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B. C. 1491.
An. Exod. Isr. 1.

Siran.

Siran.

The precious' stones

EXODUS.

of the breastplate. A. M. 2513 of judgment with cunning work ; 19 And the third row a ligure, A. M. 2513.

B. An. Exod. Isr. 1. after the work of the ephod thou an agate, and an amethyst. shalt make it ; of gold, of blue

, 20 And the fourth row a beryl, and of purple, and of scarlet, and of fine and an onyx, and a jasper : they shall be set twined linen, shalt thou make it.

in gold in their enclosings. 16 Four-square it shall be, being doubled ; 21: And the stones shall be with the names a span shall be the length thereof, and a span of the children of Israel, iwelve, according to shall be the breadth thereof.

their names, like the engravings of a signet ; 11 p And thou shalt 9-set in it settings of every one with his name shall they be accordstones, even four rows of stones: the first row ing to the twelve tribes. : · shall be a " sardius, a topaz, and a carbunele : 22 And thou shalt make upon the breast this shall be the first row.

plate chains at the ends of wreathen work, 18 And the second row shall be an emerald, of pure gold. a sapphire, and a diamond.

23 And thou shalt make upon the breast

p Chap. xxxix, 10, &c. - Heb. fill it in fillings of stone.

Or, ruby.

Heb. fillings.

ment in any particular case; as also when he sat as tween these doublings, it is supposed, the Urim and
judge to teach the law, and to determine controversies. Thummim were placed. See on ver. 30.
See Lev. x. 11; Deut, xvii. 8, 9,

Verse 17. Four rows of stones) With a name on Verse 16. Four-square it shall be] Here we have each stone, making in all the twelve names of the the exact dimensions of this breastplate, or more pro- twelve tribes. And as these were disposed according perly breast-piece or stomacher. It was a span in to their birth, ver. 10, we may suppose they stood in length and breadth when doubled, and consequently this order, the stones being placed also in the order in two spans long one way before it was doubled. Be- I which they are produced, ver. 17–20:

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In this order the Jews in general agree to place fine yellow; and hence it was called chrysolite by the them. See the Jerusalem Targum on this place, and ancients, from its gold colour. It is now considered the Targum upon Canticles v. 14; and see also Ains- by mineralogists as a variety of the sapphire. worth. The Targum of- Jonathan sayš, “ These four 3. .CARBUNCLE, "mpny barekelh, from pa

barak, to rows were placed opposite to the four quarters of the lighten, glitter, or glister ; a very elegant gem of a world; but this could only be when laid down hori- deep red colour, with an admixture of scarlet. From zontally, for when it hung on the breast of the high its bright lively colour it had the name carbunculus, priest it could have had no such position. As it is which signifies a little coal; and among the Greeks difficult to ascertain in every case what these precious avbpag anthrar, a coal, because when held before the stones'were, it may be necessary to consider this sub- sun it appears like a piece of bright burning charcoal: ject more at large.

It is found only in the East Indies, and there but rarely. 1. A SARDIUS, D7% odem, from the root adam, he 4. EMERALD, 793 nopheck, the same with the anoient was ruddy; the ruby, a beautiful gem of a fine deep smaragdus ; it is one of the most beautiful of all the red colour. The sardius, or sårdie stone, is defined gems, and is of a bright green colour, without any other to be a precious stone of a blood-red colour, the best mixture. The true oriental emerald is very scarce, and of which come from Babylon.

is only found at present in the kingdom of Cambay. 2. A Topaz, 17700 pitdah, a precious stone of a pale 5. SAPPHIRE, 700 sappir. See this described, chap, dead green, with a mixture of yellow, sometimes of a xxiv. 10. - .

B. C. 1491.

A. M. 2513. B. O, 1491.

Sivan.

Sivan.

