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A. M. 2513.
All the first-born of the
Egyptians are slain. A. M. 2513.
And it came to pass, that was in the dungeon ; and all the B. C. 1491.
B. C. 1491. An. Exod. Isr. 1. at midnight ’ the LORD smote all first-born of cattle.
An. Exod. Isr.). Abib or Nisan.
the first-born in the land of Egypt, 30 And Pharaoh rose up in Abib or Nisan. 9 from the first-born of Pharaoh that sat on his the night, he, and all his servants, and all throne, unto the first-born of the captive that the Egyptians; and there was a great cry
•Chap. xi. 4.— Num. viii. 17; xxxiii. 4 ; Psa. lxxviii. 51; xviii. 11. —Heb, house of the pit.- Chap. xi. 6; Prov. xxi. cv. 36 ; cxxxv. 8; cxxxvi. 10.-~~~ Chap. iv. 23; xi. 5; Wisd. 13; Amos v. 17; James ii. 13.
Verse 29. Smote all the first-born] If we take the joined to another that signifies any kind of misery or term first-born in its literal sense only, we shall be led disgrace, it then signifies the depth of misery, the utto conclude that in a vast number of the houses of the most disgrace. So the FIRST-BORN of the poor, Isa. Egyptians there could have been no death, as it is not xiv. 30, signifies the most abject, destitute, and imat all likely that every first-born child of every Egyp- poverished. The FIRST-BORN of death, Job. xviii. 13, tian fanrily was still alive, and that all the first-born of means the most horrible kind of death. So in the their cattle still remained. And yet it is said, ver. 30, threatening against Pharaoh, chap. xi. 5, where he that there was not a house where there was not one informs him that he will slay all the first-born, from dead. The word therefore must not be taken in its the first-born of Pharaoh that sitteth upon the throne, literal sense only. From its use in a great variety of to the first-born of the maid-servant that is behind the places in the Scriptures it is evident that it means the mill, he takes in the very highest and lowest condichief, most excellent, best beloved, most distinguished, tions of life.
As there was no state in Egypt supe&c. In this sense our blessed Lord is called the FIRST- rior to the throne, so there was none inferior to that BORN of every creature, Col. i. 15, and the First-BORN of the female slave that ground at the mill. The among many brethren, Rom. viii. 29; that is, he is Prophet Habakkuk seems to fix this as the sense in more excellent than all creatures, and greater than all which the word is used here; for speaking of the the children of men. In the same sense .we may un- plagues of Egypt in general, and the salvation which derstand Rev. i. 5, where Christ is called the FIRST- God afforded his people, he says, chap. iii. 13 : Thou BEGOTTEN from the dead, i. e., the chief of all that wentest forth for the salvation of thy people—thou have ever visited the empire of death, and on whom woundedst the HEAD (vx7 rosh, the chief, the most exdeath has had any power; and the only one who by cellent) of the house of the wicked—of Pharaoh and his own might quickened himself, In the same sense the Egyptians. And the author of the book of Wiswisdom is represented as being brought forth before all dom understood it in the same way: The master and the creatures, and being possessed by the Lord in the the servant were punished after one manner; and like beginning of his ways, Prov. viii. 22–30; that is, the as the king, so suffered the common people--for in one wisdom of God is peculiarly conspicuous in the produc- moment the NOBLEST OFFSPRING of them was destroyed; tion, arrangement, and government of every part of chap. xviii. 11, 12. And in no other sense can we the creation. So Ephraim is called the Lord's FIRST- understand the word in Psa. Ixxxix. 27, where, among BORN, Jer. xxxi. 9.
