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The tabernacle and
its ten curtains.
A. M. 2513.
The ten curtains of the tabernacle, and of what composed, 1. Their length, 2, 3; their loops, 4, 5; their taches, 6. The curtains of goats' hair for a covering, 7; their length and breadth, 8. Coupled with loops, 9, 10, and taches, ll. The remnant of the curtains, how to be employed, 12, 13. · The covering of rains' skins, 14. The boards of the tabernacle for the south side, 15;' their length, 16, lenons, 17, number, 18, sockets, 19. Boards, fc., for the north side, 20, 21. Boards, fc., for the west side, 22 : for the corners, 23; their rings and sockets, 24, 25. . The bars of the tabernacle, 26-30. The veil, ils pillars, hooks, and taches, 31–33.. How to place the mercy-seat, 34. The table and the candlestick, 35. The hanging for the door of the tent; 36; and the hangings for the pillars,: 37.
MOREOVER - thou: , shalt the second ; that the loops may A.M. 2513. B. C. 1491.
B. C. 1491. An. Exod. Isr. I. make the tabernacle with take hold one of another.
An. Exod. Isr. 1 Sivan.
Sivan. ten curtains of fine twined linen, 6. And thou shalt make fifty and blục, and purple, and scarlet : with che- taches of gold, and couple the curtains toge rubims of cunning work shalt thou make ther with the taches; and it shall be one them.
tabernacle. 2 The length of one curtain shall be eight 7 And thou shalt make curtains of goats' and twenty cubits, and the breadth of one hair, tó þe, a' covering apon the tabernacle : curtain four cubits: and every one of the eleven curtains shalt thou make. curtains shall have one measure.
8 The length of one curtain shall be thirty 3 The five curtains shall be coupled toge- cubits, and the breadth of one curtain four ther one to another; and other five curtains cubits : and the eleyen curtains shall be all of shall be coupled one to another.
one measure. 4. And thou shalt make loops of blue, upon 9 And thou shalt couple five curtains by the edge of the one curtain, from the selvage themselves, and six curtains by themselves, in the coupling; and likewise shalt thou make and shalt double the sixth curtain in the forein the uttermost edge of another curtain, in front of the tabernacle. the coupling of the second.
10 And thou shalt make fisty loops on the 5 Fifty loops shalt thou make in the one edge of the one curtain that is outmost in curtain, and fifty loops shalt thou make in the the coupling, and fifty loops in the edge of edge of the curtain that is in the coupling of the curtain which coupleth-the second. , a Chap. xxxvi. 8.—Heb. the work of a cunning workman or embroiderer.- -- Chap: xxxvi. 14. NOTES ON CHAP. XXVI.
arras. It has been thought unlikely that these turiVerse 1. Thou shalt make the tabernacle) posous works were all manufactured in the wilderness : mischan, from you shachan, to dwell, means simply a what was done in the loom, they might have brought dwelling place or habitation of any kind, but here it with them from Egypt; what could be done by hand, means the dwelling place of Jehovah, who, as a king without the use of complex machinery, the Israelitish in his camp, had his dwelling or pavilion among his women could readily perform with their needles, during people, his table always spread, his lamps lighted, and their stay in the wilderness. But still it seems prothe priests, &c., his attendants, always in waiting. bable that they brought even their looms with them. From the-minute and accurate description here given, The whole of this account shows tliat not only necesa good workman; had she the same materials, might sary but ornamental arts had been carried to a conmake a perfect fac simile of the ancient Jewish taber- siderable pitch of perfection, both among the Israelites nacle. It was a movable building, and so constructed and Egyptians. that it might be easily taken to pieces, for the greater The inner curtains of the tabernacle were ten in convenience of carriage, as they were often obliged to number, and each in length twenty-eight cubits, and transport it from place to place, in their various jour-four in breadth ; about sixteen yards twelve inches neyings. For the twined linen, blue, purple, and scar- long, and two yards twelve inches broad. lel, see the notes on chap. XXV. 4, &c.
