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A. M. 1, B. C. 4004.
Formation of man.
Garden of Eden 5 And every plant of the field and watered the whole face of the
before it was in the earth, and ground. every herb of the field before it grew: for the
7 And the LORD God formed man Lord God had not s caused it to rain upon the dust of the ground, and m breathed into his earth, and there was not a man h to till the "nostrils the breath of life; and o became ground.
a living soul. 6 But i there went up a mist from the earth, 8 And the LORD God planted Pa garden
Chap. i. 12; Psa. civ. 14. -- Job xxxviii. 26, 27, 28. xii. 7; Isa. Ixiv. 8; 1 Cor. xv. 47. _m Job xxxii. 4; Acts xvii. h Chap. in. 23. — Or, a mist which went up from, &c. Heb. 25. Chap. vii. 22 ; Isa. ii. 22. _o Cor. xv. 45.-—-p Chap. dust of the ground.--Chap. iii. 19, 23 ; Psa. ciii. 14; Eccles. xii. 10; Isa. li. 3 ; Ezek. xxvii. 13; Joel ii. 3.
here. What it signifies see on Exod. xxxiv. 5, 6. Verse 6. There went up a mist] This passage ap-
Verse 5. Every plant of the field before it was in paradise has been introduced into the New Testament, the earlh] It appears that God created every thing, and is generally used to signify a place of exquisite not only perfect as it respects its nature, but also in a pleasure and delight. From this the ancient heathens state of maturity, so that every vegetable production borrowed their ideas of the gardens of the Hesperides, appeared at once in full growth; and this was neces- where the trees bore golden fruit; the gardens of Adosary that man, when he came into being, might find nis, a word which is evidently derived from the Heevery thing ready for his use.
brew jw Eden; and hence the origin of sacred gardens
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The tree of life, and
the tree of knowledge. 9 eastward in Eden; and there also in the midst of the garden, B.C. 4004.
* he put the man whom he had and the tree of knowledge of good formed.
and evil. 9 And out of the ground made the Lord 10 And a river went out of Eden to water God to grow every tree that is pleasant to the garden ; and from thence it was parted, the sight, and good for food; the tree of life and became into four heads.
9 Chap. iii. 24. -- Chap. iv. 16; 2 Kings xix. 12; Ezek.
xxvii. 23. - Ver. 15. Ezek. xxxi. 8.
u Chap. iii. 22; Prov. ini. 18; xi. 30; Rev. ii. 7; xxii. 2, 14.
or enclosures dedicated to purposes of devotion, some what is very difficult to be ascertained. comparatively innocent, others impure. The word eminent men have contended that the passage should paradise is not Greek; in Arabic and Persian it sig- be understood allegorically! and that the tree of the nifies a garden, a vineyard, and also the place of the knowledge of good and evil means simply that prublessed. The Mohammedans say that God created the dence, which is a mixture of knowledge, care, caution, wingsgitte Kis Jennet al Ferdoos, the garden of and judgment, which was prescribed to regulate the paradise, from light, and the prophets and wise men whole of man's conduct. And it is certain that to ascend thither. Wilmet places it after the root and know good and evil, in different parts of. Scripture, farada, to separate, especially a person or place, for the to understand what is fit and unfil, what is not proper
means such knowledge and discretion as leads a man purposes of devotion, but supposes it to be originally a Persian word, vor originis Persicæ quam in sua lingua could the acquisition of such a faculty be a sin? Or
to be done and what should be performed. But how conservarunt Armeni. *As it is a word of doubtful
can we suppose that such a faculty could be wanting origin, its etymology is uncertain. Verse 9. Every tree that is pleasant to the sight,
when man was in a state of perfection ? To this it fc.] If we take up these expressions literally, they may be answered: The prohibition was intended to may bear the following interpretation : the tree pleasant teach him this moral lesson, that there were some
exercise this faculty in man that it should constantly to the sight may mean every beautiful tree or plant things fit and others unfit to be done, and that in referwhich for shape, colour, or fragrance, delights the senses, such as flowering shrubs, &c.
ence to this point the tree itself should be both a
constant teacher and monitor. The eating of its fruit And good for food] All fruit-bearing trees, whether of the pulpy fruits, as apples, &c., or of the kernel or prohibition was intended to exercise the faculty he
would not have increased this moral faculty, but the nut kind, such as dates, and nuts of different sorts, already possessed. There is certainly nothing unreatogether with all esculent vegetables.
