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A. M. 2513,

A M. 2513. B. C. 1491.

Abib or


Moses carries up Joseph's bones. EXODUS. The Israelites encamp in Etham.

and the children of Israel went 20 And they took their jourAn Exod. Isr. 1. up Charnessed out of the land ney from Succoth, and encamped An. Exod. Isr. 1. of Egypt.

in Etham, in the edge of the Abib or Nisan. 19 And Moses took the bones of Joseph with wilderness. him : for he had straitly sworn the children of 21 And the LORD went before them by Israel, saying, a God will surely visit you; and ye day in a pillar of a cloud, to lead them the shall carry up my bones away hence with you. way; and by night in a pillar of fire, to give

Or, by five in a rank. d Gen. I. 25; Josh. xxiv. 32; Acts Num. ix. 15; x. 34 ; xiv.14; Deut. i. 33 ; Neh. ix. 12, 19; Psa. vii. 16. e Num. xxxiii. 6. _Chap. xiv. 19, 24 ; xl. 38; Ixxvui. 14 ; xcix. 7; cv. 39 ; Isa. iv. 5; 1 Cor. x, 1.

has shown that there were two roads from Egypt to reference to those of the other patriarchs. See the Canaan, one through the valleys of Jendilly, Rumeleah, notes on Gen. xlix. 29. and Baideah, bounded on each side by the mountains Verse 20. Encamped in Etham] As for the reaof the lower Thebais ; the other lies higher, having the sons assigned on ver.. 17, God would not lead the Isnorthern range of the mountains of Mocatee running raelites by the way of the Philistines' country, he parallel with it on the right hand, and the desert of directed them towards the wilderness of Shur, chap. the Egyptian Arabia, which lies all the way open to xv, 22, upon the edge or extremity of which, next to the land of the Philistines, to the left. See his account Egypt, at the bottom of the Arabian Gulf, lay Etham, of these encampments at the end of Exodus.

which is the second place of encampment mentioned. Went up harnessed] d'von chamushim. It is truly See the extracts from Dr. Shaw at the end of Exodus. astonishing what a great variety of opinions are enter- Verse 21. The Lord went before them] That by tained relative to the meaning of this word. . After the Lord here is meant the Lord Jesus, we have the having maturely considered all that I have met with on authority of St. Paul to believe, 1 Cor. x. 9: it was the subject, I think it probable that the word refers he whose Spirit they tempted in the wilderness, for it simply to that orderly or well arranged manner in was he who led them through the desert to the prowhich the Israelites commenced their journey from mised rest. Egypt. For to arrange, array, or set in order, seems Pillar of a cloud] This pillar or column, which to be the ideal meaning of the word vpn chamash: appeared as a cloud' by day, and a fire by night, was As it was natural to expect that in such ciroumstances the symbol of the Divine presence. This was the there must have been much hurry and confusion, the Shechinah or Divine dwelling place, and was the coninspired writer particularly marks the contrary, to show tinual proof of the presence and protection of GOD. that God had so disposed matters that the utmost It was necessary that they should have a guide to diregularity and order prevailed ; and had it been other- rect them through the wilderness, even had they taken wise, thousands of men, women, and children must the most direct road; and howy much more so when have been trodden to death. Our margin has it by they took a circuitous route not usually travelled, and five in a rank; but had they marched only five abreast, of which they knew nothing but just as the luminous supposing only one yard for each rank to move in, pillar pointed out the way! Besides, it is very likely it would have required not less than sixty-eight miles that even Moses himself did not know the route which for even the 600,000 to proceed on regularly in this God had determined on, nor the places of encampway; for 600,000 divided by five gives 120,000 ranks ment, till the pillar that went before them became staof five each; and there being only 1760 yards in a tionary, and thus pointed out, not only the road, but mile, the dividing 120,000 by 1760 will give the the different places of rest. Whether there was more number of miles such a column of people would take than one pillar is not clearly determined by the text. up, which by such an operation will be found to be If there was hut one it certainly assumed three differsomething more than sixty-eight miles. But this the ent appearances, for the performance of THREE very circumstances of the history will by no means admit.- important offices. 1. In the day-time, for the purpose Harmer. The simple meaning therefore appears to be of pointing out the way, a column or pillar of a cloud that given above; and if the note on the concluding verse was all that was requisite. 2. At night, to prevent of the preceding chapter be considered, it may serve that confusion which must otherwise have taken place, to place this explanation in a still clearer point of view. the pillar of cloud became a pillar of fire, not to direct