The chains and rings
CHAP. XXVIII.

of the breastplate. A. M. 2513. plate 'two rings of gold, and make, and shalt put them on the An. Exod. Isr. 1. shalt put the two rings on the two sides of the ephod under- An. Exod. Isr. 1.

two ends of the breastplate. neath, toward the forepart there24 And thou shalt put the two wreathen of, over against the other coupling thereof, chains of gold in the two rings, which are on above the curious girdle of the ephod. the ends of the breastplate..

28 And they shall bind the breastplate by 25 And the other two ends of the two the rings thereof, unto the rings of the ephod * wreathen chains, thou shalt fasten in the two with a lace of blue, that it may be above the oùches, and put them on the shoulder-pièces curious girdle of the ephod, and that the of the ephod before it..

breastplate be not loosed from the ephod. 26 And thou shalt make two rings of gold, 29. And Aaron shall bear the names of the and thou shalt put them upon the two ends children of Israel in the breastplate of judgof the breastplate, in the border thereof, which ment upon his heart, when he goeth in unto is in the side of the ephod inward,

the holy place, w for a memorial before the 27 And two other rings of gold thou shalt Lord continually. + Chap. xxv. 11-15. _^ Chap. xxviii. 14; xxxix. 15.

Chap. xxvui. 7, 25; xxxix. 4. Ver. 12. 6. Diamond, Dbao yahalom, from who halam, to beat among the topazes. Its name in Greek, thrysolile, or smile upon. The diamond is supposed to have this xpvooridos, literally signifies the golden stone. name from its resistance to a blow, for the ancients 11. The ONYX, ono shoham. See the notes on have assured us that if it be strick with a hammer, Gen. ii, 12; Exod. xxv. 7. There are a great numupon an anvil, it will not break, but either break them ber of different sentiments on the meaning of the origior sink into the surface of that which is softest. This nal; it has been translated beryl, emerald, prasius, sapis a complete fable, as it is well known that the dia- phire, sardius, ruby, cornelian, onyr, and sardonyx. mond can be easily broken, and is capable of being It is likely ibat the name may signify both the onyx enlirely volatilized or eonsumed by the action of fire and sardonyx. This latter stone is a mixture of tlie It is, however, the hardest, as it is the most valuable, chalcedony and corneliaií, sometimes in strata, at other of all the precious stones hitherto discovered, and one times blended together, and is found striped with white of the most combustible substances in nature. and-red strata or layers. It is generally allowed that

17. LIGURE, Duh leshem, the same as the jacinth or there is no real difference, except in the degree of hyacinth ; a precious stone of a dead red or cinnamon hardness, between the onyx, cornelian, chalcedony, colour, with a considerable mixture of yelloro. sardonyx, and agate." It is well known that the onyx

8. AGATE, 1JV shebo. This is a stone that assumes is of a darkįsh horny colour, resembling the hoof or such a variety of hues and appearances, that Mr. Park- nail, from which circumstance it has its name. It has hurst thinks it derives its name from the root V shab, often a plate of a bluish white or red in it, and when to turn, to change," as from the circumstance of the on one or both sides of this white there appears a plate agate changing its appearance without end, it might be of a reddish colour, the jewellers, says Woodward, called the varier.” Agates are met with so variously call the stone a sardonyr. figured in their substance, that they seem to represent 12. JASPER, DV' yashepheh. The similarity of the the sky, the stars, clouds, earth, water, rocks, vil-Hebrew name has determined' most critics and mineJages, fortifications, birds, trees, flowers, men, and ralogists to adopt the jasper as intended by the origianimals of different kinds. : Agates have a white, red- nal word. The jasper is usually defined a hard stone, dish, yellowish, or greenish ground. They are only of a beautiful bright green colour, sometimes clouded varieties of the flint, and the lowest in value of all the with white, and spotted with red or yellow. Mineraprecious stones.

logists reckon not less than fifteen varieties of this 9. Amethyst, nobrie achlamah, a gem generally stone : 1. green ; 2. red; 3. yellow ; 4. brown ; 5. of a purple colour, composed of a strong blue and deep violet ; 6. black ; 7. bluish grey; 8. milky white; red. The oriental amethyst is sometimes of a dove 9. variegated with green, red, and yellow clouds ; colour, though some are purple, and others white like 10. green with red specks ; 11. veined with various diamonds. The name amethyst is Greek, quedvoros, colours, apparently in the form of letters ; 12. with and it was so called because it was supposed that it variouşly coloured zones ; 13. with various colours prevented inebriation.

