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All the vessels to be of brass, CHAP. XXVII. ordered by Aaron and his sons.

A: M. 2513. with needlework : and their pil- and all the pins of the court, A. M. 2513. B. C. 1491.

B. C. 1491. An. Exod. Ist.1. lars shall be four, and their shall be of brass.

An. Exod. Isr. I. Sivan. sockets four. 20. And & thou shalt command

Sivan 17 All the pillars round about the court the children of Israel, that they bring thee shall be filleted with silver ; their hooks shall pure oil olive beaten for the light, to cause be of silver, and their sockets of brass. the lamp to burn always,

18 The length of the court shall be a hun- 21 In the tabernacle of the congregation, dred cubits, and the breadth fifty every without the veil, which is before the testiwhere, and the height five cubits of fine mony: k Aaron and his sons shall order it from twined linen, and their sockets of brass. evening to morning before the LORD : l it shall . 19 All the vessels of the tabernacle in all be a statute for ever unto their generations, on the service thereof, and all the pins thereof, the behalf of the children of Israel.

'Heb. fifty by fifty, -5 Ley. xxiv. 2. h Heb. to ascend up. xii. 11. Chapter xxvin. 43, xxix. 9, 28 ; Lev. iii, 17; xvi. i Chap. xxvi. 31, 33. _k Chap. xxx. 8;-1 Sam. iii. 3 ; 2 Chron. 34;. xxiv. 9; Num. xviii. 23 ; xix. 21; 1 Sam. xxx. 25." that the hangings of this gate were of the same mate- tables of the covenant were deposited. See chap. rials and workmanship with that of the inner covering xxv. 16. of the tabernacle, and the outer and inner veil. See Aaron and his sons] These and their descendants chap. xxvi. 365

being the only legitimate priests, God having established Verse 19. All the vessels shall be of brass.] It the priesthood in this family. would have been improper to have used instruments Shall order it from evening :o morning] Josephus made of the more precious metals about this altar, as says the whole of the seven lamps burned all the night; they must have been soon worn out by the scverity, of in the morning four were extinguished, and three kept the service.

burning through the whole day. · Others assert that Verse 20. Pure oil olive beaten] That is, such oil the whole seven were kept lighted both day and night as could easily be expressed from the olives after they continually; but it appears sufficiently evident, from had been bruised in a mortar ; the mother drop, as it 1 Sam. iii. 3, that these lamps were extinguished ir. is called, which drops out of itself as soon as the olives the morning : And ere the lamp of God went out - in are a little broken, and which is much purer than that the temple of the Lord, where the ark of God was, and which is obtained after the olives are put under the Samuel was laid down to sleep, &c. See also chap, press.

xxx. 8: And when Aaron LIGHTETH THE LAMPS AT Columella, who is a legitimate evidence in all such EVEN. , It appears therefore that the business of the matters, says that the oil which flowed out of the fruit priests was to light șhe lamps in the evening; and either either spontaneously, or with little application of the to extinguish them in the morning, or permit them to force of the press, was of a much finer flavour than burn out, having put in the night before as much oil as that which was obtained otherwise. Quoniam longe waş necessary to last tiñ day-light. melioris saporis est, quod minore vi preli, quasi lucu- A statule for ever] This, ordering of the lamps rians, defluxerit. -CoĻUM., lib. xii., e. 50.

night and morning, and attendance on the service of To cause the lamp to burn always] They were to the tabernacle, was a statute that was to be in full force be kept burning through the whole of the night; and while the tabernacle and temple stood, and should have some think all the day besides; but there is a differ- its spiritual accomplishment in the Christian Church to ence of sentiment upon this subject. See the note on the end of time. Reader, the tabernacle and temple the following verse.

are both destroyed; the Church of Christ is established This oil and continual flame were not only emble in their place. The seven golden çandlesticks were matical of the unction and influences of the Holy typical of this Church and the glorious light it posGhost, but also of that pure spirit of devotion which sesses, Rev. i. 12-20;; and Jesus Christ, the Fountain ever animates the hearts and minds of the genuine wor- and Dispenser of this true light,.walks in the midst of shippers of the true God. The temple of Vesta, them. Reader, hast. thou that celestial flame to.en. where a fire was kept perpetually burning, seems to lighten and animate thy heart in all those acts of dehave been formed on the model of the tabernacle ; and votion which thou professest to pay to him as thy Mafrom this the followers of Zeratusht, commonly called ket, Redeemer, and Preserver? What is thy profesZoroaster, appear to have derived their doctrine of sion, and what thy religious acts and services, without the perpetual. fire, which they still worship as an em- this.? A sounding brass, a tinkling cymbal, blem of the Deity.