Verse 19. Moses took the bones of Joseph] See the their journeyings, for they seldom travelled by night, note on Gen. 1. 25. It is supposed that the Israel- but to give light to every part of the Israelitish camp. ites carried with them the bones or remains of all the 3. In such a scorching, barren, thirsty desert, sometwelve sons of Jacob, each tribe taking care of the thing farther was 'necessary than a light and a guide. bones of its own patriarch, while Moses took care of Women, children, and comparatively infirm persons, the bones of Joseph. St. Stephen expressly says, exposed to the rays of such a burning sun, must have Acts vii. 15, 16, that not only Jacob, but the fathers been destroyed if without a covering; hence we find were carried from Egypt into. Sychem; and this, as that a cloud overshadowed them: and from what St. Calmet remarks, was the only opportunity that seems Paul observes, 1 Cor. s. 1, 2, we are led to conclude to have presented itself for doing this : and certainly that this covering cloud was composed of aqueous parthe reason that rendered it proper to remove the bones ticles for the cooling of the atmosphere and refreshof Joseph to the promised land, had equal weight in ment of themselves and their cattle ; for he represents

They are led by the


pillar of a cloud and fire. A. M. 2513. them light; to go by day and of the cloud by day, nor the An. Exod. Isr. I. night :

pillar of fire by night, from before An. Exod. Isr. 1. 22 He took not away the pillar the people.

A. M. 2513.
B. C. 1491.

B. C. 1491.

Abib or Nisan.

Abib or Nisan.


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the whole camp as being sprinkled or immersed in the lars of it to the present day. For when a fact is rehumidity of its vapours, and expressly calls it a being ported to have taken place, and certain rites or cereunder the cloud and being baptized in the cloud. To monies have been instituted in order to commemorate the circumstance of the cloud.covering them, there are it, which rites or ceremonies continue to be observed several references in Scripture. Thus : He spread a through succeeding ages, then the fact itself, no matCLOUD for their COVERING ; Psa. cv. 39. And the ter how remote the period of its occurrence may have Lord will create upon every dwelling place of Mount been, has the utmost proofs of authenticity, that it is Zion, and upon her assemblies, A CLOUD and SMOKE BY possible for any fact to have; and such as every perDAY, and the shining of a FLAMING FIRE by night ; for son pretending to reason and judgment is obliged to upon all the glory shall be a DEFENCE, (or COVERING,) receive. On this ground the Mosaic religion, and the Isa. iv. 5; which words contain the most manifest facts recorded in it, are indubitably proved ; and the allusion to the threefold office of the cloud in the wil- Christian religion and its facts, being commemorated derness. See Num. ix. 16, 17, 18, &c.

in the same way, particularly by baptism and the Lord's Verse 22. He took not away the pillar of the cloud] Supper, stand on such a foundation of moral certainty Neither Jews nor Gentiles are agreed how long the as no other records in the universe can possibly boast. cloud continued with the Israelites. It is very proba- Reader, praise God for his ordinances ; they are not ble that it first visited them at Succoth, if it did not only means of grace to thy soul, but standing irrefraaccompany them from Rameses; and that it continu- gable proofs of the truth of that religion which thou ed with them till they came to the river Jordan, to hast received as from HIM. pass over opposite to Jericho, for after that it appears 2. A serious public profession of the religion of that the ark alone was their guide, as it always march- Christ has in all ages of the Church been considered ed at their head. See Josh. iii. 10, &c. But others not only highly becoming, but indispensably necessary think that it went no farther with them than Mount to salvation. He who consistently confesses Christ Hor, and never appeared after the death of Aaron, before men shall be confessed by him before God and We may safely assert that while it was indispensably his angels. A Jew wore his phylacteries on his forenecessary it continued with them, when it was not so head, on his hands, and round his garments, that he it was removed. But it is worthy of remark that the might have reverence in the sight of the heathen; he ark of the covenant became its substitute. While a gloried in his law, and he exulted that Abraham was miracle was necessary, a miracle was granted; when his father. Christian! with a zeal not less becoming, that was no longer necessary, then the testimony of and more consistently supported, let the words of thy the Lord deposited in the ark was deemed sufficient by mouth, the acts of thy hands, and all thy goings, show Him who cannot err. So, under the Gospel dispensa- that thou belongest unto God; that thou hast taken tion, miracles were necessary at its first promulgation; his Spirit for the guide of thy heart, his word for the but after that the canon of Scripture was completed, rule of thy life, his people for thy companions, his the new covenant having been made, ratified by the heaven for thy inheritance, and himself for the portion blood of the Lamb, and published by the Holy Spirit, of thy soul. And see that thou hold fast the truth, then God withdrew generally those outward signs, and that thou hold it in righteousness. leaving his word for a continual testimony, and seal- 3. How merciful is God in the dispensations of his ing it on the souls of believers by the Spirit of truth. providence! He permits none' to be tried above what