lains were to be coupled together, fire and five of a Cherubims] See the note on chap. xxv. 18. side, by fifty loops, ver. 5, and as many golden clasps,
Cunning work] Un chosheb probably means a ver. 6, so that each might look like one curtain, sort of diaper, in which the figures appear equally per- and the whole make one entire covering, which was fect on both sides; this was probably formed in the the first. loom. Another kind of curious work is mentioned, ver. Verse 3. Curtains of goals' hair] Stuff made of 36, op7 rokem, which we term needle-work; this was goats' hair.". See the note on chap. xxv. 4. This was probably similar to our embroidery, tapestry, or cloth of the second covering. 434
B. C. 1491.
The covering, boards, and
bars of the tabernacle. A. M. 2513. 11 And thou shalt make fifty | nacle, on the north side, there A. M. 2513.
B. C. 1491.
An Exod. Isr. ). Sivan.
taches into the loops, and couple 21 And their forty sockets of the. d tent together, that it may be one. şilver; two sockets 'under one board, and
12 And the remnant that remaineth of the two sockets under another board. curtains of the tent, the half curtain that re- 22 And for the sides of the tabernacle westmaineth, shall hang over the backside of the ward, thou shalt make six boards. tabernacle.
23 And two boards shalt thou make for the 13 And a cubit on the one side, and a cubit corners of the tabernacle in the two sides. on the other side, e of that which remaineth in 24 And they shall be h coupled together be. the length of the curtains of the tent, it shall neath, and they shall be coupled together above hang over the sides of the tabernacle, on this the head of it unto one ring : thus shall it be side and on that side, to cover it.
for them both ; they shall be for the two corners. 14 And thou shalt make a covering for the 25 And they shall be eight boards, and their tent of rams' skins dyed red, and a' covering (sockets of silver, sixteen sockets; two sockets above of badgers' skins.
under one board, and two sockets under ano 15 And thou shalt make boards for the taber-ther board. nacle of slittim wood standing up:
26 And thou shalt make bars of shittim wood; 16 Ten cúbits shall be the length of a board, five for the boards of the one side of the laberand a cubit and a lialf shall be the breadth of nacle, one board.
27 : And five bars for the boards of the other 17 Two & tenons shall there be in one board, side of the tabernacle, and five bars for the set in order one against another : thus shalt boards of the side of the tabernacle, for the thou make for all the boards of the tabernacle, two sides westward. 18 And thou shalt make the boards for the 28 And the middle bar, in the midst of the tabernacle, twenty boards on the south side boards, shall reach from end to end. southward.
29. And thou shalt overlay the boards with gold, 19"And thou shalt make forty sockets of silver and make their rings of gold for places for the under the twenty boards; two șockets under bars : and thou shalt overlay the bars with gold. one board for his two tenons, and two sockets 30 And thou shalt rear up the tabernacle, under another board for his two tenons. according to the fashion thereof, which was
20 And for the second side of the laber- showed thee in the mount. Or, covering, + Hebrew, in the remainder, or surplusage. Hebrew, twined. - Chapter xxv. 9, 40; xxvij. 8; Acts vii. (Chap. xxxvi. 19.
44; Heb, viii. 5. : Verse 14. Rams' skins dyed red] See on chap. xxv. and were brought up to every kind of trade for the ser5... This was the third covering ; and what is called vice of their oppressors, we may naturally suppose that the badgers’ sķins was the fourth. See the note an every artificer brought off some of his tools with him. chap. XXV. 5. Why there should have been four' For though it is not at all likely that they had any arcoverings does not appear. They might have been mour or defensive weipons in their power, yet for the designed partly for respect; and partly to keep off dust reason above assigned they must have had the impleand dirt, and the extremely hne sand which in that de- ments which were reqäisite for their respective trades. sert rises as it were on every breeze; and partly to Verse 16. Ten cubits shall be the length of a board) keep off the intense heat of the sun, which would other. Each of these boards or planks was about five yards wise have destroyed the poles, bars, boards, and the and two feet and a half long, and thirty-two- inches whole of the wood work. As to the conjecture of some broad; and as they are said to be standing up, this was that “the four coverings were intended the better to the HEIGHT of the tabernacle. The length being thirty keep off the rain," it must appear unfounded to those cubits, twenty bồards, one cubit and a half broad each, who know that in that desert rain was rarely ever seen. make about seventeen yards and a half, and the BREADTH
· Verse 15. Thou shalt make boards) These formed was about five yards. what might be called the walls of the tabernacle, and : . Verse 29. Thou shalt overlay the boards with gold] were made of shittim wood, the acacia Nilotica, which It is not said how thick the gold was by which these Dr. Shaw says grows here in abundance. To bave boards, &c., were overlaid; it was no doubt done with worked the acacia into these boards or planks, the Is- gold plates, but these mast have been very thin, else the raelites must have had sawyers, joiners, &c., among boards, &c., must have been insupportably heavy. The them; but how they got the tools is a question. But gold was probably something like our gold leaf, but not as the Israelites were the general workmen of Egypt, brought to so great a degree of tenuity.