mixed without any order; 14. with many colours to10. The Beryl, U'V7 tarshish. Mr. Parkhurst gether; 15. mixed with particles of agate. ' It can derives this name from yn tar, to go round; and un scarcely be called a precious stone ; it is rather a dull shash; to be vivid or bright in colour. If the beryl be opaque rock. intended, it is a pellucid gem of a bluish green colour, In examining what has been said on these different found in the East Indies, and about the gold mines of precious stones by the best critics, I have adopted such Peru. But some of the most learned mineralogists and explanations as appeared to me to be best justified by critics suppose the chrysolite to be meant. This is a the meaning and use of the original words ; but I cangem of a yellowish green colour, and ranks at present | not say that the stones which I have described are The Urim and Thummin

EXODUS.

to be put in the breastplate. A. M, 2613. 30 And * thou shall put in the lin before the LORD: Y and Aaron A. M. 2513.

B. .
An. Exod. Ist: 1. breastplate of judgment the Urim shall bear the judgment of the An. Exod. Iss. 1
Sivan.
and the Thummim; and they children of Israel upon his heart

Sivan. shall be upon Aaron's heart when he goeth before the LORD continually. Lev. vũi. 8; Num. xxvii. 21; Deut. xxxii. 8; 1 Sam. xxviii. 6; Ezra ii. 63; Neh. vii. 65; Ecclus. xlv. 10.

3 Zech. vi. '13; 2 Cor. vii. 3; Heb. ij. 17. precisely those intended by the terms in the Hebrew et veritas, doctrine and truth-a system of teaching text, nor can I take upon me to assert that the tribes proceeding from truth itself. The Septuagint transare arranged exactly in the manner intended by Mo- late the original by dnawors kai aanbeta, the manifestases; for as these things are 'not laid down in the text tion and the truth; meaning' probably the manifestain such a way as to preclude all mistake, some things tion which God made of himself to Moses and the must be left to conjecture. Of several of these stones Israelites, and the truth which he had revealed to many fabulous-accounts are given by the ancients, and them, of which this breastplate should be a continual indeed by the moderns also : these I have in general memorial. omitted because they are fabulous; as also all spirit- All the other versions express nearly the same ual meanings which others have found so plentifully things, and all refer to intellectual and spiritual subin each stone, because I consider some of them puerile, jects, such as light, truth, manifestation, doctrine, per. all futile, and not a few dangerous.

fection, &c., &c., not one of them supposing that any Verse 30. Thou shall put in the breastplatethe thing material is intended. The Samaritan text is Urim and the Thummim] What these were has, I be- however different; it adds here a whole clause not' ļieve, never yet been discovered. 1. They are nofound in the Hebrew : LYATLANA AMMUDr. where described. 2. There is no-direction given to yrität veasitha eth haurim veeth hatiumMoses or any other how to make them. 3. Whatever mim, Thou shalt make the Urim and the Thummimi. they were, they do not appear to have been made on If this reading be admitted, the Uriin and Thummim this occasion. 4. If they were the work of man at were manufactured on this occasion as well as the all; they must have been the articles in the ancient other articles. However it be, they are indescribable tabernacle, matters used by the patriarchs, and not here and