It is also worthy of remark that, the ancient hea- he is able to bear, and he proportions the burden to then writers represent their gods, in their pretended the back that is to bear it. He led not the Israelites manifestations to men, as always encompassed with a by the way of the Philistines, lest, seeing war, they cloud; Homer and Virgil abound with examples of should repent and be discouraged. Young converts this kind : and is it not very probable that they bor- are generally saved from severe spiritual conflicts and rowed this, as they did many other things in their heavy temptations till they have acquired a habit of mythologic theology, from the tradition of Jehovah believing, are disciplined in the school of Christ, and guiding his people through the desert by means of the instructed in the nature of the path in which they go, cloud, in and by which he repeatedly manifested himself? and the difficulties they may expect to find in it.

They are informed that such things may take place, 1. EXTRAORDINARY manifestations and interpositions they are thus armed for the battle, and when trials do of providence and grace should be held in continual come they are not taken by surprise. God, the most remembrance. We are liable to forget the hole of the merciful and kind God," tempers even the blast to the pit whence we were digged, and the rock whence we shorn lamb.” Trust in him therefore with all thy were hewn. Prudence and piety will institute their heart, and never lean to thy own understanding. anniversaries, that the merciful dealings of the Lord 4. The providence and goodness of God are equally may never be forgotten. The passover and the feast observable in the pillar of cloud and the pillar of fire. of unleavened bread, by an annual commemoration, be- The former was the proof of his providential kindness came standing proofs to the children of Israel of the by day; the latter, by night. Thus he adjusts the Divine origin of their religion; and are supporting pill assistances of his grace and Spirit to the exigencies The Israelites encamp


at Pi-hahiroth. of his creatures, giving at some times, when peculiar though he may have an orthodox creed, is a hold of trials require it, more particular manifestations of his unclean.spirits, and an abomination in the sight of the mercy and goodness; but at all times, such evidences Lord. Reader, fet not these observations be fruitless of his approbation as are sufficient to satisfy a pious to thee. God gives thee his word and his Spirit, faithful heart. It is true the pillar of fire was more obey this word that thou grieve not this Spirit. The observable in the night, because of the general dark- following figurative saying of a Jewish rabbin is worness, than the pillar of cloud was by day; yet. the thy of regard : “God addresses Israel and says, My latter was as convincing and as evident a proof of his son, I give thee my lamp, give me thy lamp. If thou presence, approbation, and protection as the former. keep my lamp, I will keep thy lamp; but if thou quench It is the duty and interest of every sound believer in my lamp, I will extinguish thy lamp :" i. e., I give Christ to have the witness of God's Spirit in his soul thee my word and Spirit, give me thy heart and soul. at all times, that his spirit and ways please his Maker; If thou carefully attend to my word, and grieve not but in seasons of peculiar difficulty he may expect the my Spirit, I will preserve thy soul alive; but if thou more sensible manifestations of God's goodness. A rebel against my word, and quench my Spirit, then thy good man is a temple of the Holy Spirit ; but he who light shall be put out, and thy soul's blessedness extins has an unholy heart, and who lives an unrighteous life, guished in everlasting darkness.

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.CHAPTER XIV. The Israelites are commanded to encamp before Pi-hahiroth, 1, 2.. God predicts the pursuit of Pharaoh, 3, 4.

