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A prediction of the tenth


plague, and its effects. A. M, 2513. • About midnight will I go out into all the land of Egypt, such as A. M. 2513 B. C. 1491.

B. C. 1491. the midst of Egypt:

there was none like it, nor shall be 5 And fall the first-born in the land of like it any

Egypt shall die, from the first-born of Pha-| 7 But against any of the children of Israel
raoh that sitteth upon his throne, even unto i shall not a dog move his tongue, against man
the first-born of the maid-servant that is be- or beast : that ye may know how that the
hind the mill; and all the first-born of beasts. Lord doth put a difference between the Egyp-

6 5 And there shall be a great cry throughout tians and Israel.
Chapter xii. 12, 23, 29; Amos v. 17. - Chapter xii. 12, 29; Chap. xii. 30; Amos v. 17; Wisd. xviii. 10.- h Chap. viii.
Amos iv. 10.

22. Josh. x. 21.
God did this by the ministry of a gồod or of an evil out any kind of molestation. For though there must
angel is a matter of little importance, though some com- be much bustle and comparative confusion in the sud-
mentators have greatly magnified it. Both kinds of den removal of six hundred thousand persons with their
angels are under his power and jurisdiction, and he wives, children, goods, cattle, &c., yet this should pro-
may employ them as he pleases. Such a work of de- duce so little alarm that even the dogs should not bark
struction as the slaying of the first-born is supposed to at them, which it would be natural to expect, as the
be more proper far a bad than for a good angel. But principal stir was to be about midnight.
the works of God's justice are not less holy and pure After giving this general explanation from others, I
than the works of his mercy; and the highest archangel may be permitted to hazard a conjecture of my own.
may, with the utmost propriety, be employed in either. And, 1. Is it not probable that the allusion is here made

Verse 5. The first-born of Pharaoh, fc.). From to a well-known custom of dogs howling when any the heir to the Egyptian throne to the son of the most mortality is in a village, street, or even house, where abject slave, or the principal person in each family. such animals are ! There are innumerable instances. See the note on chap. xii. 29.

of the faithful house-dog howling when a death hapThe maid-servant that is behind the mill] The pens in a family, as if distressed on the account, feelmeanest slaves were employed in this work. In many ing for the loss of his benefactor ; but their apparent · parts of the east they still grind all their corn with a presaging such an event by their cries, as some will kind of portable mill-stones, the upper one of which is, have it, may be attributed, not to any prescience, but turned round by a sort of lever fixed in the rim. A to the exquisite keenness of their scent. If the words drawing of one of these machines as used in China is may be understood in this way, then the great cry now before me, and the person who grinds is repre- through the whole land of Egypt may refer to this sented as pushing the lever before him, and thus run- very circumstance : as dogs were sacred among them, ning round with the stone. Perhaps something like and consequently religiously preserved, they must have this is intended by the expression beind the mill in existed in great multitudes. 2, We know that one of the text. On this passage Dr. Shaw has the following their principal deities was Osiris, whose son, worshipobservation :" Most families grind their wheat and ped under the form of a dog, or a man with a dog's barley at home, having two portable mill-stones for that head, was called Anubis latrator, the barking Anubis. purpose, the uppermost of which is turned round by a May he not be represented as deploring a calamity small handle of wood or iron that is placed in the rim. which he had no power to prevent among his worshipWhen this stone is large, or expedition required, a pers, nor influence to inflict punishment upon those who second person is called in to assist ; and as it is usual set his deity at naught? Hence while there was a for women alone to be concerned in this employment, great cry, 7577 mpys tseakah gedolah, throughout all who seat themselves over against each other with the the land of Egypt, because of the mortality in every mill-stone between them, we may see, not only the pro- house, yet among the Israelites there was no death, priety of the expression (Exod. xi. 5) of sitting behind consequently no dog moved his tongue to howl for their the mill, but the force of another, (Matt. xxiv. 40,) calamity ; nor could the object of the Egyptians' wor. that two women shall be grinding at the mill; the one ship inflict any similar punishment on the worshippers shall be taken, and the other left.”_Travels, p. 231, of Jéhovah. 4to edit. These portable mills, under the name of In honour of this dog-god there was a city called querns, were used among our ancestors in this and the Anubis in Egypt, by the Greeks called Cynopolis, the sister kingdoms, and some of them are in use to the city of the dog, the same that is now called Menich ; present day. Both the instrument and its name our in this he had a temple, and dogs, which were sacred forefathers seem to have borrowed from the continent. to him, were here fed with consecrated victuals. They have long existed among the inhabitants of Shet- Thus, as in the first plagues their magicians were land, Iceland, Norway, Denmark, &o,