Verse 21. The tabernacle of the congregation] The TERTULLIAN asserts that all the ancient heathens place where all the assembly of the people were to borrowed their best notions from the sacred writings: worship, where the God of that assembly was pleased "Which,” says he, "of your poets, which of your to reside, and to which, as the habitation of their king sophists, have not drunk from the fountain of the proand protector, they were ever to turn their faces in all phets ? It is from those sacred springs that their adorations..

losophers have refreshed their thirsty spirits; and if Before the lestimony) Thai is, the ark where the they found any thing in the Holy Scriptures which hit

your phiAaron and his sons to be set

EXODUS.

apart for the priest's office. their fancy, or which served their hypothesis, they took embroidered with purple, blue, &c. See chap. xxviii. and turned it to a compliance with their own curiosity, 15. They also ministered barefooted, their hair was not considering those writings to be sacred and unalter- trimmed or cut off, and they observed the strictest able, nor understanding their true sense, every one continency, and kept a perpetual fire burning on their altering them according to his own fancy."-Apologet. altars. And he farther adds that there was no image

The reader's attention has already been called to or similitude of the gods to be seen in that sacred this point several times in the preceding parts of this place. This is the substance of his deseription; but work, and the subject will frequently recur.. At the as some of my readers may wish to see the original, conclusion of chap. xxv. we had occasion to observe I shall here subjoin it. that the heathens had imitated many things in that Divine worship prescribed by Moses; but in application Vulgalum (nec cassa fides) ab origine fani to their own corrupt system every thing was in a cer

Impositas durare trabes, solasque per avum tain measure falsified and distorted, yet not so far as

Condentum novisse manus : hic credere gaudent to prevent the grand outlines of primitivé truth from

Consedisse Deum, seniumque repellere templis. being discerned One of the most complete imitations Tum, queis fas et honos adyti penetralia nosse, of the tabernacle and its whole service is found in the Fæmineos prohibent gressus, ac limine curant very ancient temple of Hercules, founded probably by

Setigeros arcere sues : nec discolor ulli the Phænicians; at Gades, now Cadiz, in Spain, so mi

Ante aras cullus : velantur corpora lino, nutely described by Silius Italicus from actual obser- El Pelusiaco præfulget stamine vertex. vation. He observes that though the temple was at

Discinctis inos thura dare, atque e lege parentum that time very ancient, yet the beams were the same

Sacrificam Lato vestem distinguere cLAYO. that bad been placed there by the founders, and that Pes nudus, tonsæque comæ, castumque cubile, they were generálly supposed to be incorriptible ; a Irrestincta focis servanl altaria flammæ. quality ascribed to the shittim wood, termed Fv2ov aonta

Sed nulla effigies, simulacrave nola Deorum Tov, incorruptible wood; by the Septuagint. That wo- Majestate locum, et sacro implerere timore. men were not permitted to enter this temple, and that

Punicor., lib. iii., ver. 17-31. no swine were ever suffered to come near it, That

This is such a remarkable case that I think myself the priests did not wear party.eoloured vestments, but justified in quoting it al length, as an extraordinary were always clothed in fine linen, and their bonnels monument, though corrupted, of the tabernacle and its made of the same. That they offered incense to their service. It is probable that the original founders had god, their clothes being ungirded; for the same reason consecrated this temple to the true God, under the name doubtless given chap. XX. 26, thát in going up to the of 58 EL, the strong God, or via bs EL GIBBOR, the altar nothing unseemly might appear, and therefore they strong, prevailing, and victorious God, Isa. ix. 6, out permitted their long robes to fall down to their feet. of whom the Greeks and Romans made their Hercules, He adds, that by the laws of their forefathers they or god of strength; and, to make it agree with this bore on their sacerdotal vestments the latus clavus, appropriation, the labours of Hercules were sculptured which was a round knob or stud of purple with which

on the doors of this temple at Gades. the robes of the Roman knights and senators were adorned, which these priests seem to have copied from In foribus labor Alcidæ Lernæa recisis the breastplate of judgment made of cunning work, Anguibus Hydra jacet, &c., &c,