The tree of life] o'n chaiyim ; of lives, or life- sonable in this explanation, and viewed in this light giving tree, every medicinal tree, herb, and plant, his dissertation De arbore prudentiæ in Paradiso, ejus
passage loses much of its obscurity. Vitringa, in whose healing virtues are of great consequence to man in his present state, when through sin diseases of va
que mysterio, strongly contends for this interpretation, rious kinds have seized on the human frame, and have
See more on chap. iii. 6. commenced that process of dissolution which is to Verse 10. A river went out of Eden, gc.] It would reduce the body to its primitive dust. Yet by the use astonish an ordinary reader, who should be obliged to of these trees of life-those different vegetable medi- consult different commentators and critics on the situacines, the health of the body may be preserved for a tion of the terrestrial Paradise, to see the vast variety time, and death kept at a distance. Though the ex-of opinions by which they are divided. Some place position given here may be a general meaning for these it in the third heaven, others in the fourth; some within general terms, yet it is likely that this tree of life the orbit of the moon, others in the moon itself ; some which was placed in the midst of the garden was in in the middle regions of the air, or beyond the earth's tended as an emblem of that life which man should attraction; some on the earth, others under the earth, ever live, provided he continued in obedience to his and others within the earth ; some have fixed it at the Maker. And probably the use of this tree was in- north pole, others at the south ; some in Tartary, some tended as the means of preserving the body of man in China; some on the borders of the Ganges, some in a state of continual vital energy, and an antidote in the island of Ceylon ; some in Armenia, others in against death. This seems strongly indicated from Africa, under the equator ; some in Mesopotamia, others chap. iii. 22.
in Syria, Persia, Arabia, Babylon, Assyria, and in PaAnd the tree of knowledge of good and evil.] Con-lestine ; some have condescended to place it in Europe, sidering this also in a merely literal point of view, it and others have contended it either exists not, or is may mean any tree or plant which possessed the pro- invisible, or is merely of a spiritual nature, and that perty of increasing the knowledge of what was in na- the whole account is to be spiritually understood ! That ture, as the esculent vegetables had of increasing bodily there was such a place once there is no reason to vigour; and that there are some aliments which from doubt; the description given by Moses is too particular their physical influence have a tendency to strengthen and circumstantial to be capable of being understood the understanding and invigorate the rational faculty in any spiritual or allegorical way.
As well might more than others, has been supposed by the wisest and we contend that the persons of Adam and Eve were best of men; yet here much more seems intended, but allegorical, as that the place of their residence was such.
A. MI. B. C. 4004.
B. C. 4004.
The rivers of Paradise.
The command given to Adam 11 The name of the first is 15 And the LORD God took the
A. M. I. Pison: that is it which compasseth man, and put him into the garden w the whole land of Havilah, where there is of Eden to dress it, and to keep it. gold;
16 And the LORD God commanded the man, 12 And the gold of that land is good; * there saying, of every tree of the garden thou is bdellium and the onyx stone.
mayest freely eat; 13 And the name of the second river is 17 But of the tree of the knowledge of Gihon: the same is it that compasseth the good and evil, 6 thou shalt not eat of it: for whole land of y Ethiopia.
in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt 14 And the name of the third river is ? Hid- surely i die. dekel : that is it which goeth toward the 18 And the Lord God said, It is not good east of Assyria. And the fourth river is that the man should be alone ; \ I will make • Euphrates.
him a help 'meet for him.
* Chap. xxv. 18; 1 Sam. xv. 17.- - Num. xi. 7; Exod. xvi. 31. 6 Chap. iii. 1, 3, 11, 17.— Chap. ii. 3, 19; Rom. vi. 23; Heb. Cush. i Dan. X. 4. -a Or, eastward to Assyria ; chap. I Cor. xv. 56; James i. 15; 1 John v. 16. - Heb. dying thou
.b Deut. i. 7; xi. 24; Rev. ix. 14. Or, Adam. shalt die. Lk C. iii. 12; 1 Cor, xi. 9 ; 1 Tin. ii. 13.- Heb. d Ver. 8. ---Heb. eating thou shall eat.- Ver. 9.
as before him.