And the people of Israel are often the promises of God to David, we find the following : called by the same name, see Exod. iv. 22 : Israel is Also I will make him my FIRST-BORN, higher than the my son, my FIRST-BORN; that is, the people in whom kings of the earth ; in which passage the latter clause I particularly delight, and whom I will especially sup- explains the former; David, as king, should be the port and defend, And because the first-born are in FIRST-Born of God, i. e., he should be higher than the general peculiarly dear to their parents, and because kings of the earth—the most EMINENT potentate in the among the Jews they had especial and peculiar privi- universe. In this sense, therefore, we should underleges, whatever was most dear, most valuable, and most stand the passage in question; the most eminent perprized, was thus denominated. So Micah vi. 7: Shall son in every family in Egypt, as well as those who I give my FIRST-BORN for my transgression, the fruit were literally the first-born, being slain in this plague. of my body for the sin of my soul ? Shall I give up Calmet and some other critics particularly contend for the most beloved child I have, he that is most dear and this sense. most necessary to me, in order to make an atonement Verse 30. There was a great cry] No people in for my sins ! In like manner the Prophet Zechariah, the universe were more remarkable for their mournspeaking of the conversion of the Jews to the Gossings.than the Egyptians, especially in matters of relipel of Christ, represents them as looking on him whòm gion ; they whipped, beat, tore themselves, and howled they have pierced, and being as one that is in bitterness in all the excess of grief. When a relative died, the for his FIRST-BORN ; that is, they shall feel distress and people left the house, ran into the streets, and howled anguish as those who had lost their most beloved child. in the most lamentable and frantie manner. See Diod. So the Church triumphant in the kingdom of God are Sicul., lib. i., and Herod., lib. i., c. 85, 86. And called; Heb. xii. 23, the general assembly and Church this latter author happening to be in Egypt on one of the FIRST-BORN, i. e., the most noble and excellent of their solemnities, saw nyriads of people whipping of all human if not created beings. So Homer, Il. and beating themselves in this manner, lib. ii., c. 60; iv., ver. 102: Apvov apuroyovwv peçelv KłELTI Éka- and see Mr. Bryant on the Plagues of Egypt, where tou3nv. “A hecatomb of lambs all firstlings of the many examples are given, p. 162, &c. How dreadflock." That is, the most excellent of their kind. ful then must the scene of horror and distress appear, In a contrary sense, when the word first-born is when there was not one house or family in Egypt 354
( 24* )
A. M. 2513.
A. M. 2513.
Pharaoh commands the
Israelites to depart. in Egypt; for there was not a 34 And the people took their An. Exod. Isr. 1. house where there was not one dough before it was leavened, An Exod. Isr. 1. Abib or Nisan. dead.
their 2 kneading-troughs being Abib or Nisan. 31 And he called for Moses and Aaron by bound up in their clothes upon their night, and said, Rise up, and get you forth shoulders. from among my people, u both ye and the 35 And the children of Israel did according children of Israel ; and go, serve the LORD, to the word of Moses : and they borrowed as ye have said.
of the Egyptians a jewels of silver, and jewels 32 - Also take your flocks and your herds, of gold, and raiment : as ye have said, and be gone; and w bless 36 b And the Lord gave the people favour me also.
in the sight of the Egyptians, so that they 33 * And the Egyptians were urgent upon | lent unto them such things as they required. the people, that they might send them out of. And a they spoiled the Egyptians. the land in haste; for they said, " We be all. 37 And d the children of Israel journeyed dead men.
from e Rameses to Succoth, about f six hun
Chap. xi. 1 ; Psa. cv. 38. Chap. x. 9.-- Chap. x. 26. Chap. iii. 21 ; xi. 3. — * Gen. xv. 14 ; chap. iii. 22 ; Psa. cv. * Gen. xxvii. 34. Chay. xi. 8; Psa, cv. 38.-~* Gen. Xx. 3. | 37. _ Num. xxxiii. 3, 5. Le Gen. xlvii. 11. -Gen. xii. 2; i Or, dough ; chap. viii. 3. -2 -2 Chap. ini. 22 ; xi. 2.
xlvi. 3; chap. Xxxviii. 26; Num. i. 46 ; xi. 21.
where there was not one dead; and according to their Verse 37. From Rumeses to Succoth] Rameses custom, all the family running out into the streets be- appears to have been another name for Goshen, though wailing this calamity!
it is probable that there might have been a chief city Verse 31. Called for Moses and Aaron] That is, or village in that land, where the children of Israel he sent the message here mentioned to them; for it rendezvoused previously to their departure, called does not appear that he had any farther interview with Rameses. As the term Şuccoth signifies booths or Moses and Aaron, after what is mentioned chap. x. tents; it is probable that this place was so named from 28, 29, and xi. 8. See the notes there.
its being the place of the first encampment of the Verse 33. The Egyptians were urgent upon the Israelites. people] They felt much, they feared more; and there- Six hundred thousand] That is, There was this fore wished to get immediately rid of a people on number of effective men, twenty years old and upwhose account they found they were smitten with so wards, who were able to go out to war. But this many and such dreadful plagues.
