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B. C. 1191.

Pharaoh is threatened with

CHAP. X.

locusts, the eighth plague. A. M. 2513. raoh, and said unto him, Thus saith from the hạil, and shall eat every A. M. 2513. B. C. 1491.

the LORD God of the Hebrews, tree which groweth for you out of How long wilt thou refuse to a humble thy- the field : self before me? let my people go, that they 6 And they h shall fill thy houses, and the may serve me;

houses of all thy servants, and the houses of 4. Else, if thou refuse to let my people go, all the Egyptians; which neither thy fathers, behold, to-morrow' will I bring the locusts nor thy fathers' fathers have seen, since the into thy coast :

day that they were upon the earth unto this 5 And they, shall cover the face of the day. And he turned himself, and went out earth, that one cannot be able to see the from Pharaoh. earth : and they shall eat the residue of that 9 And Pharaoh's servants said unto him, which is escaped, which remaineth unto you How long shall this man bei à snare untoʻus ?

* 1 Kings xxi. 29 ; 2 Chron, vii. 14 ; xxxiv, 27; Job xlii. 6; i Heb. cye; ver. 15. -5 Chapter ix. 32; Joel i. 4; i. 25. Jer. xii. 18; James iv. 10; 1 Pet. v. 6. Proverbs xxx. 27-; Chap. viii. 3, 21.- -i Chap xxiii. 33; Josh. xxiii. 13;. 1 Sam. Wisd. xvi. 9; Rev.ix. 3.

xvii. 21; Eccles. vii, 26; 1 Cor. vii. 35.

and includes three species, crickets, grasshoppers, and Dr. Shaw, who witnessed most formidable swarms those commonly called locusts; and as they multiply of these in Barbary in the years 1724 and 1725, gives faster than any other animal in creation, they are pro- the following account of them : “ They were much perly entitled to the name. 17373 artieh, which might be farger than our grasshoppers, and had brown-spotted translated the numerous or multiplied insecti See this wings, with legs and bodies of a bright yellow. Their circumstance, referred - to, Judg. vi. 5; vii. 12; Psa. first appearance was towards the latter end of March. cv. 34 ; Jer. xlvi. 23; li. 14 4. Joel i. 6; Nahum iii. In the middle of April their numerous swarms, like a , 15; Judith iż. 19, 20; where the most numerous ar- suceession of clouds, darkened the sun. In the month mies are compared to the arbeh or locust. The locust of May they retired to the adjacent plains to deposit has a large open mouth ; and in its two jaws it has their eggs : these were no-sooner hatched in June than four incisive teeth, which traverse each other like scis- the young brood first produced, while in their catersors, being calculated, from their mechanism, to gripe pillar or worm-like state, formed themselves into a comor cut. Mr. Volney, in his Travels in Syria, gives a pact body of more than a furlong square, and, marchstriking account of this most awful scourge of God :- ing directly forward, climbed over trees, walls, and

“Syria' partakes together with Egypt and Persia, and houses, devouring every plant in their way.. Within almost all the whole middle part of Asia, in that terrible a day or two another brood was hatched, and advancing scourge, I mean those clouds of locasts of which travel in the same manner, gnawed off the young branches lers have spoken ; the quantity of which is incredible and bark of the trees left by the former, making a to any person who has not himself seen them, the earth complete desolation, The inhabitants, to stop their being covered by them for several leagues round. The progress, made a variety of pits and trenches all over noise they make in 'browsing the plants and trees may their fields and gardens, which they filled with water, be heard at a distance, like an army plundering in se- or else heaped up therein heath, stubble, &c., which cret. Fire seems to follow their tracks. · Wherever they set on fire ; but to no purpose : for the trenches

their legions march the verdure disappears from the were quickly filled up and the fires extinguished, by. · country, like a curtain drawn aside; the trees and infinite swarms succeeding one another ; while the front

plants, despoiled of their leaves, make the hideous ap- seemed regardless of danger, and the rear pressed on pearance of winter instantly succeed to the bright scenes so elose that a retreat was altogether impossible. În of spring. When these clouds of locusts, take their a month's time they threw off their worm-like state; flight, in order to surmount some obstacle, or the more and in a new form, with wings and legs, and additional rapidly to cross some desert, one may literally say that powers, returned to their former voracity.". -Shaw's the sun is darkened by them."

