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A. M. 2513.
Hail, fire, and thunder sent.
Pharaoh confesses his sin 19 Send therefore and | and the fire ran along upon the A. M. 2513.
B. C. 1:19). gather thy catile, and all that thou ground; and the LORD rained hail hast in the field; for upon every man and upon the land of Egypt. beast which shall be found in the field, and 24 So there was hail, and fire mingled with shall not be brought home, the hail shall come the hail, very grievous, such as there was down upon them, and they shall die. none like it in all the land of Egypt since it
20 He that feared the word of the Lord became a nation. among the servants of Pharaoh made his. 25 And the hail smote throughout all the land servants and his cattle flee into the houses : of Egypt all that was in the field, both man
21 And he that 9 regarded not the word of and beast; and the hail * smote- every herb of the Lord left his servants and his catile in the field, and brake every tree of the field. the field.
26 " Only in the land of Goshen, where the 22. And the Lord said unto Moses, Stretch children of Israel werę, was there no hail. forth thine hand toward heaven, that there may - 27 And Pharaoh sent and called for Moses be "hail in all the land of Egypt, upon man, and Aaron, and said unto them, 'I have sinned and upon beast, and upon every herb of the this time : w the Lord is righteous, and I and field, throughout the land of Egypt.
my people are wicked. 23 And Moses stretched forih his rod toward 28 * Entreat the Lord (for it is enough) heaven: and the LORD sent thunder and hail, that there be no more y mighty thunderings
also frozen, and thus its bulk is continually increasing he was the Lord; but all the lives both of men and till it reaches the earth. In the case in question, if beasts 'might have been saved, had Pharaoh and his natural means were at all used, we may suppose a servants taken the warning so mercifully given them. highly electrified state of an atmosphere loaded with While some regarded not the word of the Lord, others vapours, which, becoming condensed and frozen, and feared it, and their cattle and their servants were saved, having a considerable space to fall through, were of See ver. 20, 21. an unusually large size. Though this was a super- Verse 23. The Lord sent thunder]pp koloth, , natural storm, there have been many of a natural kind, voices ; but loud, repeated peals of thunder are meant. that have been exceedingly dreadful. A storm of hail And the fire ran along upon the ground] 7x7500 fell near Liverpool, in Lancashire, in the year 1795,178 vx vatlihalac esh arelsah, and the fire walked upon which greatly damaged the vegetation, broke windows, the earth. It was not a sudden flash of lightning, but &c., &c. Many of the stones measured five inches a devouring fire, walking through every part, destroyin circumference. Dr. Halley mentions a similar ing both animals and vegetables; and its progress was storm of hail in Lancashire, Cheshire, &c., in 1697, irresistible. April 29, that for sixty miles in length and two miles Verse 24. Hail, and fire mingled with the hai) It is in breadth did, immense damage, by splitting trees, generally allowed that the electric fluid is essential to kiling fowls and all small animals, knocking down the formation of hail. « On this occasion it was supplied men and horses, &c., &c. Mezeray, in his History in a supernatural abundance ; for streams of fire seem of France, says
.“ that in Italy, in 1510, there was to have accompanied the descending hail, so that herbs for some time. a horrible darkness, thicker than that of and trees, beasts and men, were all destroyed by them. night, after which the clouds broke into thunder and Verse 26. Only in the land of Goshen was there * lightning, and there fell a shower of hail-stones which no hail.] What a signal proof of a most particular destroyed all the beasts, birds, and even fish of the providence! Surely both the Hebrews and Egyptians country. It was attended with a strong smell of sul- profited by this display of the goodness and severity of phar, and the stones were of a bluish colour, some of God. them weighing one hundred pounds
” weight." The Verse 27. The Lord is righteous, and I and my Almighty says to Job : “Hast thou seen the treasures people are wicked.] The original is very emphatic : of the hail, which I have reserved against the time of The Lord is the RIGHTEOUS ONE, (p'787 hatstsaddik;) trouble, against the day of battle and war ?" Job, and I and my people are THE SINNERS, (Oyun harea chap. xxxviii. 22, 23. While God has such artillery shaim ;) i. e., He is alone righteous, and we alone are at his command, how soon may he desolate a country transgressors. Who could have imagined that after or a world! See the account of a remarkable hair- such an acknowledgment and confession, Pharaoh storm in Josh. x. 11.
should have again hardened his heart? Verse 19. Send—now, and gather thy cattle] So Verse 28. It is enough] There is no need of any in the midst of judgment, God remembered mercy. farther plague ; I submit to the authority of Jehovah, The miracle should be wrought that they might know and will rebel no more.