unknown. particularly described, because well known. . 5. It is The manner in which the Jews suppose that the probable that nothing material is designed. This is inquiry was made by Urim and Thummim is the folthe opinion of some of the Jewish doctors. Rabbi lowing : “When they inquired the priest stood with Menachem on this chapter says, “ The Urim and his face before the-ark, and he that inquired stood be. Thummim were not the work of the artificer; neither hind him with his face to the back of the priest ; and · had the artificers or the congregation of Israel in them the inquirer said, Shall I go up? or, Shall I not go any work or any voluntary. offering ; but they were a up? And forthwith the Holy Ghost 'came upon the mystery delivered to Moses from the mouth of God, priest, and he beheld the breastplate, and saw therein or they were the work of God himself, or a measure by the vision of prophecy, Go up, or, Go not up, in the of the Holy Spirit.” 6. That God was often consult- letters which showed forth themselves upon the breasted by Urim and Thummim, is sufficiently evident from plate before his face." See Num. xxxii. 18, 21.; ' several scriptures; but how or in what manner he was Judg. 1. 1; xx. 18, 28; 1 Sam. xxiii. 9–12 ; xxvii. thus consulted appears in none. 7. This mode of 6; and see Ainsworth. consultation, whatever it was, does not appear to have It was the letters that formed the names of the been in use from the consecratiou of Solomon's tem- twelve tribes upon the breastplate, which the Jews supple to the time of its destruction ;' and after its' de- pose, were used in a miraculous way to give answers · straction it is never once mentioned. Hence the Jews to the inquirers, Thus when David consulted the say that the five following things, which were in the Lord whether he should go into a city of Judea, three first temple, were wanting in the second : "i. The letters which constituted the word by aloh, go, rose ark with the mercy-seal and cherubim ; 2. The fire up or became prominent in the names on the breastwhich came down from heaven ; 3. The shechinah or plate; y ain, from the name of Simeon, 5 lamed from Divine presence ; 4. The Holy Spirit, i. e., the gift the name of Levi, and 17 he from the name of Judah, of prophecy; and, 5. The Urim and Thummim." But this supposition is without proof.

8. As the word o'r urim signifies LIGHTS, and the Among the Egyptians, a breastplate something like word d'on tummim, PERFECTIONS, they were probably that of the Jewish high-priest was worn by the presi'designed to point out the light—the abundant informa- dent of the courts of justice. Diodorus - Siculus has tion, iņ spiritual things, afforded by the wonderful re- these words : Epopel 8. oúros TTEPE Tov, tpaxnov Ek velation which God made of himself by and under thre χρυσης αλυσεως ηρτημενον ζωδιων των πολυτελων λιθων, LAW; and the perfection-entire holiness and strictó apoonyopevov AAHOEIAN. “He bore about his neck conformily to himself, which this dispensation required, a golden chain, at which hung an image set about with and which are introduced and accomplished by that or composed of precious stones, which was called dispensation of light and truth, the Gospel, which was TRUTH.”—Bib. Hist., lib. i., chap. lxxv., p. 225. prefigured and pointed out by the law and its sacrifices, And he farther adds, " that as soon as. the president &c.; and in this light the subject has been viewed by put this gold chain about his neck, the legal proceedthe Vulgate, where the words are translated doctrina lings commenced, but not before. And that when the

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B. C. 1491.

Sivan.

The role of the ephod,

CHAP. XXVIII.

and the golden plate. A. M. 2513. 31 And a thou shalt make the golden bell and a pomegranate,

A. M. 2513. B. C. 1491. An. Exod. Isr. 2. robe of the ephod all of blue: upon the hem of the robe round An. Exod. Isr. 1 32 And there shall be a hole about.

Sivan. in the top of it, in the midst thereof: it shall 35 · And it shall be upon Aaron to minishave a binding of woven work round about the ter: and his sound shall be heard when he hole of it, as it were, the hole of a a haber- goeth in unto the holy place before the LORD, geon, that it be not rent.

and when he cometh out, that he die not. 33 And beneath, upon the ” hem of it, thou 36 And a thou shalt make a pláte of pure shalt make pomegranates of blue, and of pur- gold, and grave upon it, like the engravings ple, and of scarlet, round about the hem of a signet, HOLINESS TO THE LORD. thereof; and bells of gold between them round 37 And thou shalt put it on a blue lace, about :

that it may be upon the mitre ; upon the fore34. A golden bell and a pomegranate, a front of the mitre it shall be. 2 Chap. xxxix. 22; Lev. vii. 7.-a Chap. xxxix. 23. Or, c Ecclus. xlv. 9. d Chapter xxxix. 30 ; Zech. xiv. 20; skirts ; chap. xxxix. 21–26.