was not the whole number, and therefore the sacred Verse 34. The people took their dough before it was writer says they were about 600,000; for when the leavened, gc.] There was no time now to make any numbers were taken about thirteen months after this regular preparation for their departure, such was the they were found to be six hundred and three thousand universal hurry and confusion. The Israelites could five hundred and fifty, without reckoning those under carry but little of their household utensils with them ; twenty years of age, or any of the tribe of Levi; see but some, such as they kneaded their bread and kept Num. i. 45, 46. But besides those on fool, or foottheir meal in, they were obliged to carry with them. men, there were no doubt many old and comparatively The kneading troughs of the Arabs are comparatively infirm persons, who rode on camels, horses, or asses, small wooden bowls, which, after kneading their bread besides the immense number of women and children, in, serve them as dishes out of which they eat their which must have been at least three to one of the victuals. · And as to these being bound up in their others; and the mixed multitude; ver. 38, probably of clothes, no more may be intended than their wrapping refugees in Egypt, who came to sojourn there, because them up in their long, loose garments, or in what is still of the dearth which had obliged them to emigrate from used among the Arabs, and called hykes, which is a their own countries; and who now, seeing that the long kind of blanket, something resembling a highland hand of Jehovah was against the Egyptians and with plaid, in which they often carry their provision, wrap the Israelites, availed themselves of the general conthemselves by day, and sleep at night. Dr. Shaw has sternation, and took their leave of; Egypt, choosing been par:cular in his description of this almost entire Israel's God for their portion, and his people for their wardrobe of an Arab. He says they are of different companions. Such a company. moving at once, and sizes and of different qualities, but generally about six emigrating from their own country, the world never yards in length, and five or six feet broad. He sup- before nor since witnessed ; no doubt upwards of two poses that what we call Ruth's veil, Ruth ni. 15, millions of souls, besides their flocks and herds, even was a hyke, and that the same is to be understood of very much cattle ; and what but the mere providence the clothes of the Israelites mentioned in this verse. of God could support such a multitude, and in the wilSee his Travels, p. 224, 4to edition.
derness, too, where to this day the necessaries of life Verse 35. They borrowed of the Egyptians] See are not to be found ? the note on chap. iii. 22, where the very exceptiona- Suppose we take them at a rough calculation thus, ble term borrow is largely explained.
two inillions will be found too small a number.
Israelites' journey from Rameses. EXODUS. The time they dwelt in Egypt.
B. C. 1491.
pared for themselves any victual. An. Exod. Ist. 1. Abib or Nisan.
38 And 8 a mixed multitude 40 Now the sojourning of the Abib or Nisan. went up also with them; and flocks, and children of Israel, who dwelt in Egypt, was herds, even very much cattle.
i four hundred and thirty years. -39 And they baked unleavened cakes of 41 And it came to pass at the end of the the dough which they brought forth out of four hundred and thirty years, even the selfEgypt, for it was not leavened ; because same day it came to pass, that all the hosts h they were thrust out of Egypt, and could of the Lord went out from the land of Egypt. 8 Heb. a great mixture; Numbers xi. 4.- Ch Chapter vi. 1; xi. | iGen. xv. 13; Acts vii. 6; Gal. ii. 17. Chapter vii. 4;
1 ; ver. 33. Effective men, 20 years old and upward 600,000 such a general conviction that he had this authority, Two-thirds of whom we may suppose
that they implicitly followed his directions, and rewere married, in which case their
ceived their law from his mouth. wives would amount to . .
400,000 Verse 40. Now the sojourning of the children of These, on an average, might have 5 chil
Israel, fc.] The statement in this verse is allowed dren under 20 years of age, an estimate
on all hands to be extremely difficult, and therefore which falls considerably short of the
the passage stands in especial need of illustration. number of children each family must
“ That the descendants of Israel did not dwell 430 have averaged in order to produce from
years in Egypt," says Dr. Kennicott, “may be easily 75 persons, in A. M. 2298, upwards of
proved, and has often been demonstrated. Some 600,000 effective men in A. M. 2494,
therefore imagine that by Egypt here both it and Caa period of only 196 years
2,000,000 naan are to be understood. But this greater latitude The Levites, who probably were not in
of place will not solve the difficulty, since the Israelcluded among the effective men
45,000 ites, including Israel their father, did not sojourn 430 Their wives.