The most probable account of its situation is that gave him work to do, and his employment contributed given by Hadrian Reland. He supposes it to have to his happiness ; for the structure of his body, as well been in Armenia, near the sources of the great rivers as of his mind, plainly proves that he was never inEuphrates, Tigris, Phasis, and Arares. He thinks tended for a merely contemplative life. Pison was the Phasis, a river of Colchis, emptying Verse 17. Of the tree of the knowledge—thou shalt itself into the Euxine Sea, where there is a city called not eat] This is the first positive precept God gave Chabala, the pronunciation of which is nearly the same to man; and it was given as a test of obedience, and with that of Havilah, or obin Chavilah, according to a proof of his being in a dependent, probationary state. the llebrew, the vau 1 being changed in Greek to beta It was necessary that, while constituted lord of this B. This country was famous for gold, whence the lower world, he should know that he was only God's fable of the Golden Fleece, attempted to be carried vicegerent, and must be accountable to him for the use away from that country by the heroes of Greece. The of his mental and corporeal powers, and for the use Gihon he thinks to be the Arares, which runs into the he made of the different creatures put under his care. Caspian Sea, both the words having the same signifi. The man from whose mind the strong impression of cation, viz., a rapid motion. The land of Cush, washed this dependence and responsibility is erased, necessaby the river, he supposes to be the country of the rily loses sight of his origin and end, and is capable Cussrei of the ancients. The Hiddekel all agree to of any species of wickedness. As God is sovereign, be the Tigris, and the other river Phrat, or ng Pe- he has a right to give to his creatures what commands rath, to be the Euphrates. All these rivers rise in he thinks proper. An intelligent creature, without a the same tract of mountainous country, though they do law to regulate his conduct, is an absurdity ; this would not arise from one head.
destroy at once the idea of his dependency and account. Verse 12. There is bdellium (rib73 bedolach) and ableness. Man must ever feel God as his sovereign, the onyx slone, onun yox eben hashshoham.] Bochart and act under his authority, which he cannot do unless thinks that the bedolach or bdellium means the pearl- he have a rule of conduct. This rule God gives; oyster; and shoham is generally understood to mean and it is no matter of what kind it is, as long as obethe onyx, or species of agate, a precious stone which dience to it is not beyond the powers of the creature has its name from ovvę, a man's nail, to the colour of who is to obey. God says: There is a certain fruitwhich it nearly approaches. It is impossible to say bearing tree; thou shalt not eat of its fruit; but of what is the precise meaning of the original words ; all the other fruits, and they are all that are necessary, and at this distance of time and place it is of little for thee, thou mayest freely, liberally eat. Had he consequence.
not an absolute right to say so? And was not man Verse 15. Put him into the garden—to dress it, bound to obey ? and to keep it.] Horticulture, or gardening, is the Thou shalt surely die.) nion nia moth tamuth ; first kind of employment on record, and that in which Literally, a death thou shalt die ; or, dying thou shalt man was engaged while in a state of perfection and die. Thou shalt not only die spiritually, by losing the innocence. Though the garden may be supposed to life of God, but from that moment thou shalt become produce all things spontaneously, as the whole vege- mortal, and shalt continue in a dying state till thou die. table surface of the earth certainly did at the creation, This we find literally accomplished; every moment of yet dressing and tilling were afterwards necessary to man's life may be considered as an act of dying, till maintain the different kinds of plants and vegetables soul and body are separated. Other meanings have in their perfection, and to repress luxuriance. Even been given of this passage, but they are in general in a state of innocence we cannot conceive it possible either fanciful or incorrect. that man could have been happy if inactive. God Verse 18. It is not good that the man should be
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Adam gives names to the cattle. CHAP. II.
The institution of marriage. A. M. 1. 19 m And out of the ground the
21 And the LORD God caused B. C. 4004.
LORD God formed every beast of a deep sleep to fall upon Adam, the field, and every fowl of the air; and and he slept : and he took one of his ribs,
brought them unto o Adam to see what he and closed up the flesh instead thereof : would call them : and
and whatsoever Adam 22 And the rib, which the LORD God had called every living creature, that was the taken from man, * made he a woman, and name thereof.
brought her unto the man. 20 And Adam P gave names to all cattle, 23 And Adam said, This is now bone of and to the fowl of the air, and to every beast my bones, and flesh of my flesh : she shall of the field; but for Adam there was not be called u Woman, because she was v taken found a help meet for him.
out of w Man.