Ecclus. xlv. 12. case of the plaintiff and defendant had been fully and tion to the very solemn and important office which the fairly heard, the president turned the image of truth, priest was then performing, that they might all have which was hung to the golden chain 'round his neck, their hearts engaged in the work; and at the same toward the person whose cause was found to be just,” by time to keep Aaron himself in remembrance that he which he seemed to intimate that truth was on his side. ministered before Jehovah, and should not come into

Ælian, in his Hist. Var., lib, xxxiv., gives the same his presence without due reverence. account. “ Thé chief justice or president,” he says, That he die not.]. This seems an allusion to certain,

was always a priest, of a venerable age and acknow- ceremonies which still prevail in the eastern countries. ledged probity. Ειχε δε και αγαλμα περι τον αυχενα Jehovah appeared armong his people in the tabernacle εκ σαπφειρου λιθου, και εκαλείτο άγαλμα ΑΛΗΘΕΙΑ. | as an emperor in his tent among his troops. At the And he had an image which was called TRUTH en-doors of the tents or palaces of grandees was genegraved on a sapphire, and hung about his neck with a rally placed, some sonorous body, either of metal or gold chain.”

wood, which was struck to advertise those within that Peter du Val mentions a mummy which he saw at a person prayed for admittance to the presence of ihę Cairo, in Egypt, round the neck of which was a chain, king, &o. As the tabernacle had no door, but a veil, having a golden płate suspended, which lay on the and consequently nothing to prevent any person from breast of the person, and on which was engraved the going io, Aaron was commanded to put the bells on his figure of a bird. This person was supposed to have. robe, that his sound might be heard when he went into been one of the supreme judges; and in all likelihood the holy place before the Lord. the bird, of what kind he does not mention, was the Verse 36. Thoi shalt make a plate of pure gold] emblem of trulh, justice, or innocence.

The word puz'tsils, which we render plate, means a I have now before me paintings, taken on the spot flower, or any appearance of this kind. The Septuaby a native Chinese, of the different courts in China gint translate it by. Teralov, a leaf; hence we might where criminal causes were tried. In these the judge be led to infer that this plate resembled a wreath of always appears with a piece of embroidery on his flowers or leaves ; and as it is called, chap. xxix. 6, breast, on which a white bird of the ardea or heron 113 nezer, a crown, and the author of the book of Wiskind is represented, with expanded wings. All these dom, chap. xviii. 24, who was a Jew, and

supseem to have been derived from the same source, both posed to know well what it was, calls it diadnja, it among the Hebrews, the Egyptians, and the Chinese. was probably of the form, not of the ancient diadem, And it is certainly not impossible that the two latter but rather of the radiated crown worn by the ancient might have borrowed the notion and use of the breast- Roman emperors, which was a gold band that went plate of judgment from the Hebrews, as it was in use round the head from the vertex to the occiput ; but the among them long before we have any account of its position of the Jewish sacerdotal crown was different, use either among the Egyptians or Chinese.. The as that went found the forehead, under which there different mandarins have a breast-piece of this kind. was a bļue lace or fillet, ver, 37, which was probably

Verse 31. The robe of the ephod] See on ver. 4. Fattached to the mitre or turban, and formed its lowest From this description, and from what Josephus says, part or border. who must have been well acquainted with its form, we Holiness to the Lord.] This we may consider find that this meil, or robe, was one long straight piece, as the grand badge of the sacerdotal office. 1. The of blue cloth, with a hole or opening in the centre for priest was to minister in holy things. 2. He was the the head to pass through; wþich hole or opening was representative of a holy God. 3. He was to offer buund about, that it might not be rent in putting it on sacrifices to make an atonement for and to put away or taking it off, ver. 32.

sin. . 4. Ile was to teach the people the way of rightVerse 35. His sound shall be heard] The bells eousness and trué holiness. 5. As mediator, he was were doubtless intended to keep up the people's atten- I to obtain for them those Divine influences by which

may be

B. C. 1491.

Sivan.