Pharaoh is informed that the Israelites are fled, and regrets that he suffered them to depart, 5. ters his troops and pursues them, 6-8. Overtakes them in their encampment by the Red Sea, 9.. The Israelites are terrified at his approach, 10. They murmur against Moses for leading them out, 11, 12. Moses encourages them, and assures them of deliverance, 13, 14. God commands the Israelites to advance, and Moses to strelch out his rod over the sea that it might be divided, 15, 16; and promises utterly to discomfit the Egyptians, 17, 18. The angel of God places himself between the Israelites and the Egyptians, 19. The pillar of the cloud becomes darkness to the Egyptians, while it gives light to the Israelites, 20. Moses stretches out his rod, and a strong east wind blows, and the waters are divided, 21. The Israelites enter and walk on dry ground, 22. The Egyptians enter also in pursuit of the Israelites, 23. · The Lord looks out of the pillar of cloud on the Egyptians, terrifies them, and disjoints their chariots, 24, 25. Moses is commanded to stretch forth his rod over the waters, that they may return to their former bed, 26. He does so, and the whole Egyptian army is overwhelmed, 27, 28, while .every Israelite escapes, 29. Being thus saved from the hand of their adversaries, they acknowledge the power of God, and credit the mission of Moses, 30, 31. A. M. 2513. AND the Lord spake unto 3 For Pharaoh will say of the A. M. 2513. B. C. 1491.

B. Ç. 1491. An. Exod. Igr. l. Moses, saying,

children of Israel, d They are An. Exod. Isr. I. Abib or Nisan..

Alib or Nisan. 2 Speak unto the children of entangled in the land, the wilderIsrael, * that they turn and encamp before ness hath shut them in. b Pi-bahiroth, between Migdol and the sea, 4 And I will harden Pharaoh's heart, that over against Baal-zephon ;. before it shall ve he shall follow after them; and I will be encamp by the sea.

honoured upon Pharaoh, and upon all his host; a Chapter xii. 18.- b Numbers xxxiii. 7.- -c Jer. xliv. 1. Chap. iv. 21 ; vii. 3. Chap. ix. 16; yer. 17, 18; Romans

ix. 17, 22, 23. NOTES ON CHAP. XIV.

himself brought them into straits from which no human Verse 2. Encamp before Pi-hahiroth] ninn o pi power or art could extricate them. Consider their hachiroth, the mouth, strait, or bay of Chiroth. Be- situation when once brought out of the open country, tween Migdol, 577 migdol, the tower, probably a for- where alone they had room either to fight or fly. Now tress that served to defend the bay. Over against they had the Red Sea before them, Pharaoh and his Baal-zephon, fox bwa baal tsephon, the lord or master host behind them, and on their right and left hand forof the watch, probably an idol temple, where a con- tresses of the Egyptians to prevent their escape ; nor tinual guard, watch, or light was kept up for the de- had they one boat or transport prepared for their pasfence of one part of the haven, or as a guide to ships. sage! If they be now saved, the arm of the Lord Dr. Shaw thinks that chiroth may denote the valley must be seen, and the vanity and nullity of the Egypwhich extended itself from the wilderness of Etham tian idols be demonstrated. By bringing them into to the Red Sea, and that the part in which the Israel- such a situation he took from them all hope of human ites encamped was called Pi-hachiroth, i. e., the mouth help, and gave their adversaries every advantage against or bay of Chiroth. See his Travels, p. 310, and his them, so that they themselves said, They are entangled account at the end of Exodus.

in the land, the wilderness hath shut them in. Verse 3. They are entangled in the land] God Verse 4. I will harden Pharaoh's heart] After re

d Psa. lxxi. 11.

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Abib or Nisan. did so.

Pharaoh pursues and


overtakes the Israelites. A. M. 2513. & that the Egyptians may know

10 And when Pharaoh drew B. C. 1491. An Exod. Isr. 1. that I am the LORD. And they nigh, the children of Israel lifted An. Exod. Isr: 1.

Abib or Nisan.

up their eyes, and, behold, the 5 And it was told the king of Egypt that Egyptians marched after them; and they the people fled: and h the heart of Pharaoh were sore afraid : and the children of Israel and of his servants was turned against the " cried out unto the Lord. people, and they said, Why have we done 11 ° And they said unto Moses, Because this, that we have let Israel go from serv- there were no graves in Egypt, hast thou ing us?

taken us away to die in the wilderness? 6 And he made ready his chariot, and took wherefore hast thou dealt thus with us, to his people with him :

carry us forth out of Egypt ? ' 7 And he took i six hunched chosen chariots, 12 P Is not this the word that we did tell thee and all the chariots of Egypt, and captains in Egypt, saying, Let us alone, that we may over every one of them.

serve the Egyptians ? For it had been better 8 And the Lord * hardened the heart of for us to serve the Egyptians, than that we Pharaoh king of Egypt, and he pursued after should die in the wilderness. the children of Israel: and I the children of 13 And Moses said unto the people, o Fear Israel went out with a high hand.