Moses promises to entreat
the Lord for Pharaoh. A. M. 2513. and hail; and I will let you go, my hands- unto the Lord; and the A. M. 2513.
ye shall stay no longer. thunder shall cease, neither shall 29 And Moses said unto him, As soon as I there be any more hail ; that thou mayest am gone out of the city, I will 2 spread abroad know how that, the a earth is the Lord's.
B. C. 1491.
B. C. 1491
z 1 Kings viii. 22, 38; Psa. cxliii. 6; Isa. i. 15.
a Psa. xxiv. 1 ; 1 Cor. x. 26, 28.
Mighty thunderings] bo npkoloth Elohim, Then will I to Jove's brazen-floor'd abode, voices of God ;-that is, superlatively loud thunder. That I may clasp his knees ; and much misdeem So maintains of God (Psa. xxxvi. 6) means exceed- Of my endeavour, or my prayer shall speed. Id. ing high mountains. So a prince of God (Gen. xxiii. See the issue of thus addressing Jove, Ibid., ver. 5006) means a mighty prince. See a description of
502, and ver. 511, &c. thunder, Psa. xxix. 3–8: “The VoicÈ OF THE LORD is upon the waters: the God of glory thundereth; the Matt. xvii. 14: There came to him a certain man,
In the same manner we find our Lord accosted, Lord is upon many waters. The voice of the Lord is powerful, the voice of the Lord is full of majesty. at his knees.
kneeling down to him, YOVUTETWV avtov, falling down The voice of the Lord breaketh the cedars. The voice of the Lord divideth the flames of fire. The voice of (often "joined to kneeling,) of which we have seen
As to the lifting up or stretching out of the hands, the Lord shaketh the wilderness," &c.
already several instances, and of which we have a tion of rain by the electric spark is alluded to in a
very remarkable one in this book, chap. xvii. 11, where very beautiful manner, Jer. x. 13: When he uttereth the lifting up or stretching out of the hands of Moses his voice, there is a multitude of waters in the heavens.
.was the means of Israel's prevailing over Amalek; See the note on Gen. vii. 11, and viu. 1.
we find many examples of both in ancient authors Verse 29. I will spread abroad my hands) That is,
Thus HOMER : I will make supplication to God that he may remove this plague. This may not be an improper place to
Εσθλον γαρ Δια χειρας ανασχεμεν, αι κ' ελεηση. make some observations on the ancient manner of ap
Iliad xxiv., ver. 301. proaching the Divine Being in prayer. Kneeling For right it is to spread abroad the hands down, stretching out of the hands, and lifting them up
To Jove for mercy. to heaven, were in frequent use among the Hebrews in
Also VIRGIL :their religious worship. Solomon kneeled down on his knees, and spread forth his hands to heaven ; 2 Chron. Corripio e stratis corpus, TENDOQUE SUPINAS vi. 13. So David, Psa. cxliii. 6: I stretch forth my AD CÆLUM cum voce MANUS, et munera libo. hands unto thee. So Ezra”: I fell upon my knees, and
Æneid iii.,. ver. 176. spread out my hands unto the Lord my God; chap. I started from my bed, and raised on high ix. 5. See also Job xi. 13 : -If thou prepare thine My hands and voice in rapture to the sky; heart, and stretch out thy hands towards him. Most
And pour libations.