confounded, so in this last their gods were put to flight. Verse 6. There shall be a great cry] Of the dying And may not this be referred to in chap. xii. 12, when and for the dead. See more on this subject, chap. xii. 30. Jehovah says : Against all the gods of Egypt I will

Verse 7. Not a dog move his tongue] This passage execute judgment ? Should it be objected, that to conhas been generally understood as a proverbial expres- sider the passage in this light would be to acknowledge sion, intimating that the Israelites should not only be the being and deity of the fictitious Anubis, it may be free from this death, but that they should depart with- answered, that in the sacred writings it is not an un

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B. C. 1491.

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Pharaoh again


hardens his heart. A. M. 2513. 8 And k all these tlry servants shall not hearken unto you; that A.M. 2513. B. C. 1491.

shall come down unto me, and bow • my wonders may be multiplied down themselves unto me, saying, Get thee in the land of Egypt. out, and all the people .I that follow thee : and 10 And Moses and Aaron did all these wonafter that I will go out. And he went out' ders before Pharaoh : P and the LORD hardfrom Pharaoh in ma great anger.

ened Pharaoh's heart, so that he would not 9 And the Lord said unto Moses, " Pharaoh let the children of Israel go out of his land. * Chap. xii. 33. - Heb. that is at thy feet; so Judg. iv..10; m Heb. keat of anger.- · Chap. ii. 19 ; vii. 4; x. 1. vii. 5; 1 Kings xx. 10; 2 Kings iii. 9.

vii. 3. -P Chap. x. 20, 27; Rom, ij. 5; ix. 22. common thing to see the idol acknowledged in order to between the Hebrew and Samaritan copies of this show its nullity, and the more forcibly to express con- work. In this chapter the variations are of considertempt for it, for its worshippers, and for its worship. able importance, and competent critics have allowed Thus Isaiah represents the Babylonish idols as being that the Samaritan text, especially in this chapter, is endued with sense, bowing down under the judgments fuller and better connected than that of the Hebrew. of God, atterly unable to help themselves or their t. It is evident that the eighth verse in the present worshippers, and being a burden to the beasts that car- Hebrew text has no natural conneetion with the seried them: Bel boweth down, Nebo stoopeth; their venth, For in the seventh verse Moses delivers to idols were upon the beasts and upon the cattle : your the Israelites what God had commanded him to say: carriages were heavy laden; they are a burden to the and in the eighth he appears to continue a direct disweary beast. . They stoop, they bow down together ; course unto Pharaoh, though it does not appear when they could not deliver the burden, but themselves are this discourse was begun. This is quite contrary to gone into captivily ; chay. xlvi. 1, 2. The case of Eli- f.the custom of Moses, who always particularly notes jah and the prophets of Baal should not be forgotten the commencement of his discourses. here ; this prophet, by seeming to acknowledge the 2. It is not likely that the Samaritans have added reality of Baal's being, though by a strong irony, pour- these portions, as they could have no private interest ed the most sovereign contempt upon him, his worship- to serve by so doing; and therefore it is likely that pers, and his worship: And Elijah mocked them, and these additions were originally parts of the sacred text, said; Cry aloud; For HE IS A GOD : either he is talk- and might have been omjited, because an ancient copying, or he is pursuing, or he is in a journey, or perada ist found the substance of them in other places. It venture he sleepeth and must be awaked; 1 Kings must however be granted, that the principal additions xvui. 27. See the observations at the end of chap. xii. in the Samaritan are repetitions of speeches which ex:

The Lord doth put a difference] See on chap. viii. ist in the Hebrew text. 22. And for the variations between the Hebrew and- 3. The principal part of these additions do not ap-. Samaritan Pentateuch in this place, see at the end of pear to have been borrowed from any other quarter. the chapter.