Travels, 187, 188, 4to edition. Baron de Tott gives a similar account: "Clouds of The descriptions given by these travellers show that locustş frequently alight on the plains of the Noguais, God's army, described by the Prophet Joel, chap. ii., (the Tartars,) and giving preference to their fields of was innumerable swarms of locusts, to which the acmillet, ravage them in an instant. Their approach counts given by Dr. Shaw and others exactly agree. darkens the horizon, and so enormous is their multi- Verse 5. They shall cover the face of the earth] tude, it hides the light of the sun. They alight on the They sometimes cover the whole ground to the depth fields, and there form a bed of six or seven inches thick. of six or eight inches. See the preceding accounts. To the noise of their flight succeeds that of their de- Verse 6. They shall fill thy houses] ~ Dr. Shaw vouring aetively, which resembles the ratlling of hail- mentions this circumstance ; “they entered,” says he, slones ; but 'its consequences are infinitely more de- into our very houses and bed-chambers, like so many structive. Fire itself eats not so fast; nor is there thieves.”—Ibid. p. 187. any appearance of vegetation to be found when they Verse 7. How long shall this man be a snare unto again take their flight, and go elsewhere to produce us?] As there is no noun in the text, the pronoun 777 new disasters."

zeh may either refer to the Israelites, to the plague by

B. C. 1491.

B. C. 1491.

Moses and Aaron are driven

i EXODUS.

from the presence of Pharaoh. A. M. 2513 let the men go, that they may serve be so with you, as I will let you A. M. 2513.

the Lord their God :. knowest thou go, and your little ones : look to it; not yet that Egypt is destroyed ?

for evil is before you. 8 And Moses and Aaron were brought again 11 Not so: go now ye that are meň, and unto Pharaoh ; and he said unto them, Go, serve the LORD; for that ye did desire. And serve the Lord your God: but k who are they they were driven out from Pharaoh's presence. that shall go?

12 And the LORD said unto Moses, - Stretch 9 And Moseš said, We will go with our out thine hand over the land of Egypt for the young and with our old, with our sons and locusts, that they may come up upon the land with our daughters, with our flocks and with of Egypt, and » eat every herb of the land, our herds will we go; for? we must hold a l'eveň all that the hail hath left. feast unto the Lord..

13 And Moses stretched forth his rod over 10 And he said unto them, Let the LORD the land of Egypt, and the Lord' brought an

* Heb. who, and who, &c.- - Chap. v. 1.

Chap. vii. 19.

n Ver. 4, 5.

which they were then allicted, or to Moses and Aaron, I find that the ancient Egyptians called Diana Neith; the instruments used by the Most High in their chas- this comes as near as possible to the Gaile of the Isle tisement. The Vulgate translates, Usquequo patiemur of Man. The moon is called yn neith or neath ; and hoc scandalum? “How long shall we suffer this scan. also ke-sollus, from ke, smooth or even, and sollus, light, dal or reproach ?”.

the SMOOTH LIGHT; perhaps to distinguish her from the Let the men go, that they may serve the Lord their sun, grian, from gri-tien or cri-tien, i. e., TREMBLING God] Much of the energy of several passages is lost FIRE; yn neith-easga, as Macpherson has it, signifies in translating 77977: Yetovah by the term Lord. The wan complexion. I should rather incline to think it Egyptians had their gods, and they supposed that the may come from aise. The Celtic nations thought that Hebrews had a god like unto their own; that this Je- the heavenly luminaries were the residences of spirits hovah required their services, and would continue to which they distinguished by the name of aise, thus amict Egypt till his people were permitted to worship grian-ais signifies the spirit of the sun. him in his own way.

Moses and Aaron, requesting liberty for the Hebrews · Egypt is destroyed ?] This last plague had nearly to go three days' journey into the wilderness, and with ruined the whole land.

them all their wives, little ones, and cattle, in order to Verse 6. Who are they that shall go ?]Though the hold a feast unto Jehovah their God, must have at Egyptians, about fourscore years before, wished to de- | least appeared as reasonable to the Egyptians as their stroy the Hebrews, yet they found them now so profit- going to the city of Bubastis with their wives, liule, able to the state that they were unwilling to part with ones, and cattle, to hold a feast to Neilh or Diana, who them.