Pitt. nations who pretended to any kind of worship made use of the same means in approaching the objects of their
Direrat : et GENUA AMPLEXUS, genibusque volutans
Ibid., ver. 607. adoration, viz., kneeling down and stretching out their hands ; which custom it is very likely they borrowed Then kneeld the wretch, and suppliant clung around from the people of God. Kneeling was ever consider- My knees with tears, and grovelld on the ground. Id. ed to be the proper posture of supplication, as it ex
media inter numina divum presses humility, çontrition, and subjection. If the
Mulla Jovem MANIBUS SUPPLEX orasse suPÍNIS. person to whom the supplication was addressed was
Ibid. iv., ver. 204. within reach, the supplicant caught himn by the knees; for as among the ancients the forehead was consecrated
Amidst the statues of the gods he stands, to genius, the ear to memory, and the right hand to
And spreading forth to Jove his lifted hands. Id. faith, so the knees were consecrated to mercy. Hence Et DUPLICES cum voce MANUS ad sidera TENDIT. those who entreated favour fell at and caught hold of
Ibid. x., ver. 667. the knees of the person whose kindness they supplicated. This mode of supplication is particularly re
And lifted both his hands and voice to heaven. ferred to in the following passages in Homer :
In some cases the person petitioning came forward,
and either sat in the dust or kneeled on the ground, Των νυν μιν μνησασα παρεζεο, και λαβε γουνων. placing his left hand on the knee of him from whom
Iliad is, ver. 407.. he expected the favour, while he touched the person's
chin with his right. We have an instance of this Now therefore, of these things reminding Jove,
also in HOMER :Embrace his knees.
Και ρα παροιθ' αυτοιο καθέζετο, και λαβε γουνων To which the following answer is made :
Σκαιη δεξιτερη δ' αρ' υπ' ανθερεωνος έλουσα.
Iliad i., ver. 500. Και τοτ' επειτα τοι ειμι Διoς πoτι χαλκοβατες δω, Και μιν γουνασομαι, και μιν πεισεσθαι οίω.
Suppliant the goddess stood : one hand she placed Iliad i., ver. 426. Beneath his chin, and one his knee embraced. Pope.
The flax and the
barley are destroyed. A. M. 2513 30 But as for thee and thy ser- c for the barley was in the ear, and A. M. 2513 B. C. 1491.
B. C. 1491. vants, I know that ye will not yet 'the 'flax was bolled. fear the LORD God.
32 But the wheat and the rye were not 31 And the flax and the barley was smitten: smitten : for they were not grown up. b Isa. xxvi. 10.- e Ruth i. 22 ; ii. 23..
d Heb. hidden, or dark. When the supplicant could not approach the person or rind of the vegetable, pilled or stripped off the to whom he prayed, as where a deity was the object stalks. From time immemorial Egypt was celebrated of the prayer, he washed his hands, made an offering, for the production and manufacture of flax : hence the and kneeling down, either stretched out both his hands linen and fine linen of Egypt, so often spoken of in to heaven, or laid them upon the offering or sacrifice, ancient authors. or upon the altar.
Thus Homer represents the priest Barley] 770 seorah, from 700 saar, to stand on of Apollo praying :
end, to be rough, bristly, &c.; hence wv sear, Χερνιψαντο δ' επειτα, και ουλοχυτας ανελoντο.
hair of the head, and now sair, a he-goat, because of Τοισιν δε Χρυσης μεγαλο ευχετο, χειρας ανασχων.
its shaggy hair; and hence also barley, because of the Iliad i., ver. 449. rough and prickly beard with which the ears are co
vered and defended. With water purify their hands, and take
Dr. Pocock has observed that there is a double seedThe sacred offering of the salted cake,
time and harvest in Egypt : Rice, India wheat, and a While thus, with arms devoutly raised in air, grain called the corn of Damascus, and in Italian surgo And, solemn voice, the priest directs his prayer.
