be- inflammatory swelling, node, or pustule, in any part cause there were cattle both to be killed and saved alive of the body, but more especially in the more glandular in the ensuing plague, ver. 19-25. By this judgment parts, the neck, arm-pits, groin, &c. The Septuagint the Egyptians must see the vanity of the whole of translate it thus : Kal egtal &2K17 ÇAuktides avačkovoai' their national worship, when they found the animals And it shall be an ulcer with burning pustules. It which they not only held sacred but deified, slain with seems to have been a disorder of an uncommon kind, out distinction among the common herd, by a pestilence and hence it is called by way of distinction, the boteh 'sent from the hand of Jehovah. One might naturally of Egypt, Deut. xxviii. 27, perhaps never known besuppose that after this the animal worship of the Egyp-fore in that or any other country: Orosius says that tians could never more maintain its ground.

in the sixth plague "all the people were blistered, that Verse 7. And Pharaoh sent, fc.] Finding so many the blisters burst with tormenting pain, and that worms of his own cattle and those of his subjects slain, he issued out of them.” Dæc eall polc pæs on blædnan, j da sent to see whether the mortality had reached to the pæron spíše hreoplice berstende, and da porms utsionde.cattle of the Israelites, that he might know whether Alfred's Oros., lib. i., c. vii. this were a judgment inflicted by their God, and pro- Verse 11. The boil was upon the magicians) They bably designing to replace the lost cattle of the Egyp- could not produce a similar malady by throwing ashes tians with those of the Israelites.

in the air; and they could neither remove the plague

from the people, nor from their own tormented flesh. The sixth plaguethe boils and BLAINS.

Whether they perished in this plague we know not, Verse 8. Handfuls of ashes of the furnace] As but they are no more mentioned. If they were not one part of the oppression of the Israelites consisted destroyed by this awful judgment, they at least left the in their labour in the brick-kilns, some have observed field, and no longer contended with these messengers a congruity between the crime and the punishment. of God: The triumph of God's power was now comThe furnaces, in the labour of which they oppressed plete, and both the Hebrews and Egyptians must see

A. M. 2513.
B. C. 1491.

Hail, fire, and thunder, the

CHAP. IX.

seventh plague, threatened. 12 And the Lord hardened the 15 For now I will n stretch out A. M. 2513.

B. C. 1491. heart of Pharaoh, and he hearkened my hand, that I may smite thee not unto them; kas the Lord had spoken and 'thy people with pestilence : and thou unto Moses.

shalt be cut off from the earth. 13 And the Lord said unto Moses,

1 Rise

16 And in very deed for • this cause have I up early in the morning, and stand before P raised thee up, for to show in thee my power; Pharaoh, and say unto him, Thus saith the and that my name may be declared throughout Lord God of the Hebrews, -Let my people go, all the earth. that they may serve me.

17 As yet exaltest thou thyself against my 14 For I will at this time send all my people, that thou wilt not let them go?. plagues upon thine heart, and upon thy ser- 18 Behold, to-morrow about this time I will vants, and upon thy people; m that thou cause it to rain a very grievous Kail, such as mayest know that there is none like me in all hath not been in Egypt since the foundation the earth.

thereof even until now,

Chap. iv. 21.

Chapter viii. 20.-n Chapter viii. 10.

Chap. iii. 20.

• Rom. ix. 17; see chap. xiv. 17; Prov. xvi. 4; 1 Peter ii. 9.

P Heb. made thee stand.

that there was neither might, nor wisdom, nor counsel ÉVEKEV TOUTOU Slethenons, on this account art thou preagainst the Lord; and thát, as universal nature acknow- served, viz., in the past plagues ; can countenance that ledged his power, devils and men must fail before him. most exceptionable meaning put on the words by cer

Verse 15. For now I will strelch out my hand] In tain commentators, viz., " That God ordained or apthe Hebrew the verbs are in the past tense, and not pointed Pharaoh from all eternity, by certain means, in the future, as our translation improperly expresses to this end ; that he made him to exist in time; that them, by which means a contradiction appears in the he raised him to the throne ; promoted him to that text; for neither Pharaoh nor his people were smitlen high honour and dignity ; that he preserved him, and by a pestilence, nor was he by any kind of mortality did not cut him off as yet ; that he strengthened and cut off from the earth. It is true the first-born were hardened his heart; irritated, provoked, and stirred slain by a destroying angel, and Pharaoh himself was him up against his people Israel, and suffered him to drowned in the Red Sea ; but these judgments do not go all the lengths he did go in his obstinacy and reappear to be referred to in this place. If the words bellion ; all which was done to show in him his power be translated, as they ought, in the subjunctive mood, in destroying him in the Red Sea. · The sum of or in the past instead of the future, this seeming con- which is, that this man was raised up by God in every tradiction to facts, as well as all ambiguity, will be sense for God to show his power in his destruction.” avoided : For if now I HAD STRETCHED OUT (no hoo So man speaks; thus God hath not spoken. See shalachti, had set forth) my hand, and had smitten Henry on the place. thee (nix 7x1 vaach otheca) and thy people with the Verse 17. As yet exaltest thou thyself against my pestilence, thou shouldST HAVE BEEN cut off (inon people] So it appears that at this time he might have liccached) from the earth. 16. But truly, on this submitted, and thus prevented his own destruction. very account, have I caused thee to subsist, (9'07:37 heemadticha,) that I might cause thee to see my

The SEVENTH plague--the Hail. power, ('07 nx yox hárotheca eth cochi,) and that Verse 18. To-morrow about this time] The time my name might be declared throughout all the earth, of this plague is marked thus circumstantially to show (or, p787 573 becol haarets, in all thIS LAND.) See Pharaoh that Jehovah was Lord of heaven and earth, Ainsworth and Hloubigant.

and that the water, the fire, the earth, and the air, : Thus God gave this impious king to know that it which were all objects of Egyptian idolatry, were the was in consequence of his especial providence that creatures of his power; and subservient to his will ; both he and his people had not been already destroyed and that, far from being able to help them, they were by means of the past plagues; but God had preserved now, in the hands of God, instruments of their destruchim for this very purpose, that he might have a farther tion. opportunity of manifesting that he, Jehovah, was the To rain a very grievous hail]

To rain hail may only true God, for the full conviction both of the He- appear to some superficial observers as an unphilobrews and Egyptians, that the former might follow sophical mode of expression, but nothing can be more and the latter fear before him..Judicious critics of correct. “ Drops of rain falling through a cold region almost all creeds have agreed to translate the origi- of the atmosphere are frozen and converted into hail ;" nal as above, a translation which it not only can bear, and thus the hail is produced by rain. When it bebut requires, and which is in strict conformity to both gins to fall it is rain ; when it is falling it is converted the Septuagint and Targum. Neither the Hebrew into hail; thus it is literally true that it rains hail. 7o7yn heemadiicha, I have caused thee to stand ; The farther a hail-stone falls the larger it generally nor the apostle's translation of it, Rom. ix. 17, e Enyeipa is, because in its descent it meets with innumerable ce, I have raised thee; nor that of the Septuagint, I particles of water, which, becoming attached to it, are

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