Chap. i. 20, 24. Psa. viii. 6; see chap. vi. 20. Or, * Prov. xviii. 22; Heb. xiii. 4.--Chap. xxix. 14 ; Judg. ix the man:-P Heb. called. -9 Chap. xv. 12 ; 1 Sam. xxvi. 12. 2; 2 Sam. v.1; xix. 13; Eph. v.30.—Heb. Isha. - I Cor Heb. builded.
xi. 8.-wHeb. Ish.
alone] 1725 lebaddo; only himself. I will make him fore he must continue in the state that was not good, a help meet for him ; 17230 11 ezer kenegdo, a help, or be a farther debtor to the bounty of his Maker; a counterpart of himself, one formed from him, and a for among all the animals which he had named there perfect -resemblance of his person. If the word be was not found a help meet for him. Hence we read, rendered scrupulously literally, it signifies one like, or Verse 21. The Lord God caused a deep sleep to fall as himself, standing opposite to or before him. And upon Adam, fc.) This was neither swoon nor ecstasy. this implies that the woman was to be a perfect resem- but what our translation very properly terms a deep blance of the man, possessing neither inferiority nor sleep. superiority, but being in all things like and equal to And he took one of his ribs] It is immaterial himself. As man was made a social creature, it was whether we render why tsela a rib, or a part of his not proper that he should be alone ; for to be alone, side, for it may mean either : some part of man was i. e. without a matrimonial companion, was not good. to be used on the occasion, whether bone or flesh it Hence we find that celibacy in general is a thing that matters not ; though it is likely, from verse 23, that a is not good, whether it be on the side of the man or part of both was taken ; for Adam, knowing how the of the woman. Men may, in opposition to the decla- woman was formed, said, This is flesh of my flesh, and ration of God, call this a state of excellence and a bone of my bone. God could have formed the woman state of perfection ; but let them remember that the out of the dust of the earth, as he had formed the man ; word of God says the reverse.
but had he done so, she must have appeared in his eyes Verse 19. Out of the ground, fc.) Concerning as a distinct being, to whom he had no natural relation. the formation of the different kinds of animals, see the But as God formed her out of a part of the man himpreceding chapter.
self, he saw she was of the same nature, the same Verse 20. And Adam gave names to all cattle) Two identical flesh and blood, and of the same constitution things God appears to have had in view by causing in all respects, and consequently having equal powers, man to name all the cattle, &c. 1. To show him with faculties, and rights.' This at once ensured his affecwhat comprehensive powers of mind his Maker had tion, and excited his esteem. endued him; and 2. To show him that no creature yet Verse 23. Adam said, This is now bone of my bones, formed could make him a suitable companion. And fc.] There is a very delicate and expressive meanthat this twofold purpose was answered we shall shortly ing in the original which does not appear in our versee ; for,
When the different genera of creatures were 1. Adam gave names ; but how? From an inti- brought to Adam, that he might assign them their mate knowledge of the nature and properties of each proper names, it is probable that they passed in pairs
Here we see the perfection of his know before him, and as they passed received their names. ledge ; for it is well known that the names affixed to To this circumstance the words in this place seem to the different animals in Scripture always express some refer. Instead of this now is Dy9n nxi zoth happrominent feature and essential characteristic of the paam, we should render more literally this turn, this creatures to which they are applied. Had he not pos- creature, which now passes or appears before me, is sessed an intuitive knowledge of the grand and distin- flesh of my flesh, &c. The creatures that had passed guishing properties of those animals, he never could already before him were not suitable to him, and therehave given them such names. This one circumstance fore it was said, For Adam there was not a help meet is a strong proof of the original perfection and excel-found, ver. 20; but when the woman came, formed lence of man, while in a state of innocence; nor need out of himself, he felt all that attraction which conwe wonder at the account. Adam was the work of sanguinity could produce, and at the same time saw an infinitely wise and perfect Being, and the effect that she was in her person and in her mind every way must resemble the cause that produced it.
suitable to be his companion. See Parkhurst, sub 2. Adam was convinced that none of these creatures voce. could be a suitable companion for him, and that there. She shall be called Woman] A literal version of
Closeness of the marriage union. GENESIS Happy state of our first parents. A. M. 1.
A. M. 1. 24 Therefore shall a man leave 25 And they were both naked, B. C. 4004.
B. C. 4004. his father and his mother, and shall the man and his wife, and were cleave unto his wife; and they shall be one flesh. not a ashamed. * Chap. xxxi. 15; Psa. Ixv. 10; Matt. xix. 5; Mark x. 7; 1 Cor. y Chapter ïïi. 7, 10, 11.-Exodus xxxii, 25; Isaiah vi. 16; Eph. v. 31.
the Hebrew would appear strange, and yet a literal correcting his copy, struck out the word in the 24th version is the only proper one. O'X ish signifies man, verse instead of the 25th.