- Heb. hands.
The veil of the tabernacle.
Place of the mercy-seat and table. A. M. 2513. · 31. And kthou shalt make as and the veil shall divide unto A M. 2513. .
B. C. 1491. An. Exod. Isr: 1. veil of blue, and purple, and you between m the holy place An. Exod. Isr. 1. Sivan.
scarlet, and fine twined. linen of and the most holy. · cunning work : with cherubims shall it be 34. And thou shalt put the mercy-seat made.
upon the ark of the 'testimony, in the most .32 And thou shalt-hang it upon four pillars holy place. of shittim wood, overlaid with gold : their hooks 35 And • thou shalt set the table without the shall be of gold, upon the four sockets of silver. veil, and P the candlestick' over against the table
33 And thou shalt hang up the veil under on the side of the tabernacle toward the south : the taches, that thou mayest bring in thither and thou shalt put the table on the north side. within the veil ? the ark of the testimony: 36 And a thou shalt make a hanging for the
k Chap. xxxvi. 35 ; Lev. xvi. 2; 2 Chron. iii. 14; Matt. xxvii. Heb. ix. 2, 3. - Chap. xxv, 21 ; xl. 20; Heb. ix. 5.- Chap. 51 ; Heb. ix. 3. - Chapter xxv. 16; xl. 21.-m Lev. xvi. 2; xl. 22 ; Heb. ix. 2.-p Chap. xl. 24. Chap. xxxvi. 37.
Verse 31. Thou shalt make a veil.) none parocheth, fsxvii. 10, 11, 17; xxxvi. 36, 38; xxxviii. 10, 11, 12, from 719 parach, to break or rend; the inner veil of the 17,19, 28; and is used in these places in reference to tabernacle or temple, (2 Chron. iii. 14,) which broke, the same subject, it is very difficult to ascertain its interrupted, or divided between the holy place and the precise meaning. Most commentators and lexicogramost holy; the Holy Ghost this signifying, that the phers think that the ideal meaning of the word is to way into the holiest of all was not yet made manifest, connect; altach, join to, hook; and that the letter i vau while as the first tabernacle was standing. Compare has its name from its hook-like form, and its use as a Heb. ix. 8. The Septuagint constantly render it by particle in the Hebrew language, because it serves to κατάπετασμα. . Does not the Hebrew name nang pa-connect the words and members of a sentence, and the rocheth moreover intimate the typical correspondence sentences of a discourse together, and that therefore of this veil to the body or flesh of Christ ? For this hook must be the obvious meaning of the word in all Katanetaoua or veil was his flesh, (Heb. x. 20,) which, the above texts. Calmet thinks this reason of no being rent, affords us a new and living way into the weight, because the t vau of the present Hebrew alphaholiest of all, i. e., into heaven itself. Compare Heb. bet is widely dissimilar from the vau of the primitive X. 19, 20; ix. 24. And accordingly when his blessed Hebrew alphabet, as may be seen on the ancient shekels; body was rent upon the cross, this veil also (TO kata- on these the characters appear as in the word JEHOVAH, hetaoua rov ispov) coxlo0n, was rent in twain from chap. xxviii: 36. This form bears no resemblance to the top to the bottom ; Matt. xxvii. 51.-See Parki- a hook; nor does the Samaritan 3 vau, which appears hurst, under the word 799.