33,000 years in both countries previous to their departure Their children
165,000 from Egypt. Others, sensible of the still remaining The mixed multitude probably not less than 20,000 deficiency, would not only have Egypt in the text to
signify it and Canaan, but by a figure more compre
Total 3,263,000 hensive would have the children of Israel to mean Besides a multitude of old' and infirm persons who Israel's children, and Israel their father, and Isaac would be obliged to ride on camels and asses, &c., the father of Israel, and part of the life of Abraham, and who must, from the proportion that such bear to the father of Isaac. the young and healthy, amount to many thousands “ Thus indeed,” says Dr. Kennicott, "we arrive at more! Exclude even the Levites and their families, the exact sum, and by this niethod of reckoning we · and upwards of three millions will be left.
might arrive at any thing but truth, which we may pre“In Num. iii. 39 the male Levites, aged one month sume was never thus conveyed by an inspired writer." and upwards, are reckoned 22,000, perhaps the females But can the difficulty be removed without having re did not much exceed this number, say 23,000, and 500 course to such absurd shifts ? Certainly it can. The children, under one month, will make 45,500."-Anon. Samaritan Pentateuch, in all its manuscripts and
Had not Moses the fullest proof of his Divine mis- printed copies, reads the place thus :-sion, he never could have put himself at the head of 4.6416 83983 2 Agent ma9 guztyz such an immense concourse of people, who, without wynraming A93 5034 4949 3quin . the most especial and effective providence, must all have perished for lack of food. This single circum
Jou A3 19923 xhel Luiza stance, unconnected with all others, is an ample de- Umoshab beney Yishrael veabotham asher yashebu monstration of the Divine mission of Moses, and of baarets Cenaan, ubaarets mitsraim sheloshim shanah the anthenticity and Divine inspiration of the Penta- vearba meoth shanah. teuch. To suppose that an impostor, or one pretend- “ Now the sojourning of the children of Israel, and ing only to a Divine call, could have ventured to place of their fathers, which they sojourned in the land of himself at the head of such an immense body of people, Canaan and in the land of Egypt, was 430 years." to lead them through a trackless wilderness, utterly This same sum is given by St. Paul, Gal. iii. 17, who unprovided for such a journey, to a land as yet in the reckons from the promise made to Abraham, when possession of several powerful nations whom they God commanded him to go to Canaan, to the giving must expel before they could possess the country, of the law, which soon followed the departure from would have implied such an extreme of madness and Egypt; and this chronology of the apostle is concordfolly as has never been witnessed in an individual, ant with the Samaritan Pentateuch, which, by preand such a blind credulity in the multitude as is un serving the two passages, they and their fathers, and paralleled in the annals of mankind! The succeeding in the land of Canaan, which are lost out of the prestupendous events proved that Moses had the authority sent copies of the Hebrew text, has rescued this pasof God to do what he did ; and the people had at least sage from all obscurity and contradiction. It may be
Who may, and who may
not, eat the
passover. A. M. 2513. 42 It is la night m to be much over: there shall no stranger A. M. 2513. B. C. 1491.
B. C. 1491. An Exod Isr. i. observed unto the LORD for eat thereof:
An Exod. Isr. l. Abib or Nisan.
Abib or Nisan, bringing them out from the land 44 But every man's servant of Egypt: this is that night of the Lord to that is bought for money, when thou hast be observed of all the children of Israel in circumcised him, then shall he eat thereof. their generations.
P A foreigner and a hired servant shall 43 And the LORD said unto Moses and not eat thereof. Aaron, This is n the ordinance of the pass- 46. In one house shall it be eaten; thou 1 Heb. a night of observation.- „m See Deut. xvi. 6.
Num. ix. 14.- Gen. xvii. 12, 13.—- Lev. xxii. 10. necessary to observe that the Alexandrian copy of the In treatises on the religious customs of the Jews Septuagint has the same reading as that in the Sama- we frequently meet with the term proselyte, from the ritan. The Samaritan Pentateuch is allowed by many Greek apoonautos, a stranger or foreigner; one who learned men to exhibit the most correct copy of the is come from his own people and country to sojourn five books of Moses; and the Alexandrian copy of the with another. All who were not descendants of some Septuagint must also be allowed to be one of the one of the twelve sons of Jacob, or of Ephraim and most authentic as well as most ancient copies of this Manasseh, the two sons of Joseph, were reputed stranversion which we possess. As to St. Paul, no man gers or proselytes among the Jews. But of those will dispute the authenticity of his statement; and thus strangers or proselytes there were two kinds, called in the mouth of these three most respectable witnesses among them proselytes of the gate, and proselytes of the whole account is indubitably established. That justice or of the covenant. The former were such as these three witnesses have the truth, the chronology wished to dwell among the Jews, but would not subitself proves : for from Abraham's entry into Canaan mit to be circumcised; they, however, acknowledged to the birth of Isaac was 25 years, Gen. xii. 4, xvii. the true God, avoided all idolatry, and observed the 1-21;
Isaac was 60 years old at the birth of Jacob, seven precepts of Noah, but were not obliged to obGen. xxv. 26 ; and Jacob was 130 at his going down serve any of the Mosaic institutions.' The latter subinto Egypt, Gen. xlvii. 9 ; which three sums make mitted to be circumcised, obliged themselves to observe 215 years.