rosso, are sown and reaped at a very different time
Pope: from wheat, barley and flax. The first are sown in How necessary ablutions of the whole body, and of March, before the overflowing of the Nile, and reaped the hands particularly, accompanied with offerings and about October; whereas the wheat and barley are sacrifices were, under the law, every reader of the sown in November and December, as soon as the Nile Bible knows : see especially chap. xxix. 1-4, where is gone off, and are reaped before May. Aaron and his sons were commanded to be washed, Pliny observes, Hist. Nat., lib. xviii., cap.. 10, that previously to their performing the priest's office; and in Egypt the barley is ready for reaping in six months chap. xxx. 19-21, where it is said : “ Aaron and his after it is sown, and wheat in seven. In Ægypto sons shall wash their hands--that they die not.” See HORDEUM sexto a satu mense, FRUMENTA septimo, mealso Lev. xvii. 15. When the high priest among the tuntur. Jews blessed the people, he lifted up his hands, Lev. The flax was bolled.) Meaning, I suppose, was ix. 22. And the Israelites, when they presented a grown up into a stalk : the original is Syaa gibol, sacrifice to God, lifted up their hands and placed them podded or was in the pod. The word well expresses on the head of the viċlim : " If any man of you bring that globous pod on the top of the stalk of flax which an offering unto the Lord of the cattle of the herd, succeeds the flower and contains the seed, very proand of the flock-he shall put his hand upon the head perly expressed by the Septuagint, to de htvov GREPof the burnt-offering, and it shall be accepted for him, Marigov, but the flax was in seed or wus seeding. to make atonement for him ;" Lev. i. 2-4. To these Verse 32. But the wheat and the rye were not circumstances the apostle alludes, 1 Tim. ii. 8: “I smitten] Wheat, non chiltah, which Mr. Parkhurst will therefore that men pray everywhere, lifling up thinks should be derived from the Çhaldee and Samaholy hands, without wrath and doubting." In the ritan un chati, which signifies tender, delicious, deliapostle's word ETALpovras, lifting up, there is a mani- cate, because of the superiority of its flavour, &c., to fest reference to stretching out the hands to place them every other kind of grain. But this term in Scripeither on the altar or on the head of the victim. Four ture appears to mean any kind of bread-corn. Rye, things were signified by this listing up of the hands. nodd cussemeth, from DJ) casam, to have long hair ; 1. It was the posture of supplication, and expressed and hence, though the particular species is not known, a strong invitation—Come to my help ; 2.. It expressed the word must mean some bearded grain. The Septhe earnest desire of the person to lay hold on the help tuagint call it oaupa, the Vulgate for, and Aquila cea, he required, by bringing him who was the object of which signify the grain called spelt; and some suphis prayer to his assistance ; 3. It showed the ardour pose that rice is meant. of the person to receive the blessings he expected'; 7 Mr. Harmer, referring to the double harvest in and 4. By this act he designated and consecrated his Egypt mentioned by Dr. Pocock, says that the ciroffering or sacrifice to his God.
cumstance of the wheat and the rye being non From a great number of evidences and coincidences aphiloth, dark or hidden, as the margin renders it, it is not unreasonable to conclude that the heathens (i. e., they were sown, but not grown up,) shows that borrowed all that was pure and rational, even in their it was the Indian wheat or surgo rosso mentioned mode of worship, from the ancient people of God; and ver. 31, which, with the rye, escaped, while the barthat the preceding quotations are proofs of this. ley and flar were smitten because they were at or Verse 31. The flax and the barley was smitten] nearly at a state of maturity.
See Harmer's Obs., The word nnva pishtah, flar, Mr. Parkhurst thinks, vol. iv., p. 11, edit. 1808. But what is intended by is derived from the root opo pashat, to strip, because the words in the Hebrew text we cannot positively the substance which we term flat is properly the bark- say, as there is a great variety of opinions on this
A. M. 2513,
The seventh plague is removed. CHAP. IX. Pharaoh again hardens his heart.
city from Pharaoh, and spread ceased, he sinned yet more, and abroad his hands unto the Lord: and the hardened his heart, he and his servants. thunders and hail ceased, and the rain was 35 And f the heart of Pharaoh was hardened, mot poured upon the earth.' .
neither would he let the children of Israel go; 34 And when Pharaoh saw that "the rain as the Lord had spoken s by Moses. - Ver. 29; chap. viii. 12. - Chap. iv. 21.
Heb. by the hand of Moses ; chap. iv. 13. subject, both among the versions and the commenta- it doubtful to the Egyptians whether Moses himself tors. The Anglo-Saxon translator; probably from not was not a magician acting without any Divine authoknowing the meaning of the wards, omits the whole rity; but the plague of the boils, which they could not verse.