to have been copied from this ancient character. The veil in the tabernacle was exceedingly costly.; Calmet therefore contendş, 1. That if Moses does it was made of the same materials with the inner not mean the capitals of the pillars by the o'n ravim covering, blue, purple, scarlet, fine twined linen, em- of the text, he mentions them nowhere; and it would broidered with cherubim, &c. It served to divide the be strange, that while he describes the pillars, their tabernacle into two parts: one, the outermost; called sockets, bases, fillets, &c., &c., with so much exactness, the holy place; the other, or innermost, called the as will appear on consulting the preceding places, that · holy of holies, or the most holy place. In this was he should make no mention of the capilas ; or that deposited the ark of the covenant, and the other things pillars, 'every way so correctly formed, should have that were laid up by way of memorial. Into this the been destitate of this very necessary ornament. high priest alone was permitted to enter, and that only 2. As Moses was commanded to make the hooks, once in the year, on the great day of atonement. It d'yi vavim, of the pillars and their fillets of silver, chap. was in this inner place that Jehovah manifested him- xxvii. 10, 11, and the hooks, vavim, of the pillars of the self between the cherubim. The Jews say that this veil of gold, chap. xxxvi: -36; and as one thousand seven veil was four fingers' breadth in thickness, in order to hundred and seventy-five shokels were employed in prevent any person from seeing through it ; but for making these hooks, vavim, overlaying their chapiters, this, as Calmet, observes, there was no necessity, as On:ÚXT rasheyhem, their heads, and filleting them, there was no window or place for light in the taber- chap. xxxviii. 28 ; it is more reasonable to suppose nacle, and consequently the most simple veil would that all this is spoken of the capitals of the pillars than have been sufficient to obstruct the discovery of any of any kind of hooks, especially as hooks are mentioned thing behind it, which could only be discerned by the under the word taches or clasps in other places.
On light that came in at the door, or by that afforded - by the whole it appears mueh more reasonable to transthe golden candlestick which stood on the outside of late the original by capitals than by hooks. this veil.
After this verse the Samaritan Pentateuch introVerse 32. Their hooks shall be of gold} D7'11 va- duces the ten first verses of chap. XXX., and this veyhem, which we translate their hooks, iš rendered appears to be their proper place." Those ten verses Kepahides, capitals, by the Septuagint, and capita by are not repeated in the thirtieth chapter in the Samathe Vulgate. · As the word 11 vav or vau, plural d'y ritan, the chapter beginning with the 11th verse. vavim, occurs only in this book, chap. xxvi. 32, 37; Verse 36. A hanging for the door of the tent] This
B. C. 1491.
Altar of burnt-offerings,
and its dimensions. A. M. 2513. door of the tent, of blue, and pur- ' five pillars of shittim wood, and A. M. 2513. B. C. 1491. An Exod. Isr. 1. ple, and scarlets and fine twined overlay them with gold, and their an. Exod. Iss. 1.
Sivan. linen, wrought with needlework. hooks shall be of gold : and thou 37 And thou shalt make for the hanging shalt cast five sockets of brass for them.
* Exodus, chap. xxxvi. 38. may be called the first reil, as it occupied the door or 2. In the Jewish tabernacle almost every thing was entrance to the tabernacle; the veil that separated the placed out of the sight of the people. The holy of holy place from the holy of holies is called the second holies was inaccessible, the testimony was compara- . veil, Heb. ix. 3. These two veils and the inner cover- tively hidden; as were also the mercy-seat and the ing of the, tabernacle were all of the same materials, Divine glory. Under the Gospel all these things are and of the same workmanship.' See chap. xxvii. 16. laid open, the way to the holiest is made manifest, the
veil is rent, and we have an entrance to the holiest by 1. For the meaning and design of thé tabernacle the blood of Jesus, by a new and living way, which he see the note on chap. XXV. 40 : and while the reader halh consecrated for us, through the veil, that is to say, is struck with the curious and costly nature of this his flesh; Heb. x. 19, 20. How abundantly has God building, as described by Moses, let him consider how brought life and immortality to light by the Gospel ! pure and holy that Church should be of which it was The awful distance is abolished, the ministry of recona very expressive typo ; and what manner of person ciliation is proclaimed, the kingdom of heaven is he should be in all holy conversation and godliness, opened to all believers, and the Lord is in his holy who professes to be a member of that Church for temple. Sinner, weary of thyself and thy transgreswhich, it is written, Christ has given himself, that he sions, fainting under the load of thy iniquities, look might sanctify and cleanse it; that he might present to Jesus ; ' he died for thee, and will save thee. "Beit unto himself a glorious Church, not having spot, or liever, stand fast in the liberty wherewith God has wrinkle, or any such thing; but that it should be holy made thee free, and be not entangled again in the and without blemish. . See Eph. v. 25–27.