was there worshipped. The parallel in these two Verse 9. 'We will go with our young and with our cases is too striking to pass unnoticed. -old, fc.) · As a feast was to be celebrated to the ho- Verse 10. Let the Lord be so with you] This is an nour of Jehovah, all who were partakers of his bounty obscure sentence. Some suppose that Pharaoh meant and providential kindness must go and perform their it as a curse, as if he had said, “May your God be as part in the solemnity. The men and the women must surely with you, as I shall let you go!" - For as he make the feast, the children must witness it, and the purposed not to permit them to go, so he wished them cattle must be taken along with them to furnish the as much of the Divine help as they should have of his sacrifices necessary on this occasion. This must have permission. appeared reasonable to the Egyptians, because it was Look-for evil is before you.] 03'10 720 7073187 their own custom in their religious assemblies. · Men, reu ki raah neged peneychem, See ye that evil is before women, and children attended them, often to the amount your faces—if you attempt to go, ye shall meet with of several hundred thousand. Herodolus informs us, the punishment ye deserve. Probably Pharaoh intendin speaking of the six annual feasts celebrated by the ed to insinuate that they had some sinister designs, and · Egyptians in honour of their deities, that they hold that they wished to go in a body that they might the their chief one at the city of Bubastis in honour of better accomplish their purpose; but if they had no such Neith or Diana; that they go thither by water in boats designs they would be contented for the males to go, -men, women, and children ; that during their voy- and leave their wives and children behind ; for he well age some of the women play on castanets, and some knew if the men went and left their families they would of the men upon flutes, while the rest are employed in infallibly return, but that if he permitted them to take singing and clapping their hands; and that, when they their families with them, they would undoubtedly make arrive at Bubastis, they sacrifice a vast mumber of vič- their escape; therefore he says, ver. 11, Go now ye tims, and drink much wine ; and that at one such fes- that are men, and serve the Lord. tival, the inhabitants assured him, that there were not Verse 13. The Lord brought an east wind] As assembled fewer than 700,000 men and women, with locusts abounded in those countries, and partioularly in out reckoning the children.—Euterpe, chap. lix., lx.) Æthiopia, and more especially at this time of the year,

B. C. 1491.

Locusts, the eighth plague,

CHAP. X.

and thick darkness, the ninth. A. M. 2513. east wind upon the land all that day, I sin . only this once, and u entreat A. M. 2513. B. C. 1494 and all that night; and when it was the Lord your God, that he may morning, the east wind brought the locusts. take away from me this death only.

14. And the locusts went up over all the 18 And he went out from Pharaoh, and land of Egypt, and rested in all the coasts of entreated the LORD. Egypt: very grievous were they;: P before 19 And the Lord turned a mighty strong them there were no such locusts as they, nei- west wind, which took away the locusts, and ther after them shall be such,

w cast them into the Red Sea ; there remained 15 For they covered the face of the whole not one locust in all the coasts of Egypt. earth, so that the land was darkened ; and they 20- But the LORD y hardened Pharaoh's I did eat every. herb of the land, and all the heart, so that he would not let the children fruit of the trees which the hail had left; and of Israel go. there remained not any green thing in the 21 And the Lord said unto Moses, 2 Stretch trees, or in the herbs of the field, through all out thine hand toward heaven, that there may the land of Egypt.

be darkness over the land of Egypt, 16 Then Pharaoh called for Moses and darkness which may be felt. Aaron in haste: and he said, I have sinned 22 And Moses stretched forth his hand against the Lord your God, and against you. toward heaven; and there was a b thick dark

17 Now therefore forgive, I pray thee, myness in all the land of Egypt three days :

a even

Psa. Ixxviii. 46; cr.34. -pJoel ii. 2. -9 Ver. 5. Psa. w Heb. fastened. * Joel ii. 20.- Chapter iv. 21; xi. 10. CF, 35.- Hleb, hastened to call. Chap. ix. 27.- -u Chap. 2 Ch. ix. 22.—Heb. that one may feel darkness. - Psa. cv. ix. 28; 1 Kings xiii. 6.- -* Chap, viii. 30.

28; Wisd. xvii, 2, &c.