Interpolations in general are easily discerned from the Verse 8. And aļl these thy servants shall come] confusion they introduce ; but instead of deranging A prediction of what actually took place. See 'chap.. the sense, the additions here make it much more appaxii. 31-33.

rent; for should these not be admitted it is evident Verse 9. Pharaoh shall not hearken' unto you) that something is wanting, without which the connecThough shall and will are both reputed signs of the tion is incomplete. -See Calmet: But the reader is future tense, and by many indiscriminately used, yet still requested to observe, that the supplementary malthey make a most essential difference in composition ter in the Samaritan is collected from other parts of in a variety of cases. · For instance, if we translate the Hebrew text'; and that the principal merit of the yax's lo yishma, Pharaoh shall not hearken, as in Samaritan is;, that it preserves the words in a better our text, the word shall strongly intimates that it was arrangement. impossible for Pharaoh to hearken, and that God had Dr. Kennicott has entered into this subject at large, placed him under that impossibility: but if we trans- and by printing the two texts in parallel columns, the late as we should do, Pharaoh will not hearken, it supplementary matter in the Samaritan and the hiatus in alters the case most essentially, and agrees with the the Hebrew text will be at once perceived. It is well many passages in the preceding chapters, 'where he is known that he preferred the Samaritan to the Hebrew, said to have hardened his own heart; as this proves Pentateuch ; and his reasons for that preference in this that he, without any impulsive necessity, obstinately case I shall subjoin.' As the work is extremely scarce refused to attend to what Moors said or threatened ; from which I select them, one class of readers espeand that God took the advantage of this óbstinacy to cially will be glad to meet with them in this place. work another' miracle, and thus multiply his wonders "Within these five chapters, vii., viii., ix., x., and in the land.

xi., are seven very great differences between the He· Pharaoh will not hearken unto you ; and because brew and Samaritan Pentateuchs, relating to the speeches he would not God hardened his heart-left him to his which denounced seven out of the ten judgments upon own obstinacy.

the Egyptians, viz., walers into blood, frogs, flies, mur

rain, hail, locusts, and destruction of the first-born. To most critics it is well known that there are in The Hebrew text gives the speeches concerning these several parts of the Pentateuch considerable differences) judgments only once at each ; but the Samarilan gives

The Hebrew and Samaritan


-texts collated and compared.

each speech twice. In the Hebrew we have the

EXODUS XI. speeches concerning the five first as in command from


SAMARITAN God to Moses, without reading that Moses delivered

4. For about midnight them; and concerning the two last, as delivered by

I will go forth into the Moses to Pharaoh, without reading that God had com

midst of the land of Egypt. manded them. Whereas in the Samaritan we find

5. And every first-born every speech TWICE: God commands Moses to go and

in the land of Egypt shall speak thus or thus before Pharaoh ; Moses goes and

die, from the first-born of denounces the judgment; Pharaoh disobeys, and the

Pharaoh who sitteth upon judgment takes place. All this is perfectly regular,

his throne, unto the firstand exactly agreeable to the double speeches of Homer

born of the maid-servant in very ancient times. I have not the least doubt that

that is 'behind the milt, the Hebrew text now wants many words in each of

and even unto the firstthe seven following places : chap. vii., between verses

born of every beast. 18 and 19; end of chap. vii.; chap. yiii., between 19

6. And there shall be a and 20; chap. x., between 2 and 3 ; chap. xi., at

great cry through all the verses 3 and 4. The reader will. permit me to refer

land of Egypt, such as him (for all the words thus omitted) to my own edition

there was none like it, nor of the Hebrew Bible, (Oxford 1780, 2 vols. fol.,) where

shall be like it any more. the whole differences are most clearly described. As

7. But against any of this is a matter of very extensive consequence,

I can

the children of Israel shall not but observe Here, that the present Hebrew text

not a dog move his longue, of Exod. xi. did formerly, and does still appear to me

against man or even against to furnish a demonstration against itself, in proof of

beast; that thou mayest the double speech being formerly recorded there, as

**know that Jehovah doth it is now in the Samarilan. And some very learned

put å difference between men have confessed the impossibility of explaining

the Egyptians and Israel. this chapter without the assistance of the Samaritan Moreover the man-Moses 8. And thou also shalt Pentateuch. I shall now give this important chapter was very great in the land be greatly honoured in as I presume it stood originally, distinguishing by rita- of Egypt, in the sight of the land of Egypt, in the lics all such words as are added to or differ from our Pharaoh's servants, and in sight of Pharaoh's serpresent translation. And before this chapter must be the sight of the people. vants, and in the sight of placed the two last verses of the chapter preceding,

the people. Exod. x. 28 : And Pharaoh said unto him, Get thee

9. THEN Moses said from me, take heed to thyself, see my face no more ;

unto Pharaoh, Thus saith for in that day thou seest my face thou shalt die.