ye not, stand still, and see the salvation of the · 9 But the m Egyptians pursued after them, Lord, which he will show to you to-day : ' for (all the horses and chariots of Pharaoh, and the Egyptians whom ye have scen to-day, ye his horsemen, and his army,) and overtook shall see them again no more for ever. them encampmg by the sea, beside Pi-hahi- 14 The LORD shall fight for you, and ye roth, before Baal-zephon.

shall + hold your peace. Chap. vii. 5.—Psa. év. 25.—i Chap. xv. 4.- Ver. 4. 92 Chron. xx. 15, 17; Isa. xli. 10, 13, 14. Or, for whereas Chap. vi. 1 ; xiu,9; Num. xxxii. 3.- _m Chap, xv. 9; Josh ye have seen the Egyptians to-day, &c. Ver. 25 ; Deut. i. 30; XX1.6; 1 Mac. iv.9.- Josh. xxiv. 7 ; Neh. ix. 9; Psa. Xxxiv. ui. 22 ; xx. 4; Josh. x. 14,. 42 ; xxiii. 3; 2 Chron. xx. 29 ; Neh. 17; cvii. 6. - Psa. cri. 7, 8. — Chap. v. 21; vi. 9.

iv. 20; Isa. xxxi:4.

- Isa. xxx. 15.

lenting and giving them permission to depart, he now but he seldom fought; the second chiefly defended the changes his mind and determines to prevent them; and charioteer ; and the third alone was properly the comwithout any farther restraining grace, God permits him batant. It appears that in this case Pharaoh had colto rush on to his final ruin, for the cup of his iniquity lected all the cavalry of Egypt ; (see ver. 17 ;) and was now full.

though these might not have been very numerous, yet, Verse 5. And it was told the king--that the people humanly speaking, they might easily overcome the unfled]c of their departure he could not be ignorant, armed and encumbered Israelites, who could not be because himself had given them liberty to-depart : but supposed to be able to make any resistance against the word fled here may be understood as implying that caralry and war-chariots. they had utterly left Egypt without any intention to Verse 10. The children of Israel cried out unto the return, which is probably what he did not expect, for Lord.] Had their prayer been accompanied with faith, he had only given them permission to go three days' we should not have found them in the next verses murjourney into the wilderness, in order to sacrifice to Je-muring against Moses, or rather against the Lord, hovah ; but from the circumstances of their departure, through whose goodness they were now brought from and the property they had got from tlie Egyptians, it under that bondage from which they had often cried was taken for granted that they had no design to re- for deliverance. Calmet thinks that the most pious tiim; and this was in all likelihood the consideration and judicious cried unto God, while the unthinking and that weighed most with this avaricious king, and de- irreligious murmured against Moses. termined him to pursue, and either recover the spoil or Verse 13. Moses said-Fear ye nol]. This exhorbring them back, or both. Thus the heart of Pharaoh tation was not given to excite them to resist, for of and his servants was turned against the people, and that there was no hope; they were unarmed, they had they said, Why have we let Israel go from serving us ? no courage, and their minds were deplorably degraded. Here was the grand-incentive to pursuit; their service Stand still] Ye shall not be even workers together was profitable to the state, and they were determined with God; only be quiet, and do not render yourselves not to give it up.

wretched by your fears and your confusion.. Verse 7. Sir hundred chosen chariots, fc.]' Ac- See the salvation of the Lord] Behold the delivercording to the most authentic accounts we have of ance which God will work, independently of all human war-chariots, they were frequently drawn by two or help and means. by four horses, and carried three persons : one was Ye shall see them again no more] Here was strong chasioteer, whose business it was to guide the horses, faith, but this was accompanied by the spirit of pro

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B. C. 1491. An. Exod. Isr. l.

The Lord promises to deliver


the Israelites from Pharaoh 15 And the LORD said unto | upon Pharaoh, upon his chariots, An. Exod. Isr. 1. Moses, Wherefore criest thou and upon his horsemen. Abib or Nisan.

Abib or Nisan. unto me? speak unto the chil- 19 And the angel of God, dren of Israel, that they go forward : y which went before the camp of Israel, re

16 But u lift thou up thy rod, and stretch moved and went behind them; and the pillar out thine hand over the sea, and divide it :of the cloud went from before their face, and and the children of Israel shall go on dry stood behind them : ground through the midst of the sea.