yoke of bondage.
CHAPTER XXVII. The altar of burnt-offerings, and its dimensions, 1 ; its hørns, 2 ; pans, shovels, fc., 3; its grate and net
work, 4, 5; its staves, 6, 7. Court of the tabernacle, with its pillars and hangings, 9-15. Gate of the court, its pillars, hangings, length, breadth, and height, 16–18. All the vessels used in the court of the tabernacle to be of brass, 19. The Israelites to provide pure olive oil for the light, 20. Every thing to be ordered by Aaron and his sons, 21. A. M. 2513 ND thou shalt make an height thereof shall be three A. M. 2513. B. C. 1491.
B. C. 1491. An. Exod. Isr. I. altar of shittim wood, five cubits.
An. Exod. Isr. 1. Sivan.
Sivan. broad: the altar . shall be four-square ; and the horns. of it upon the four corners thereof :
a Chap. xxxvii. 1; Ezek. xliii. 13. NOTES ON CHAP. XXVII.
tars appear to be erected rather aş trophies in honour of Verse 1. Thou shalt make an allar) naita mizbeach, their gods. On the reverses of several medals we find from ndi zabach, to slay : Septuagint, Ovocaotrplov, altars represented with horns at the corners. There from Ovocatw, to sacrifice, or from duw, to kill, &c. is a medal of Antoninus on the reverse of which is an See the note on Gen .viii. 20.
altar, on which a fire burns, conseerated Divo Pio, Four-square] As this altar was five cubits long and where the horns appear on each of the corners. five broad, and the cubit is reckoned to be twenty-one There is one of Faustina, on which the altar and inches, hence it must have been eight feet nine inches its horns are very distinct, the legend Pietas Augusta. square, and about five feet three inches in height, the All the following have altars with horns. One of amount of three cubits, taken at the same ratio. Valerian, legend Consecratio ; one of Claudius Gothi
· Verse 2. Thou shall make the horns of it] Thecus, same legend; one of Quintillus, same legend; one horns might have three uses:- 1. For ornament.
2. To of Crispina, with the legend Diis Genitalibus ; and prevent carcasses, &c., from falling off. 3. To tie several others. See Numismatica Antiq., a MUSELLIO, the victim to, previdusly to its being sacrificed. So under Consecratio, in the index. David : Bind-the sacrifice with cords to the horns of
Callimachus, in his Hymn to Apollo, line 60, introthe altar ; Psa. cxviii. 27. Horns were much used duces him constructing, an altar of the horns of the in all ancient altars among the heathen, and some of animals slain by Diana :them were. entirely constructed of the horns of the
πηξε δε βωμού beasts that had been offered in sacrifice; but such al
Εκ κεραων κ. τ. λ.
B. C. 1491.
The court of the tabernacle,
EXODUS. with its pillars and hangings. A. M. 2513. his horns shall be of the same ; there shall be hangings for the A. M. 2513. An. Exod. Iar. 1. and 5 thou shalt overlay it with court of fine-twined linen of a An Exod. 1st. 1. brass.
hundred cubits long for one side : 3 And thou shalt. make his pans to receive 10 And the twenty pillars- thereof and their his ashes, and his shovels, and his basins, twenty sockets shall be of brass ; the books and his flesh-hooks, and his fire-paris : all the of the pillars and their fillets shall be of silver. vessels thereof thou shalt make of brass. 11 And likewise for the north side, in length
4 And thou shalt make for it a grate of net- there shall be hangings of a hundred cubits work of brass; and upon the net shalt thou long, and his twenty pillars and their twenty make four brazen rings in the four corners sockets of brass; the hooks of the pillars and thereof.