Jehovah, Israel is my son, 29 : And Moses said, Thou hast well spoken, I will

my first-born ; and I said see thy face again no more.

unto thee, Let my son go

that he may serve me. EXODUS XI.

10. But thou hast re


hold, Jehovah slayeth thy

son, thy first-born. .1. And the Lord said 1. Then Jehovah said 4. And Moses said, Thus 11. And Moses said, unto Moses, Yet will I unto Moses, Yet 'will I saith the Lord, About mid-' .Thus-saith Jehovah, About bring one plague. more bring one plague more night will I go out into midnight will. I go forth upon Pharaoh and upon upon Pharaoh ‘and upon the midst

into the midst of the land Egypt, afterwards he Egypt, and afterwards he of Egypt.

of Egypt. will let you go hence :s will send you out hence : 5. And all the first-born 12. And every first-born when he shall let you go, when he will send you in the land of Egypt shall in the land of Egypt shallhe shall surely thrust you away, he will surely drive dic, from the first-born of die, from the first-born of out hence altogether. you hence altogether: Pharaoh that sitteth upono Pharaoh that sitteth upon

2. Speak now in the.. 2. Speak now in the his throne, even unto the his throne, unto the firstears of the people ; and ears of the people ; and first-born of the maid-ser- born of the maid-servant let every man BORROW of - let every man ask of his vant that is behind i he that is behind the mill; his neighbour, and every neighbour, and every wo- mill; and all the first-born and even unto' the firstwoman of her neighbour, man of her neighbour, ves- of beasts..

born of


beast.' jewels of silver, and jewels sels of silver, and vessels 6. And there shall be 13. And there shall be of gold.

of gold and raiment. a great cry through all the a great cry through all the 3. And the Lord GAVE 3. And I will give this land of Egypt, such as land of Egypt, such as the people favour in the people favour in the sight there was none like it, there was none like it, sight of the Egyptians. of the Egyptians, so that nor shall be like it' any nor shall be like it any

they shall give them what more.
they ask,

7. But against any of 14. But against any of

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Directions concerning the


celebration of the passover. EXODUS XI.



SAMARITAN. the children of Israel shall the children of Israel shall 10. And Moses and 18. And. Moses and Dot a dog move his tongue, not a dog move his tongue, Aaron did all these won- Aaron performed all these against man or

against man or even against ders before Pharaoh : and wonders before Pharaoh : beast ; that ye may know beast : that thou mayest the Lord hardened Pha- but Jehovah hardened how that the Lord doth know that the Lord doth raoh's heart, so that he Pharaoh's heart, so that pat a difference between put a difference between would not let the chil- he would not let the chilthe Egyptians and Israel. the Egyptians and Israel. dren of Israel go out of dren of Israel go out of 8., And all these thy 15. And all these thy his land.

his land. servants shall come down servants shall come down unto me, and bow down to me, and ;bow down " The reader has now the whole of this chapter themselves unto me, say- themselves to me, saying, before him. When, therefore, he has first read the ing, Get thee out and all the Go forth, thou and all the 28th and 29th verses of the preceding chapter, and people that follow thee ; people that follow thee; has then observed with due surprise the confusion of and after that I will go out. and then I will go forth. * the Hebrew text in chap. xi., he will be prepared to And he went out from . 16. Then went hè forth acknowledge with due gratitude the regularity and Pharaoh in great anger. : from before Pharaoh in truth of the Samaritan text, through these many and great indignation.

very considerable differences." —Remarks on select 9. And the Lord said 17. And Jéhovah said passages in the Old Testament, 8vo., Oxford, 1787. unto Moses, Pharaoh shall unto. Moses, Pharaoh doth The reader will pass his own judgment on the not hearken unto you, that not hearken unto you, that weight of this reasoning, and the importance of the my wonders may be multi- my wonders may be multi- additions preserved in the Samaritan 'text'; a convicplied in the land of Egypt. plied in the land of Egypt. | tion of their wtility has induced me to įnsert them,