God had no need to create new swarms for this pur- nearly central, threw out ramifications in a nearly cirpose ; all that was requisite was to cause such a wind cular form measuring twenty-sir feet diameter every to blow as would briog those which already existed way.”—Travels, vol. ii., p. 138. In the Septuagint over the land of Egypt. The miracle in this business it is called-oañagoa epvopa, the Rød Sea, from which was the bringing the locusts at the appointed time, and version we have borrowed the name ; and Mr. Bruce causing the proper wind to blow for that purpose ; and supposes that it had this name from Edom or Esau, then taking them away after a similar manner. whose territories extended to its coasts ; for it is well

Verse 14. Before them there were no such locusts, known that the word 078 Edom in Hebrew signifies fc.) They exceeded all that went before, or were red or ruddy. The Red Sea, called also the Arabic since, in number, and in the devastations they produced. Gulf, separates Arabia from Upper Æthiopia and part Probably both these things are intended in the passage. of Egypt. It is computed to be three hundred and See ver. 15.

fifty leagues in length from Suez to the Straits of Ver. 15. There remained not any green thing] See Babelmandel, and is about forty leagues in breadth. the note on 'ver. 4.

It is not very tempestuous, and the winds usually blow Verse 17. Forgive, I pray thee, my sin only this from north to south, and from south to north, six months once] What a strange case ! And what a series of in the year ; and, like the monsoons of India, invariably softening and hardening, of sinning and repenting ! determine the seasons of sailing into or out of this sea. Had he not now another opportunity of returning to It is divided into two gulfs': that to the east called God? But the love of gain, and the gratification of the Elanilic Gulf, from the city of Elana to the north his own self-will ånd obstinacy, finally prevailed.

end of it ; and that to the west called the HeroopoliVerse 19. A mighty strong west wind) diniiruach tan Gulf, from the city of Heroopolis ; the former of yam, literally the wind of the sea; the wind that blew which belongs to Arabia, the latter to Egypt. Tho from the Mediterranean Sea, which lay north-west of Heroopolitan Gulf is called by the Arabians Bahr el Egypt; which had the Red Sea on the east. Here

Kolzum, the sea of destruction, or of Clysmæ, an anagain God works by natural means ; he brought the cient town in that quarter ;, and the Elanitic Gulf Bahr locusts by the east wind, and took them away by the el Akaba, the sea of Akaba, a town situated on its west or north-west wind, which carried them to the most inland point. Red Sea where they were drowned.

The NINTH plague-THICK DARKNESS. The Red Sea] 90 D'yam suph, the weedy sea; so Verse 21. Darkness which may be felt.] Probably called, as some suppose, from the great quantity of this was occasioned by a superabundance of aqueous alga or sea-weed which grows in it and about its shores. vapours floating in the atmosphere, which were so But Mr. Bruce, who has sailed the whole extent of it, thick as to prevent the rays of the sun from penedeclares that he never saw in it a weed of any kind ; trating through them; an extraordinarily thick mist and supposes it has its name suph from the vast quan- supernaturally, i. e., miraculously, brought on. An tity of coral which grows in' it, as trees and plants do awful emblem of the darkened state of the Egyptians on land. One of these," he observes, " from a root I and their king.

Moses is dismissed

EXODUS.

by Pharaoh in wrath.

A. M. 2513.
B. C. 1491.

23 They saw not one another, shall not a hoof be left behind ; for A. M. 2513.

B. C. 1491. neither rose any from his place for thereof must we take to serve the three days :

c but all the children of Israel Lord our God; and we know not with what we had light in their dwellings.

must serve the LORD until we come thither. 24 And Pharaoh called unto Moses, and 27 But the LORD #hardened Pharaoh's d said, Go ye, serve the LORD; only let your heart, and he would not let them go. flocks and your herds be stayed : let your 28 And Pharaoh said unto him, Get thee e little one's also with

you:

from me, take heed to thyself, see my face 25 And Moses said, Thou must give { us no more ; for in that day thou seest my face also sacrifices and burnt-offerings, that we may thou shalt die. sacrifice unto the Lord our God.

29 And Moses said, Thou hast, spoken well, 26 Our cattle also shall go with us; there I will see thy face again no more.

go

· Chapter vili. 22;

! Heb. into our hands.

Wisdom xviii. 1.- Verse 8.
e Ver. 10.

Ver. 20; chapter iv. 21; xiv. 4, 8. h Heb. xi. 27.