imitate, by which they were themselves afflicted, and Verse 33. Spread abroad his hands] Probably with which they confessed to be the finger of God, decided the rod of God in thenr. See what has been said on the business. Pharaoh had no longer any excuse, the spreading out of the hands in prayer, ver. 29. and must know that he had now to contend, not with
Verse 34. He sinned yet more, and hardened his Moses and Aaron, mortals like himself, but with the heart] These were merely acts of his own ; " för living God. How strangè, then, that he should conwho can deny,” says Mr. Psalmanazar, " that what tinue to resist! Many affect to be astanished at this, God did on Pharaoh was much more proper to soften and think it must be attributed only to a sovereign than to harden his heart; especially when it is observ- controlling influence of God, which rendered it imposable that it was not till after seeing each miracle, and sible for him to repent or take warning. But the after the ceasing of each plague, that his heart is said whole conduct of God shows the improbability of this to have been hardened? The verbs here used are in opinion : and is not the conduct of Pharaoh and his the conjugations pihel and hiphil; and often signify a courtiers copied and reacted by thousands who are bare permission, from which it is plain that the words nevor suspected to be under any such necessitating should have been read, God suffered the heart of decree ? Every sinner under heaven, who has the Pharaoh to'be hardened.”_Umiversal Hist., vol. i., Bible in his hand, is acting the same part. God says p. 494. Note D.
to the swearer and the profane, Thou shall not take Verse 35, And the heart of Pharaoh was hardened} | the name of the Lord thy God in vain; and yet comIn consequence of his sinning yet more, and harden- mon swearing and profaneness are most scandalously ing his own heart against both the judgments and common among multitudes who bear the Christian mercies of God, we need not be surprised that, after name, and wlio presume on the mercy of God to get God had given him the means of softening and repent- at last to the kingdom of heaven! . lIe says also, ance, and he had in every instance resisted and abused Remember the Sabbath day to keep it holy; thou shalt them, be should at last have been left to the hardness not kill ; thoủ shalt not commit adulterý; thou shalt and darkness of his own obstinate heart, so as to fill not steal.; thoú shalt nol bear. false witness ; thou up the measure of his iniquity, and rush headlong to shalt not covet; and sanctions all these commandments his own destruction.
with the most awful penalties : and yet, with all these
things before them, and the professed belief that they In the fifth, sixth, and seventh plagues described in came from God, "Sabbath-breakers, men-slayers, alulthis ehapter, we have additional proofs of the justice terers, fornicators, thieves, dishonest men, falşe witand mercy of God, as well as of the stupidity, rebellion, nesses, - Ljárs, slanderers, backbiters, covetous men, and wickedness of Pharaoh and his courtiers. As lovers of the world more than lovers of God, are found these continued to contradict and resist, it was just by hundreds and thousands.! What were the crimes that God should continue to inflict those punishments of the poor half-blind Egyptian king when compared which their iniquities déserved. Yet in the midst off with these !· *He'sinned against a comparatively judgment he remembers mercy; and therefore Moses unknown God; these sin against the God of their and Aaron are sent to inform the Egyptians that such fathers—against the God and Father of IIim whom plagues would come if they continued obstinate. «Here they call their Lord and Saviour, Jesus Christ! . They is mercy ; the cattle only are destroyed, and the people sin with the Bible in their hand, and a conviction of saved ! Is it not evident from all these messages, its Divine authority in their hearts. They sin against and the repeated expostulations of Moses and Aaron light and knowledge ; against the checks of their conin the name and on the authority of God,, that Pha- seiences, the reproofs of their friends, the admonitions raoh was bound by no fatal necessity to continue his of the messengers of God; against Moses and Aaron obstiñacy ; that he might have humbled himself before in the law; against the testimony of all the prophets ; God, and thus prevented the disasters that fell on the against the evangelists, the apostles, the Maker of land, and saved himself and his people from destruc- heaven and earth, the Judge of all men, and the Sation ? Bụt he would sin, and therefore he must be 'viour of the world! What were Pharaoh's crimes to punished.
the crimes of these ? On comparison, his atom of In the sixth plague Pharaoh had advantages which moral turpitude is lost in their world of iniquity. And he had not before. The magicians, by their success- yet who supposes these to be under any necessilating ful imitations of the miracles wrought by Moses, made decree to sin on, and go to perdition?. Nor are they; VOL. I. ( 23 )
to expostulate with Pharaoh.
nor was Pharaoh. In all things God has proved both from the possibility of being saved because of his ini-. his justice and mercy to be clear in this point. Pha- quities, who outdo him so far in the viciousness of raoh, through a principle of covetousness, refused to their lives, that Pharaoh, hardening his heart against dismiss the Israelites, whose services he found profit- ten plagues, appears a saint when compared with those able to the state : these are absorbed in the love of who are hardenièg their hearts against ten millions of the world, the love of pleasure, and the love of gain; mercies. Reader, art thou of this number? Proceed nor will they let one lust go; even in the presence no farther! God's judgments linger not. Desperate of the thunders of Sinai, or in sight of the agony, as thy state is, thou mayest return; and thou, even bloody sweat, crucifixion, and death of Jesus Christ ! thou, find mercy through the blood of the Lamb. Alas ! how many are in the habit of considering Pha- See the observations at the conclusion of the next raoh the worst of human beings, inevitably cut off chapter.