CHAPTER XII. The month Abib is to be considered as the commencement of the year, 1, 2. The Passover instituted ; the

lamb or kid to be used on the occasion to be taken from the flock ihe tenth day of the month, and each family to provide one, 3, 4. The lamb or kid to be a male of the first year without blemish, 5. "To be killed on the fourteenth day, 6, and the blood to be sprinkled on the side posts and lintėls of the doors, 7. The flesh to be prepared by roasting, and not to be eaten either sodden or raw, 8, 9; and no part of it to be left till the morning, 10. The people to eat it with their loins girded, fc., 'as persons prepared for a journey, 11. Why called the Passover, 12. The blood sprinkled on the door posts, fc., to be a token to them of preservation from the destroying angel, 13. The fourteenth day of the month Abib to be a feast for erer, 14. Unleavened bread to be eaten seven days, 15. This also to be observed in all their generations for ever; 17-20. Mloses instructs the elders of Israel how they are to offer the lamb and sprinkle his blood, and for what purpose, 21-23. He binds them to instruct their children in the viature of this rite, 24–27. The children of Israel act as commanded, 28. All the first-born of Egypt slain; 29, 30. Pharaoh and the Egyptians urge Moses, Aaron, and the Israelites to depart, 31-33. They prepare for their departure, and get gold, silver, and raiment from the Egyptians, 34-36. They journey from Rameses to Succoth, in number six hundred thousand men, besides women and children, and a mited mullitude, 37, 38. They bake unleavened cakes 'of the dough they brought with them out of Egypt, 39. ,The time in which they sojourned in Egypt, 40–42, Different ordinances concerning the Passover, 43-49; which are all punctually observed by the people, who are brought out of Egypt the same day, 50, 51. A. M. 2513. AND the Lord spáke unto beginning of months : it shall : A. M. 2513.

Moses and Aaron in the be the first month of the year an. Exod. Isr. 1. Abib or Nisan land of Egypt, saying,

Abib or Nisan. 2 a This month · shall be unto you the 3 Speak ye unto all the congregation of

a Chap. xiii. 4; Deut. xvi. 1; xxții. 15; xxxiv. 18; Lev. xiii. 5; Num. xxviii. 16; Esth. ii. 7.

the earth appeared at once with all its fruits in perfecVerse 2. This month shall be unto you the begin- tion. From this circumstance the Jews have formed ring of months) It is supposed that God now changed a twofold commencement of the year, which has given the commencement of the Jewish year. The month rise to a twofold denomination of the year itself, to to which this verse refers, the month Abib, answers to which they afterwards attended in all their reckon& part of our March and April ; whereas it is supposed ings : 'that which began with Tisri or September was that previously to this the year began with Tisri, called their civil year; that which began with Abib or which answers to a part of our September; for in this March was called the sacred or ecclesiastical year. month the Jews suppose God created the world, when As the exodus of the Israelites formed a particular

An. Exod. Isr. 1.

to you.

B. C. 1491.

B. C. 1491.

Abib or Nisan.

The paschal


lamb described. A. M. 2513. Israel, saying, In the tenth day | souls ; every man, according to A. M. 2513. An. Exod. Isr. 1. of this month they shall take to his eating, shall make your count An. Exod. 1st. 1. Abib or Nisan. them every man a bļamb; ac- for the lamb. cording to the house of their fathers, a lamb 5 Your lamb shall be c without blemish, a for a house :

male d of the first year: ye shall take it out 4 And if the household be too little for the from the sheep, or from the goats : lamb, let him and his neighbour next unto his 6 And ye shall keep it up until the : fourhouse take it, according to the number of the teenth day of the same month: and the whole

b Or, kid. - Lev. xxii. 19, 20, 21 ; Mal. i. 8, 14; Heb. ix. 14; 1 Heb. son of a Lev. xxni. 12.- - Lev. xxiii. 5; Num. 1 Pet. i. 19.

ix. 3 ; xxvii. 16; Deut. xvi. 1, 6.