Verse 23. They saw not one another]. So deep was consents to give up the Israelites, their wives and their the obscurity, and probably such was its nature, that no children, provided he may keep their flocks and their artificial light could be procured ; as the thick clamıny herds. The cruelty of this demand is not more evident vapours would prevent lamps, &c., from burning, or if than its avarice. Had six hundred thousand mer, bethey even could be ignited, the light through the pal- sides women and children, gone three days' journey into pable obscurity, could diffuse itself to no distance from the wilderness without their cattle, they must have the burning body. The author of the book of Wis- inevitably perished, being without milk for their little dom, chap. xvi. 2-19, gives, a fearful description of ones, and animal food for their own sustenance, in a this plague.

He says, “ The Egyptians were shut up place where little as a substitute could possibly be found. in their houses, the prisoners of darkness : and were It is evident from this that Pharaoh intended the total fettered with the bonds of a long night. They were destruction of the whole Israelitish host. scattered under a dark veil of forgetfulness, being hor: Verse 26. We know not with what we must serve ribly astonished and troubled with strange apparitions; the Lord, &c.] The law was not yet given ;, the ordifor neither might the corner that held them keep them nances concerning the different kinds of sacrifices and from fear; but noises as of waters falliog down sounds offerings not known. What kind and what number of ed about them; and sad visions appeared unto them animals God should require to be sacrificed, even with heavy countenances. No power of the fire could Moses himself could not as yet tell. He therefore very give them light-only there appeared unto them a fire properly insists on taking the whole of their herds with kindled of itself very dreadful ; for being much terrified, them, and not leaving even one hoof behind. they thought the things which they saw to be worse Verse 27. The Lord hardened Pharaoh's heart] He than the sight they saw not. For though no terrible had yet another miracle to work for the complete conthing did scare theň, yet being scared with beasts that viction of the Egyptians and triumph of his people ; passed by, and hissing of serpents, they died for fear : and till that was wrought he permitted the natural obstifor whether he were husbandman, or shepherd, or a nacy of Pharaoh's haughty heart to have its full sway, labourer in the field, he was avertaken; for they were' after each resistance of the gracious influence which all bound with one chain of darkness. Whether it was intended to soften and bring him to repentance. were a whistling wind, or a terrible sound of stones Verse 28. See my face no more] Hitherto Pharaoh cast down, or a running that could not be seen of trip- had left the way open for negotiation ; but now, in ping beasts, or a roaring voice of most savage wild wrath against Jehovah, he dismisses his ambassador, beasts, or a rebounding echo from the hollow mount- and threatens him with death if he should attempt any ains, these things made them to swoon for fear.” See more to come into his presence. Psalm lxxvii. 49.

Verse 29. I will see thy face again no more.] 'It is To this description nothing need be added except very likely that this was the last interview that Moses this circumstance, that the darkness, with its attendant had with Pharaoh, for what is related, chap. xi. 4-8, horrorš, lasted for three days.

might have been spoken on this very occasion, as it is All the children of Israel had light] By thus dis- very possible that God gave Moses to understand his tinguishing the Israelites, God showed the Egyptians purpose to slay the first-born, while before Pharaoh at that the darkness was produced by his power; that he this time ; so, in all probability, the interview mensent it in judgment against them for their cruelty to his tioned here was the last which Moses had with the people ; that because they trusted in him they were Egyptian king. It is true that in ver. 31 of chap. xii. exempted from these plagues ; that in the displeasure of it is stated that Pharaoh called for Moses and Aaron such a Being his enemies had every thing to fear, and by night, and ordered them to leave Egypt, and to take in his approbation his followers had every thing to hope. all their substance with them, which seems to imply

Verse 24. Only let your flocks and your herds be that there was another interview, but the words may. stayed] Pharaoh cannot get all he wishes ; and as he imply no more than that Moses and Aaren received sees it impossible to contend with Jehovah, he now such a message from Pharaoh. If, however, this mode

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The Israelites commanded to ask

CHAP. XI.

gold and silver of the Egyptians.

of interpreting these passages should not seem satis- | health and strength didst thou not return unto iniquity? factory to any, he may understand the words of Moses And art thou not still in the broad road of transgresthus : I will see thy face-seek thy favour, no more sion ? Be not deceived ; God is not mocked ; he warns in behalf of my people, which was literally true ; for thee, but he will not be mocked by thee. What thou if Moses did appear any more before Pharaoh, it was sowest, that thou must reap. Think then what a most not as a supplicant, but merely as the ambassador of dreadful harvest thou mayest expect from the seeds God, to denounce his judgments by giving him the of vice which thou hast already sown! final determination of Jehovah relative to the destruc-1: 2. Even in the face of God's judgments the spirit tion of the first-born.