But of what consequence and the word used to express what we term woman is is it? In the controversy concerning polygamy, it the same with a feminine termįnation, nuk ishshah, has been made of very great consequence. Without and literally means she-man. Most of the ancient the word, some have contended a man may hạve as versions have felt the force of the term, and have en many wives as he chooses, as the terms are indefinite, deavoured to express it as literally as possible. The They shall be, fc., but with the word, marriage is reintelligent reader will not regret to see some of them stricted. A man can have in legal wedlock but one here. The Vulgate Latin renders the Hebrew virago, wife at the same time. which is a feminine form of vir, a man. Symmachus We have here the first institution of marriage, and uses avdpis, andris, a female form of avne, aner, a we see in it several particulars worthy of our most
Our own term is equally proper when under serious regard. 1. God pronounces the state of celistood.
Woman has been defined by many as com- bacy to be a bad stale, or, if the reader please, not a pounded of wo and man, as if called man's wo be- good one ; and the Lord God said, It is not good for cause she tempted him to eat the forbidden fruit; but man to be alone. This is God's judgment. Councils, this is no meaning of the original word, nor could it and fathers, and doctors, and synods, have given a be intended, as the transgression was not then com different judgment; but on such a subject they are mitted. The truth is, our term is a proper and literal worthy of no attention. The word of God abideth translation of the original, and we may thank the dis- for ever. 2. God made the woman for the man, and cernment of our Anglo-Saxon ancestors for giving it. thus he has shown us that every son of Adam should pombman, of which woman is a contraction, means the be united to a daughter of Eve to the end of the world. man with the womb.
A very appropriate version of See on 1 Cor. vii. 3. God made the woman out of the Hebrew or ishshah, rendered by terms which the man, to intimate that the closest union, and the signify she-man, in the versions already specified. most affectionate attachment, should subsist in the Hence we see the propriety of Adam's observation : matrimonial connection, so that the man should ever This creature is flesh of my flesh, and bone of my consider and treat the woman as a part of himself : bones ; therefore shall she be called WOMBMAN, or female and as no one ever hated his own flesh, but nourishes man, because she was taken out of man. See Verste- and supports it, so should a man deal with his wife ; gan.
Others derive it from pişman or piifman, man's and on the other hand the woman should consider that wife or she-man. Either may be proper, the first seems the man was not made for her, but that she was made the most likely.
for the man, and derived, under God, her being from Verse 24. Therefore shall a man leave his father him; therefore the wife should see that she reverence and his mother] There shall be, by the order of God, her husband, Eph. v. 33. The 23 and 24th verses a more intimate connection formed between the man contain the very words of the marriage ceremony : and woman, than can subsist even between parents and This is flesh of my flesh, and bone of my bone, therechildren.
fore shall ai man leave his father and his mother, and And they shall be one flesh.] These words may be shall cleave unto his wife, and they two shall be one understood in a twofold sense. 1. These two shall be flesh. How happy must such a state be where God's one flesh, shall be considered as one body, having no institution is properly regarded, where the parties are separate or independent rights, privileges, cares, con- married, as the apostle expresses it, in the Lord; where cerns, &c., each being equally interested in all things each, by acts of the tenderest kindness, lives only to that concern the marriage state. 2. These two shall prevent the wishes and contribute in every possible be for the production of one flesh; from their union a way to the comfort and happiness of the other! Marposterity shall spring, as exactly resembling themselves riage might still be what it was in its original instituas they do each other. Our Lord quotes these words, tion, pure and suitable ; and in its first exercise, affecMatt. xix. 5, with some variation from this text: They tionate and happy : but how few such marriages are TWAIN shall be one flesh. So in Mark x. 8. St. Paul there to be found ! Passion, turbulent and irregular, quotes in the same way, 1 Cor. vi. 16, and in Eph. not religion ; custom, founded by these irregularities, v. 31. The Vulgate Latin, the Septuagint, the Syriac, not reason ; worldly prospects, originating and ending the Arabic, and the Samaritan, all read the word two. in selfishness and earthly affections, not in spirilual That this is the genuine reading I have no doubt. ends, are the grand producing causes of the great maThe word 17:10 sheneyhem, they two or both of jority of matrimonial alliances. How then can such them, was, I suppose, omitted at first from the Hebrew turbid and bitter fountains send forth pure and sweet text, by mistake, because it occurs three words after waters? See the ancient allegory of Cupid and in the following verse, or more probably it originally Psyche, by which marriage is so happily illustrated, occurred in the 24th verse, and not in the 25th ; and explained in the notes on Matt. xix. 4-6. a copyist having found that he had written it twice, in Verse 25. They were both naked, &c.] The weather