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CHAPTER XXVIII, Aaron and his sons are set apart for the priest's office, 1. Garments to be provided for them, 2, 3. What

these garments were, 4, and of what made, 5. The ephod, ils shoulder-pieces and girdle, 6–8. The two obyx stones, on which the names of the twelve tribes were to be engraven, 9–14. The breastplate of judge inent ; its twelve precious stones, engraving, rings, chains, and its use, 15–29. The Urim and Thummim, 30. The robe of thè. ephod, its border, bells, pomegranates, fc., and their use, 31-33. The plate of pure gold and its motto, 36, to be placed on Aaron's mitre, 37, 38. The embroidered coat for Aaron, 39. Coats, girdles, and bonnets, 40. Aaron and his sons to be anointed for the priest's office, 41. Other articles of clothing and their use, 42, 43. 1. M: 3542 AND take thou unto thee unto me in the priest's office,

B. . * Aaron thy brother, and even Aaron, Nadab, and Abihu, An. Exod. Isr: 1. -Sivan.

his sons with him, from among Eleazar, and Ithamar, Aaron's the children of Israel, that he may minister sons.

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Sivan.

a Num. xviii. 17; Ecclus. xlv. 6; Heb. v. 1, 4.

NOTES ON CHÀP. XXVIII.

worship was to be confined to one place; and previously Verse 1. · Aaronand his sons] The priesthood to this the eldest in every family officiated as priest, was to be restrained to this family because the public there being no settled place of worship. It has been

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Holy garments are

CHAP. XXVIII.

to be maile for them. 2 And thou shalt make holy wise-hearted, I whom I have B. C. 1491. An. Exod. Isr. I. garments for Aaron thy brother, filled with the spirit of wisdom, An. Exod. Isr. 1.

for glory' and for beauty. that they may make Aaron's :3 And e thou shalt speak unto all that are garments to consecrate him, that he may

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Chap. xxix. 5, 29; xxxi. 10; xxxix. 1, 2; Lev. viii. 7, 30; 31-35 ; xxxvi. 1, 2; Isa. xxviii. 24-29. Num. XX. 26, 28; Ecclus. xlv. 7, 8. - Chap. xxxi. 6 ; xxxv. Xxxv. 30, 31; Deut. xxxiv. 9; James i. 17.

Chap. xxxi. 3;

very properly observed that, if Moses had not acted that remains of those ancient and becoming vestments, by the Divine appointment, he would not have passed which God commanded to be made for glory and beauty. by his own family, which continued in the condition of Clothing, emblematical of office, is of more consequence ordinary Levites, and established the priesthood, the than is generally imagined. Were the great officers only dignity in the nation, in the family of his brother of the crown, and the great officers of justice, to clothe Aaron. “ The priests, however, had no power of a themselves like the common people when they appear secular nature, nor does it appear from history that they in their public capacity, both their persons and their ever arrived at any till the time of the Asmoneans or decisions would be soon held in little estimation, Maccabees.". See the note on chap. xix. 22.