And then Jacob and his children having all the rites and ceremonies of the law, and were in continued in Egypt' 215 years more, the whole sum nothing different from the Jews but merely in their of 430 years is regularly completed. See Kennicott's having once been heathens. The former, or proselytes Dissertation on the Hebrew Text.
of the gate, might not eat the passover or partake of Verse 42. A night to be much observed] A night any of the sacred festivals ; but the latter, the proseto be held in everlasting remembrance, because of the lytes of the covenant, had the same rights, spiritual and peculiar display of the power and goodness of God, secular, as the Jews themselves. See ver. 48. the observance of which annually was to be considered Verse 45. A foreigner) yvin toshab, from 90° à religious precept while the Jewish nation should yashab, to sit down or dwell; one who is a mere socontinue
journer, for the purpose of traffic, merchandise, &c., Verse 43. This is the ordinance of the passover) but who is neither a proselyte of the gale nor of the From the last verse of this chapter it appears pretty covenant. evident that this, to the 50th verse inclusive, consti
And a hired servant] Who, though he be bought tuted a part of the directions given to Moses relative with money, or has indented himself for a certain term to the proper observance of the first pasgover, and to serve a Jew, yet has not become either a proselyte should be read conjointly with the preceding account of the gate or of the covenant. None of these shall beginning at verse 21. It may be supposed that these eat of it, because not circumcised—not brought under latter parts contain such partieular directions as God the bond of the covenant; and not being under obligave to Moses after he had given those general ones gation to observe the Mosaic law, had no right to its mentioned in the preceding verses, but they seem all privileges and blessings. Even under the Gospel of to belong to this first passover.
our Lord Jesus Christ, he is the author of eternal sal. There shall no stranger eat thereof] 95373 ben valion only to them who obey him, Heb. v. 9; and nechar, the son of a stranger or foreigner, i. e., one those who become Christians are, chosen to salvation who was not of the genuine Hebrew stock, or one through SANCTIFICATION of the Spirit, and belief of the who had not received circumcision ; for any circum- truth, 2 Thess. ii. 13; for the grace of God, that cised person might eat the passover, as the total ex- bringeth salvation to all men, hath appeared, teaching clusion extends only to the uncircumcised, see ver. 48. us that, DENYING UNGODLINESS and WORLDLY LUSTS, As there are two sorts of strangers mentioned in the we should live sobeRLY, RIGHTEOUSLY, and GODLY, in saered writings; one who was admitted to all the this present world; Tit. iž. 11, 12. Such persons only Jewish ordinances, and another who, though he dwelt walk worthy of the vocation wherewith they are called. among the Jews, was not permitted to eat the passover Verse 46. In one house shall it be caten] In one or partake of any of their solemn feasts; it may be family, if that be large enough; if not, a neighbouring necessary to show what was the essential point of dis- family might be invited, ver. 4. tinction through which the one was admitted and the Thou shalt not carry forth aught of the flesh] Every other excluded.
family must abide within doors because of the destroy
Abib or Nisan.
All who eat the
must be circumcised A. M. 2513. shalt not carry forth aught of the I let all his males be circumcised, A. M. 2513 B.
B. C. 1491. An. Exod. Isr, 1. flesh abroad out of the house ; and then let him come near and An. Exod. Isr. I. I neither shall ye break a bone keep it; and he shall be as one
Abib or Nisan. thereof.
that is born in the land : for no uncircumcised 47 "All the congregation of Israel shall person shall eat thereof. keep it.
49 1 One law shall be to him that is home48 And + when a stranger shall sojourn with born, and unto the stranger that sojourneth thee, and will keep the passover to the LORD, among you. 9 Num. ix. 12; John xix. 33, 36.- Ver. 6; Num. ix. 13. Numbers ix. 14. Numhers ix. 14; X. 15, 16;
Heb. do it.