Moses is again sent to Pharaoh, and expostulates with him on his refusal to let the. Hebrews go, 1-3. The
eighth plague, viz., of locusts, is threatened, 4. The extent and oppressive nature of this plague, 5, 6. Pharaoh's servants counsel him to dismiss the Hebrews, 7. He calls for Moses and Aaron, and inquires who they are of the Hebrews who wish to go, 8. Moses having answered that the whole people, with their flocks and herds must go and hold a feast to the Lord, 9, Pharaoh is enraged, and having granted per." mission only to the men, drives Moses and Aaron from his presence, 10, 11. Moses is commanded to stretch out his hand and bring the locusts, 12. He does so, and an east wind is sent, which, blowing all that day and night, brings the locusts the next morning, 13: The devastation occasioned by these insects, 14,15, Pharaoh is humbled, acknowledges his sin, and begs Moses to intercede with Jehorch for him, 16, 17. Moses does so, and at his request a strong west wind is sent, which carries all the locusts to the Red Sea, 18, 19, Pharaoh's heart is again hardened, 20. Moses - is commanded to bring the ninth plague-an extraordinary darkness over all the land of Egypt, 21. The nature, duration, and effects of this; 22, 23. Pharaoh, again humbled, consents to let the people go, provided they leave their cattle behind, 24. Moses insists on having all their cattle, because of the sacrifices which they must make to the Lord, 25, 26. Pharaoh, again hardened, refuses, 27., , Orders Moses from his presence, and threatens him with death should he ever return, 28. · Moses departs with the promise of returning no more, 29.
AN ND the Loan said unto Moses, thy son, 'and of thy son's son, A. M. 2513 B. C. 1491.
Go in unto Pharaoh : * for I avhat things I have wrought in have hardened his heart, and the heart of his Egypt, and my signs which I have done among servants, TM that I might show these my signs them; that ye may know how that I am before him:
the LORD. 2 And that c thou mayest tell in the ears of 3 And Moses and Aaron came in unto Pha
A. M. 2513.
B. C. 1491.
a Chap. iv.21, vii. 14. - Chap. vii. 4.
*c Deut. iv. 9; Psa. xliv. 1; lxxi. 18; lxxviii: 5, &c.; Joel i. 3. NOTES ON CHAP. X.
pented, can we suppose that God could have addressed Verse 1. Hardened his hearls God suffered his him in such language as the preceding? We may rest natural obstinacy to prevail, that he might have farther assured that there was always a time in which he might opportunities of showing forth his eternal power and have relented, and that it was because he hardened his Godhead.
heart at such times that God is said to harden him, Verse 2. That thou mayest lell in the ears of thy i. e., to give hiỉ up to his own stubborn and obstinate son] That the miracles wrought at this time might heart; in consequence of which he refused to let the be a record for the instruction of the latest posterity, people go, so that God had a fresh opportunity to work that Jehovah alone, the God of the Hebrews, was the another miracle, for the very gracious purposes mensole Maker, Governor, and Supporter of the heavens tioned in ver. 2. Had Pharaoh relented before, the and the earth. Thus we find God so did his marvel- same gracious ends would have been accomplished by lous works, that they might be had in everlasting re- other means. membrance. It was not to crush the poor worm, Phardoh, that he wrought such mighty wonders, but to
The Eighth plague—the Locusts. convince his enemies, to the end of the world, that no Verse 4: Tomorrow will I bring the locusts] The cunning or power can prevail against him; and to show word 7737 arbeh, a locust, is probably from the root his followers that whosoever trusted in him should 939 rabah, he multiplied, became great, mighty, &c., never be confounded.
because of the immense swarms of these animals - by Verse 3. How long will thou refuse to humble thy- which different countries, especially the east, are inself] Had it been impossible for Pharaoh, in all the fested. The locust, in entomology, belongs to a genus preceding plagues, to have humbled himself and re-I of insects known among naturalists by the term GRYLLI; 338
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