Verse 3. Whom I have filled with the spirit of wisVerse 2. For glory and for beauty.}. Four articles dom] So we find thát îngenuity in arts and sciences, of dress were prescribed for the priests in ordinary, even those of the ornamental kind, comes from God. and four more for the high-priest. Those for the priests It is not intimated here that these persons were filled in general were a coat, drawers, a girdle, and a bonnet. with the spirit of wisdom for this purpose only ; for Besides these the high-priest had a robe, an ephod, a the direction to Moses is, 10 seleet those whom he breastplate, and a plate or diadem of gold on his fore- found to be expert artists, and those who were such, head. The garments, says the sacred historian, were God shows by these words, had derived their know.' for honour and for beauty. They were emblematical ledge from himself. . Every man should be permitted of the office in which they ministered. 1. It was ho- as far as possible to follow the bent or direction of his nourable. They were the ministers of the Most High, own genius, when it evidently leads him to new invenand employed by him in transacting the most important tions, and improvements on old plans. How much concerns between God and his people, concerns in has both the labour of men and cattle been lessened by which all the attributes of the Divine Being were in improvements in machinery! And can we say that terested, as well as those which referred to the present. the wisdom which found out these improvements did and eternal happiness of his creatures. 2. They were not come from God? No màn, by course of reading for beauty. They were emblematical of that holiness or study, ever acquired a genius of this kind : we call and purity which ever characterize the Divine nature it natural, and say it was born wilh the man. Moses and the worship which is worthy of him, and which teaches us to consider it as Divine. Who taught are essentially necessary to all those who wish to serve Newton to ascertain the laws by which God governs him in the beauty of holiness here below, and without the universe, through which discovery a new source which none can ever see his face in the realms of glory. of profit and pleasure has been opened to mankind Should not the garments of all those who minister in through every part of the civilized world ? No readholy things still be emblematical of the things in which ing, no, study, no example, formed his genius. God, they minister? Shoald they not be for glory and beauty, who made him, gave him that compass and bent of expressive of the dignity of the Gospel ministry, and mind by which he made those discoveries, and -for that heauty of holiness without which none can see which his name is celebrated in the earth. When I the Lord ? As the high-priest's, vestments, under the see Napier inventing the logarithms; Copernicus, law, were emblematical of - what was to come, should | Des Cartes; and Kepler contributing to 'pull down not the vestments of the ministers of the Gospel bear the false systems of the universe, and Newton demon-some resemblance of what is come ? . Is then the dis- strating the true one; and when I see the long list of mal black, now worn by almost all kinds of priests and PATENTEES of useful inventions, by whose industry and . ministers, for glory and for beauty? Is it emblemati- skill long and tedious processes in the necessary arts cat of any thing that is good, glorious, or excellent ?' of life have been shortened, labour greatly lessened, How unbecoming the glad tidings announced by Chris- and much time and expense saved'; I then -see, with tian ministers is a colour emblematical of nothing but Moses, men who -are wise-hearted, whom God has mourning and wo,''sin, desolation, and death! How filled with the spirit of wisdom-for these very purinconsistent the habit and office of these men! Should poses ; that he might help man by man, and that, as it be said, “ These are only shadows, and are useless time rolls on, he might give to his intelligent creatures because the substance is come.” I ask, Why then is such proofs of his Being, infinitely vdried wisdom, and black almost universally worn ? why is a particular gracious providence, as should eause them to depend colour preferreu, if there be no signification in any? on him, and give him that glory which is due to his Is there not a danger that in our zeal against shadows, name. we shall destroy or essentially change the substance How pointedly does the Prophet Isaiah refer to this itself?. Would not the same sort of argumentation sort of teaching as coming from God, even in the most exclude water in baptism, and bread and wine in the common and less difficult arts of life! The whole passacrament of the Lord's Supper? The while surplice sage is worthy of the reader's most serious attention. in the service of the Church is almost the only thing “ Doth the ploughman plough all day to sow? doth ho

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The garments which the

EXODUS.

priests are to wear. minister unto me in the priest's an ephod, and <a robe, and An. Exod. Isr, 1. office.

a broidered coat, a mitre, and Ad. Exod. Isr. 1 4 And these are the garments a girdle : and they shall make which they shall make ; a breastplate, and holy garments for Aaron thy brother, and his

h

Sivan.

Sivan.

e Ver. 15.

_ Ver. 6.

- 5 Ver. 31.

Ń Ver. 39; Exod. xxxix. 2-21.

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open and break the clods of his ground? When he factories, and inanimate, unfeeling NATURE caused to hath made plain the face thereof, doth he not cast perform the work of all these betier, more expediabroad the fitches, and scatter the cummin, and cast tiously, and to much more profit; shall we not say in the principal wheat, and the appointed barley, and that the hand of GOD is in all this? Only I again the rye, in their place ? For his GOD DOTH INSTRUCT say, let machinery aid man, and not render him useHIM to discretion, and doth teach him. For the fitches less. The nations of Europe are pushing mechanical are not threshed with a threshing-instrument, neither power to a destructive extreme. He alone girded is a cart-wheel turned about upon the eummin; but the those eminent men, though many of them knew him fitches are beaten out with a staff, and the commin with not; he inspired them with wisdom - and understanda rod. Bread corn is bruised ; because he will not ing; by his all-pervading and all-informing spirit he ever be threshing it, nor break it with the wheel of opened to them the entrance of ihe paths of the depths his cart, nor bruise it with his horsemen. This also of science, guided them in their researches, opened to cometh forth from the Lord of hosts, who is won them successively more and more of his astonishing derful in counsel, and excellent in working,” Isa. 1 treasures, crowned their persevering industry with his xxvii. 24-29.