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era, which is referred to in Jewish reckonings down to rabbins allow that there should be at least ten persons the building of the temple, I have marked it as súch to one paschal lamb, and not more than twenty. in the chronology in the margin; and shall carry it down Take it, according to the number of the souls] The to the time in which it ceased to be acknowledged. persons

who were to eat of it were to be first ascer. Some very eminently learned men dispute this ; and tained, and then the lamb was to be slain and dressed especially Houbigant, who contends with great plau- for thal number. sibility of argument that no new commencement of the Verse 5. Without blemish} Having no natural imyear is noted in this place; for that the year had al- perfection, no disease; no deficiency or redundancy of ways begun in this month, and that the words shall be, parts. On this point the rabbins have trifled most which are inserted by different versions, have nothing egregiously, reckoning fifly blemishes that render a answering to them in the Hebrew, which he renders. lamb or a kid, or any animal, improper to be sacrificed : literally thus : Hic mensis vobis est capul mensium ; five in the ear, three in the eyelid, eight in the eye, hic yobis primus est anni mensis. ' “This month is to three in the nose, six in the mouth, &c., &c. you the head or chief of the months; it is to you the A male of the first year] That is, any age in the first month of the year.” And he observes farther first year between eight days and twelve months. that God only marks it thus, as is evident from the From the sheep, or from the goats] The 70 seh context, to show the people that this month, which means either; and either was equally proper if withwas the beginning of their year, should be so desig- out blemish. The Hebrews however in general prenated as to point out to their posterity on what month ferred the lamb to the kid. and on what day of the month they were to celebrate Verse 6. Ye shall keep it up until the fourteenth day) the passover and the feast of unleavened bread. His The lamb or kid was to be taken from the flock on the words are these : “ Ergo superest, et Hebr. ipso ex tenth day, and kept up and fed by itself till the fourcontextu efficitur, non hic novi ordinis annum con- teenth day, when it was to be sacrificed. This was stitui, sed eum anni mensem, qui esset primus, ideo never commanded nor practised afterwards. The rabcommemorari, ut posteris conştaret, quo mense, et quo bins mark four things that were required in the first die mensis pascha et azyma celebranda essent." passover that were never required afterwards : 1. The

Verse 3. In the tenth day of this month) In after eating of the lamb in their houses dispersed through times they began their preparation on the thirteenth Goshen. . 2. The taking the lamb on the tenth day. day or day before the Passover, which was not cele- ( 3. The striking of its blood on the door posts and linbrated till the fourteenth day, see ver. 6 : but on the tels of their houses. And, 4. Their eating it in haste. present occasion, as this was their first passover, they These things were not required of the succeeding probably required more time to get ready in; as a generations. state of very great confusion must have prevailed at The whole assembly-shall kill it] Any person this time. Mr. Ainsworth remarks that on this day might kill it, the sacrificial act in this case, not-being the Israelites did afterwards go through Jordan into confined to the priests. the land of Canaan'; Josh. iv. 19. And Christ, our * In the evening.) d'anyo ya beyn haarbayim, “ bePaschal Lamb, on this day entered Jerusalem, riding tween the two evenings.” The Jews divided the day on an ass; the people bearing palm branches, and into morning and evening: till the sun passed the mericrying, Hosanna, John xii. 1, 12, 13, &c. : and in dian all was morning or forenoon; after that, all was him this type was truly fulfilled.

afternoon or evening. Their first evening began just A lamb] The original word nu seh signifies the after twelve o'clock, and continued till sunset; their young of sheep and of goats, and may be indifferently second evening began at sunset and continued till night, translated either lamb or kid. See ver. 5.

i. e., during the whole time of twilight; between twelve A lamb for a house). The whole host of Israel was o'еlock, therefore, and the termination of twilight, the divided into twelve tribes, these tribes into familjes, passover was to be offered. the families into houses, and the houses into particular “ The day among the Jews had twelve hours, John persons; Num. i., Josh. vii. 14.-Ainsworth, xi. 9. Their first hour was about six o'clock in the

Verse 4. If the household be too little] That is, If morning with us. Their sirth hour was our noon. there be not persons enough in one family to eat a Their ninth hour answered to our three o'clock in the whole lamb, then two families must join together. The afternoon. By this we may understand that the time

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