their "fillets of silver. -5 And thou shalt. put it under the compass 12 And for the breadth of the court on the of the altar beneath, that the net may be even west side shall be, hangings of fifty cubits : to the midst of the altar..
their pillars ten, and their sockets ten. 6 And thou shalt maké staves for the altar, 13 And the breadth of the court on the east staves of shillim wood, and overlay them with side castward shall be fifty cubits, brass.
14 The hangings of one side of the gate 7. And the staves shall be put into the rings, shall be fifteen cubits; their pilars three, and and the stayes shall be upon the two sides of their sockets three. the altar, 16 bear it.
15 And on the other side shall be hangings 8. Hollow with boards shalt thou make it : fifteen cubits, their pillars three, and their
as dit was showed thee in the mount, so sockets three. shall they make it..
16 And for the gate of the court shall be g And thou shalt make the court of the sa hanging of twenty cubits, of blue, and purtabernacle: for the south side southward, ple, and scarlet, and fine-twined linen; wrought
See Num. xvj. 38.
- Chap. xxv, 40; xxvi, 30,
a Heb, be showed. - Chap. xxxviii. 9.
Martial has these words :. Cornibus ara frequens. down from heaven (Lev. <ix.. 24) was kept burning,
Verse 3. Thou shalt make his pans) 1070 sirothaiv, whilst they cleansed the akar and the grate from the a sort of large brazen dishes, which stood under the coals and the ashes; and while the altar was carried altar to receive the ashes that fell through the grating. from one place to another, as it often was in the wil.
His shovels) 13" yaaiv. Some render this besoms ; derness." but as these were brazen instruments, it is more natural Verse 4. Thou shall make for it a grate] Calmet to suppose that some kind of fire-shovels are intended, supposes this altar to have been a sort of box, covered or scuttles, which were used to carry off the ashes that with brass plates, on the top of which was a gratiag "fell throngh the grating into the large pan or siroth. to supply the fire with air, and permit the ashes to fall
His basins] inpria mizrekothaiv, from pa zarak, through into the siroth or pan that was placed below. to sprinkle or disperse; bowls or basins to receive the At the four corners of the grating were four rings and blood of the sacrifices,' in order that it might be. sprin- four chains, by which it was attached to the four kled on the people before the altar,' &c.
horns, and at the sides were-rings for the poles of His flesh-hooks) · ngbina mizlegothaiv., "That this shittim wood with which it was carried. Even on this word is rightly translated flesh-hooks is fully, evident there is a great variety of opinions.. from 1 şam. ii. 13, where the same word is used in. Verse 8. Hollow, with boards) It seems to have such a connection as demonstrates its meaning : And been a kind of frame-work, and to have had nothing the priest's custom with the people was, that when any solid in the inside, and only covered with the grating man offered sacrifice, the priest's servant came, while at the top. This rendered it more light and portable. the flesh was in the seething, with a FLESH-HOOK (ahin Verse 9. The court of the tabernacle] The tabermazleg) of three teeth (prongs) in his hand, and he nacle stood in an enclosure or court, open at the top. struck it into the pan, &c.; all - that the PLESH-HOOK This court was made with pillars or posts, and hangCabin mazleg) brought up, the priest took for himself. ings. It was one hundred cubits, or about fifty-eight ịt was probably a kind of trident, or fork with three yards and a half, in length; the breadth we learn from prongs, and these bent to a right angle at the middle, verses 12 and 18; and five cubits, or nearly, three as the ideal meaning of the Hebrew seems to imply yurds, high, ver. 18. And as this was but hall the crookedness or curvature in general.
height of the tabernacle, chap. xxvi. 16, that sacred His fire-pans) rnino machtothaiv. Bishop Patrick building might easily be seen by the people from and others suppose that “this was a larger sort of without. vessel, wherein, probably, the sacred fire which came:). Verse 16. And for the gate of the court] It appears