blessing, and made them his ministers for good to manBut let as take heed not to run into extremes here; kind. The antiquary and the medalist are also his machinery is to help man, nat: to render bim useless. agents; their discernment and penetration come from The human hand is the great and most perfect machine, him alone. By them,. how many dark ages of the let it not be laid aside. In our zeal for machinery world have been brought to light; how many names we are rendering all the lower classes, useless ; filling of men and places, how many customs and arts, that the land with beggary and vice, and the workhouses were lost, restored! And by their means a few busts, with paupers ; and ruining the husbandman with op- images, slones, bricks, coins, rings, and culinary ulenpressive poor-rates, Keep machinery as a help to the sils, the remaining wrecks of long-past numerous cenhuman hand, and to lighten the labour, but never let it turies, have supplied the place of wrillen documents, supersede either..

and cast a profusion of light on the history of man, This principle, that God is the author of all arts and the history of providence. And let me add, that and sciences, is too little regarded :. Every good gift, the providence which preserved these materials, and and every perfect gift, says St. James, comes from raised up men to decipher and explain them, is itself above, from the father of LIGHTS, Why has God gloriously illustrated by them. constructed every part of nature with such a profusion Of all those men (and the noble list might be greatly of economy and skill, if he intended this skill should swelled) we may say the same that Moses said. of never be discovered by man; or that man should not Bezaleel and Ahòliab: GOD hath filled them with attempt to examine his works in order to find them the Spirit of God, in wisdom, and in understanding, out ? From the works of CREATION-what proofs, aston- and in knowledge ;' and in all manner of workmanship, ishing and overwhelming proofs, both to believers and to devise cunning works; to work in gold and in silver, infidels, have been drawn both of the nature, being, and in brass, in cutting of stones, carving of timber, attributes, and providence of God! What demonstrá- and in all manner of workmanship;" chap. xxxi. 3-6. tions of all these have the Archbishop of Cambray, “ The works of the Lord are great, sought out of all Dr. Nieuwentyt, Dr. Derham, and Mr. Charles Bon-them that have pleasure therein;" Psa. cxi, 2. net, given in their philosophical works ! And who Verse 4. Breastplate) qon choshen. See on chap. gave those men this, wisdom? GOD, from whom xxv, 7. alone MIND, and all its attributes, proceed. While Ephod) 7D, See the note on chap. xxv. 7.. we see Count de Buffon and Swammerdam examining Robe] Lys meil, from b; alah, to go up, go upon ; and tracing out all the curious relations, connections, hence the meil may be considered as an upper coat, a and laws of the ANIMAL kingdom - Tournefort, Ray, surtout:. It is described by Josephas as a garment and Linne, those of the VEGETABLE ;—Theophrastus, that reaches down to the feet, not made of two disWerner, Klaproth, Cronstedt, Morveau, Reamur, Kir- tinct pieces, but was one entire long garment, woven wan, and a host of philosophical chemists, Boerhaave, throughout. - This was immediately under the ephod. Boylé, Stahl, Priestley, Lavoisier, Fourcroy, Black, See on ver. 31,, &c. and Davy, those of the MINERAL; the discoveries they Broidered coal] yaon nuna kethoneth, lashbels, have made, the latent and important properties of what Parkhurst translates a close, strail coat or garvegetables and minerals which they have developed, ment ; according to Josephus, a tanic circumscribing the powerful machines which, through their discove- or closely encompassing the body, and having tight ries, have been constructed, by the operations of which sleeves for the arms." This was immediately under the human slave is restored to his own place in society, the meil or robe, and answered the same purpose to the brute saved from his destructive toil in our manu- I the priests that our shirts do to us. See on ver. 13,

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Sivan.

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0

Directions for making the

CHAP. XXVIII. garments of the priests, fc. A. M. 2513. sons, that he may minister unto the other six names of the rest. A. M. 2513.