20 And it came between the camp of the 17 And I, behold, I will "harden the hearts Egyptians, and the camp. of Işrael; and 2 it of the Egyptians, and they shall follow them: was a cloud and darkness to them, but it gave and I will wget me honour upon Pharaoh, light by night to these : so that the one came and upon all his host, upon his chariots, and not near the other all the night. upon his horsemen.

21 And Moses a stretched out his hand over 18 And the Egyptians shall know that I am the sea; and the Lord caused the sea to go the LORD, when I have gotten me honour back by a strong east wind all that night, and u Verse 21, 26; chapter vii. 19. — Verse 8; chapter vii. 3. » Ch. xiii. 21 ; xxiii. 20; xxxii. 34 ; Num. xx. 16; Isa. Ixiii. 9.

2 See Isa. viii. 14; 2 Cor. iv. 3.- Ver. 16.

w Ver. 4.

* Ver. 4.

phecy, God showed Moses what he would do, he get himself honour by this miraculous act, and that the believed, and therefore he spoke in the encouraging Egyptians shall know, i. e., acknowledge, that he is manner related above. ·

Jehovah, the omnipotent, self-existing, eternal God. Verse 14. The Lord shall-fight for you] Ye shall Verse 19. The angel of God)

It has been thought have no part in the honour of the day; God alone shall by some that the angel, i. e., messenger, of the Lord, bring you off, and defeat your foes.

and the pillar of cloud, mean here the same thing. Ye shall hold your peace.) Your unbelieving fears An angel might assume the appearance of a cloud; and clamours shall be confounded, and ye shall see and even a material cloud thus particularly appointed that by might none shall be able to prevail against the might be called an angel or messenger of the Lord, Lord, and that the feeblest shall take the prey when for such is the literal import of the word 7x52 malach, the power of Jehovah is exerted.

an angel. It is however most probable that the Angel Verse 15. Wherefore criest thou unto me?) We of the covenant, the Lord Jesus, appeared on this ochear not one word of Moses' praying, and yet here the casion in behalf of the people ; for as this deliverance Lord asks him why he cries unto him? From which was to be an illustrious type of the deliverance of man we may learn that the heart of Moses was deeply en- from the power and guilt of sin by his incarnation and gaged with God, though it is probable he did not ar- death, it might have been deemed necessary, in the ticulate one word ; but the language of sighs, tears, judgment of Divine wisdom, that he should appear and desires is equally intelligible to God with that of chief agent in this most important and momentous criwords. This consideration should be a strong encour- sis. On the word angel, and Angel of the covenant, agement to every feeble, discouraged mind: Thou canst see the notes on Gen. xvi. 7; xvii. 13; and Exod. ii. 2. not pray, but thou canst weep; if even tears are de- Verse 20. Il was a cloud and darkness to them, fc.) nied thee, (for there may be deep and genuine repent- That the Israelites might not be dismayed at the apance, where the distress is so great as to stop up those pearance of their enemies, and that these might not channels of relief,) then thou canst 'sigh; and God, be able to discern the object of their pursuit, the pillar whose Spirit has thus convinced thee of sin, righteous- of cloud moved from the front to the rear of the Israel. ness, and judgment, knows thy unutterable groanings, itish camp, so as perfectly to separate between them and reads the inexpressible wish of thy burdened soul, and the Egyptians. It appears also that this cloud had a wish of which himself is the author, and which he two sides, one dark and the other luminous : the luhas breathed into thy heart with the purpose to satisfy it. minous side gave light to the whole camp of Israel

Verse 16. Lift thou up thy rod] Neither Moses during the night of passage ; and the dark side, turned nor his rod could be any effective instrument in a work towards the pursuing Egyptians, prevented them from which could be accomplished only by the omnipotence receiving any benefit from that light. How easily can of God; but it was necessary that he should appear God make the same thing an instrument of destruction in it, in order that he might have credit in the sight or salvation, as seems best to his godly wisdom! He of the Israelites, and that they might see that God had alone can work by all agents, and produce any kind of chosen him to be the instrument of their deliverance. effect even by the same instrument; for all things serve

Verse 18. Shall know that I am the Lord] Pha- the purposes of his will. raoh had just recovered from the consternation and con- Verse 21. The Lord caused the sea to go back] That fusion with which the late plagues had overwhelmed part of the sea over which the Israelites passed was, him, and now he is emboldened to pursue after Israel ; according to Mr. Bruce and other travellers, about four and God is determined to make his overthrow so sig- leagues across, and therefore might easily be crossed nal by such an exertion of omnipotence, that he shall in one night. In the dividing of the sea two agents

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