Gal. iii. 28.
ing angel, none being permitted to go out of his house away iniquity by the sacrifice of himself. It is a retill the next day, ver. 22.
velation of God's wisdom and goodness, wonderfully Neither shall ye break a bone thereof.] As it was well calculated to direct the hearts of men into the to be eaten in haste, (ver. 11,) there was no time either truth, to guide their feet into the path of life, and to to separate the bones, or to break them in order to ex- make straight, even, and plain that way which leads to tract the marrow; and lest they should be tempted to God, and in which the soul must walk in order to arconsume time in this way, therefore this ordinance was rive at eternal life. It is the fountain whence every given. It is very likely that, when the whole lamb correct notion relative to God-his perfections, proviwas brought to table, they cut off the flesh without dence, grace, justice, holiness, omniscience, and omnieven separating any of the large joints, leaving the potence, has been derived. And it has been the origin skeleton, with whatever flesh they could not eat, to be whence all the true principles of law and justice have consumed with fire, ver. 10. This precept was also been deduced. The pious study of it was the grand given to point out a most remarkable circumstance means of producing the greatest kings, the most enlightwhich 1500 years after was to take place in the cru- ened statesmen, the most accomplished poets, and the cifixion of the Saviour of mankind, who was the true most holy and useful men, that ever adorned the world. Paschal Lamb, that Lamb of God that takes away the It is exceeded only by the Gospel of Jesus Christ, sin of the world ; who, though he was crucified as a which is at once the accomplishment of its rites and common malefactor, and it was a universal custom to predictions, and the fulfilment of its grand plan and break the legs of such on the cross, yet so did the outline. Aš a system of teaching or instruction, ¡t is providence of God order it that a bone of him was not the most sovereign and most effectual; as by it is the broken. See the fulfilment of this wondrously ex- knowledge of sin, and it alone is the schoolmaster, Tal. pressive type, John xix. 33, 36.
daywyos, that leads men to Christ, that they may be Verse 48. And when a stranger-will keep the justified through faith, Gal. iii. 24. Who can absopassover, &c.] Let all who sojourn among you, and lutely ascertain the exact quantum of obliquity in a who desire to partake of this sacred ordinance, not crooked line, without the application of a straight one ? only be circumcised themselves, but all the males of And could sin, in all its twistings, windings, and varied their families likewise, that they may all have an equal involutions, have ever been truly ascertained, had not right to the blessings of the covenant.
God given to man this perfect rule to judge by? The Verse 49. One law shall be to him that is home-born, nations who acknowledge this revelation of God have, fc.) As this is the first place that the term n7in torah as far as they attained to its dictates, the wisest, purest, or Law occurs, a term of the greatest importance in most equal, and most beneficial laws. The nations Divine revelation, and on the proper understanding that do not receive it have laws at once extravagantly of which much depends, 1. judge it best to give its severe and extravagantly indulgent. The proper disgenuine explanation once for all.
tinctions between moral good and evil, in such states, The word 077in torah comes from the root 777 yarah, are not known : hence the penal sanctions are not which signifies to aim at, teach, point out; direct, lead, founded on the principles of justice, weighing the exguide, make straight, or even ; and from these signi- act proportion of moral turpitude; but on the most fications of the word (and in all these senses it is used arbitrary caprices, which in many cases show the utin the Bible) we may see at once the nature, pro- most indulgence to first-rate crimes, while they punish perties, and design of the law of God. It is a sys- minor offences with rigour and cruelty. What is the tem of INSTRUCTIon in righteousness; it teaches the consequence ? Just what might be reasonably exdifference between 'moral good and evil ; ascertains pected : the will and caprice of a man being put in the what is right and fit to be done, and what should be place of the wisdom of God, the government is oppresleft undone, because improper' to be performed. It sive, and the people, frequently goaded to distraction, continually aims at the glory of God, and the happi- rise up in a mass and overturn it; so that the monarch, ness of his creatures; teaches the true knowledge of however powerful for a time, seldom lives out half his the true God, and the destructive nature of sin ; points days. This was the case in Greece, in Rome, in the out the absolute necessity of an atonement as the only major part of the Asiatic governments, and is the case means by which God can be reconciled to transgress in all nations of the world to the present day, where ors; and in its very significant rites and ceremonies the governor is despotic, and the laws not formed ac, points out the Son of God, till he should come to put cording to the revelation of God.