of avarice will make its requisitions. Only let your

flocks and your herds be stayed, says Pharaoh. The 1. To the observations at the conclusion of the love of gain was the ruling principle of this man's soul, preceding chapter, we may add that at first view it and he chooses desperately to contend with the justice seems exceedingly strange that, after all the proofs of his Maker, rather than give up his bosom sin ! Pharaoh had of the power of God, he should have Reader, is this not thy own case ? And art thou not acted in the manner related in this and the preceding ready, with Pharaoh, to say to the messenger of God, chapters, alternately sinning and repenting ; but it is who rebukes thee for thy worldly mindedness, &c., really a common case, and multitudes who condemn the Get thee gone from me. Take heed to thyself, and conduct of this miserable Egyptian king, act in a siinilar see my face no more. Esau and Pharaoh have both manner. They relent when smarting under God's judg- got a very bad name, and many persons who are rements, but harden their hearts when these judgments peating their crimes are the foremost to cover them are removed. Of this kind I have witnessed numerous with obloquy! When shall we learn to look at home ? cases. To such God says by his prophet, Why should to take warning by the miscarriages of others, and ye be stricken any more? ye will revolt more and more. thus shun the pit into which we have seen

so many Reader, are not the vows of God upon thee? Often fall ? If God were to give the history of 'every man when afflicted in thyself or family. hast thou not said who hardens himself from his fear, how many Pharaohkike Pharaoh, (ver. 17;) Now therefore forgive, I pray like cases should we have on record! But a day is thee, my sin only THIS ONCE, and take away from me coming in which the secrets of every heart shall be this death only? And yet when thou hadst respite, revealed, and the history of every man's life laid open didst thou not harden. thy heart, and with returning to an assembled world.

CHAPTER XI.'

God

purposes to bring another plague upon Pharaoh, after which he should let the Israelites go, 1. They. are commanded to ask gold and silver from the Egyptians, 2.' The estimation in which Moses was held among the Egyptians, 3, Moses predicts the destruction of the first-born of the Egyptians, 4-6, and Israel's protection, 7. On seeing which, Pharaoh and his servants should entreat the Hebrews to depart, 8.

The prediction of his previous obstinacy, 9, 10.-
A: 4.2513. AND ihe Lord said unto. Moses, every woman of her neighbour, A. M. 2513.

Yet will I bring one plague "jewels of silver, and jewels of gold. more upon Pharaoh, and upon Egypt; after- . 3 . And the Lord gave the people favour in wards he will let you go hence': “when he the sight of the Egyptians. Moreover the man shall let you go, he shall surely thrust you a: Moses was very great in the land of Egypt, out hence altogether.

in the sight of Pharaoh's servants, and in the 2 Speak now in the ears of the people, and sight of the people."let every man borrow of his neighbour, and 4 And Moses said; Thus saith the LORD, a Ch. xii. 31, 33, 39.- b Ch.iii. 22; xii. 35.- -- Ch. iii. 21 ; xij. 36; Psa. cvi. 46. 1 2 Sam. vii. 9; Esth. ix. 4 ; Eccles. xlv. 1. NOTES ON CHAP. XI.

Verse 2. Let every man borrow] For a proper corVerse 1. The Lord said unto Moses) Calmet con- rection of the strange mistranslation of the word S80 tends that this should be read in the preterpluperfect shaal in this verse, see the note on chap. iii. 22. tense, for the Lord has said to Moses, as the fourth, Verse 3. The man Moses was very great] The fifth, sixth, seventh, and eighth verses appear to have miracles which Pharaoh and his servants had already been spoken when Moses had the interview with Pha- seen him work had doubtless impressed them with a raoh mentioned in the preceding chapter ; see the note high opinion of his 'wisdom and power.

Had he not there on verse 29. If therefore this chapter be con- appeared in their sight as a very extraordinary person, nected with the preceding, as it should be, and the first whom it would have been very dangerous to molest, three verses not only read in the past tense but also in we may naturally conclude that some violence would a parenthesis, the sense will be much more distinct and long ere this have been offered to his person. clear than it now appears.

Verse 4. About midnight will I go out] Whether

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