B. C. 149). An. Exod. Isr: 1. me in the priest's office. on the other 'stone, according to An. Exod: 13r. 1.

5 And they shall take gold, and their birth. blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine linen : 11 With the work of an engraver in stone, -6 . And they shall make the ephod of gold, like the engravings of a signet, shalt thou enof blue, and of purple, of scarlet, and fine grave the two stones with the names of the iwined linen, with cunning work.

children of Israel : thou shalt make them to 9 It shall have the two 'shoulder-pieces be set in ouches of gold. thereof joined at the two edges thereof; and 12 And thou shalt put the two stones upon so it shall be joined together.

the shoulders of the ephod for stones of me8. And the curious girdle of the ephod, morial unto the children of Israel : and m Aaron which is upon it, shall be of the same, accord- shall bear their names before the LORD, upon ing to the work thereof; even of gold, of blue, his two shoulders, • for a memorial. and purple, and scarlet; and fine twined linen. 13 And thou shalt make ouches of gold;

9 And thou shalt take two onyx stones, and 14 And two chains of pure gold at the ends; grave on thèm the names of the children of of wreathen work shalt thou make them, and Israel:

fasten the wreathen chains to the ouches. 10. Six of their names on one stone; and 15 And olhou shalt make the breastplate i Chap. xxxix. 2, 4, 27, 29. * Or, embroidered ; ch. xxxix, 20; Wisd. xviii. 24. um Ver. 29; chap. xxxin 7. -- See Josh. Isa. xi. 5; Rev. i. 13.

iv. 7; Zech. vi. 14. Chap. xxxix. 8. Milre] 3382 milsnephelh. As this word eomes ple, scarlet, and fine twined linen, embroidered together. .from the root 938 tsunaph, to roll or wrap round, it But others suppose that some kind of a girdle is meant, evidently means that covering of the head so universal different from the abuet, ver. 39, being only of plain in the eastern countries which we call turban or tur-, workmanship. band, corrupted from the Persian diga doolbend, Verse 9. Two onyx stones) See on chap. xxv. 7. which signifies what encompasses and binds the head Verse 1:1. Like the engravings of a signet] So or body; and hence is applied, not only to this cover- signets or seals were in use af this time, and engraving ing of the head, but to a sash in general. As the on precious stones was then an art, and this art, which Persian word is compounded of Jgd dool or dawal, a was one of the most elegant and ornamental, was carrevolution, vioissitude, tuheel, &c., and och binden, ried in ancient times to a very high pitch of perfection,

and particularly among the ancient Greeks ; such a to bind ; it is very likely that the Hebrew words. 117.1 pitch or perfection as has never been rivalled, and candur, to go round, and ua benet, a band, may have not now be even well imitated. And it is very likely been the original of doolbend and turband. It is that the Greeks themselves borrowed this art from the sometimes called dis jou serbend, from ju ser, the ancient Hebrews, as we know it flourished in · Egypt head, and widtis binden; to bind. The turban consists

and Palestine long before it was known in Greece.

Versé 12. Aaron shall bear their names before the generally of two parts: the cap, which goes on the Lord] He was to consider that he was the represen head; and the long sash of muslin, linen, or silk, that tative of the children of Israel; and the stones on the is wrapped round the head. These sashes are gene- ephod and the stones on the breastplatė were for a rally several yards in length. ;

memorial to put Aaron in remembrance that he was Á girdle] 2398 abnet, a bell or girdle ; see before. the priest and mediator of the twelve tribes ; and, This seems to have been the same kind of sash or

speaking after the manner of men, God was to be put girdle, so common in the eastern countries, that con- in mind of the children of Israel, their wants, &c., as fined the loose" garments about the waist; and in frequently as the high priest appeared before him with which their long skirts - were tucked up when shey the breastplate and the ephod." See ver. 29. were employed in work, ot on a journey. After being tied round the waist, the two ends of it fell down

Verse13. 'Ouches of gold]: nova mishbetsoth, before, to the skirts of their robos.

strait places, sockets to insert the stones in, from you Verse 8. The curious girdle of the ephod] The shabats, to close, inclosé, straiten. Socket, in this 'word won chesheb, rendered here curious girdle, sig- place, would be a more proper translation, as ouch cannifies merely a kind of diaper, or embroidered work ;'

not be traced up to any legitimate authority. It appears (see the note on chap. xxvi. 1 ;) and it is widely different sometimes to signify a hook, or some mode of allach from OJIN abnet, which is properly translated girdle ing things together, ver. 4. The meaning therefore of the text, according Verse 15. The breastplate of judgment] vous en to some, is this, that the two pieces, ver. 7, which con- choshen mishpal, the same as the yon choshen, see nected the parts of the ephod at the shoulders where chap. xxv. 7, but here called the breastplate of judgthe onyx stones were set, should be of the same'tex. inent, because the high priest wore it upon his breast ture with the ephod itself, i. e.,, of gold, blue, pur- l when he went to ask counsel of the Lord, to give judg.

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