1 Heb. be.

The clothing of

EXODUS,

Aaron and his sons. A. M. 2513. 38 And it shall be upon Aaron's brother, and his sons with him ; A. M: 2513.

B. C. 1491. An. Exod. Isr. 1. forehead, that. Aaron may e bear and shalt.anoint them, and i con- An. Exod. Isr: 1. Sivan.

the iniquity of the holy things, secrate k them, and sanctify them, which the children of Israel shall hallow in that they may minister unto me in the priest's all their holy gifts; and it shall be always office. . upon his forehead, that they may be faccepted 42: And thou shalt make them linen before the LORD.

breeches to cover m their nakedness; from 39 And thou shalt embroider the coat of fine the loins even unto the thighs they shall linen, and thou shalt make the mitre of fine reach : linen, and thou shalt, make the girdle of 43 And they shall be

43 And they shall be upon Aaron, and upon needle-work.

his sons, when they come in unto the taber40 8 And for Aaron's sons thou shalt make nacle of the congregation, or when they come coats, and thou shalt'make for them girdles, near '° unto the altar, to minister in the holy and bonnets shalt thou make for them, for place; that they p'bear not iniquity, and die : glory and for beauty.

? it shall be a statute for ever unto him, and .41 And thou shalt put them upon Aaron thy, his seed after him.

e Ver. 43; Lev, x: 17; xxii. 9; Num. xviii. l'; Isa. liii. 11; ** Chap. xxix. 9, &c.; Lev. viii.; Heb. vii. 28. Ch. xxxix. Ezek. iv. 4, 5, 6; John i. 29; Heb. ix. 28 ; 1 Pet. ii. 24. - Lev. 28;. Lev, vi. 10°; xvi. 4; Ezek. xliv. 18. um Heb. flesh of their i. 4; xxij. 27 ; xxu. 11; Isa. lvi. 7.- Ver. 43 ch. ixxix. 27, nakedness.

Lo Chap. xx..26. Lev. v. 1, 17; 28, 29, 41; Ezek. xliv. 17, 18. h Chap. xxix. 7; xxx. 30; xl. xx. 19, 20; xxi. 9.; Num. ix. 13; xviii. 22.- - Chapter xxvii. 15;*Lev. 1. 7. - Heb. fill their hand.

21; Lev. xvii. 7. they should be made holy, and be prepared to dwell 12, where the same verb, na nasa, is used ; and se with holy spirits in the kingdom of glory. 6. In the 1. Pet. ii, 24.. By the inscription on the plate on his sacerdotal office he was the type of that holy and just forehead Aaron was acknowledged as the holy minister One who, in the fulness of time, was to come and put of the holy God.. To the people's services and their away sin by the sacrifice of himself,

offerings much imperfection was attached, and thereIt is allowed on all hands that this inscription was, fore. Aaron was represented, not only as making an in the primitive Hebrew character, such as appears atonement in general for the sins of the people by the upon ancient shekels, and such as was used before the sacrifices they brought, but also as making an atoneBabylonish captivity, and probably from the giving of ment for the imperfection of the atonement itself, and the law on Mount Sinai. The 717.5. vip Kodesh the manner in which it was brought. Laihovah, of the present Hebrew text, would in those It shall be always upon his forchead] The plate ancient characters appear thus :

inscribed with Holiness to the Lord should be always On his forehead, to teach that the law required holiness ; that this was its aim, design, and end : and the same

is required by the Gospel; for under this dispensation which, in the modern Samaritan character, evidently, it is expressly said, Without: holiness no man shall see derived from that above, is as follows: ITIT 2 1 qp the Lord ; Heb. xii. 14. And the word 132N in this ancient and original cha

Verse 40. For glory and for beauty.) See the note racter is the famous Tetragrammalon, or word of four

on ver. 2. letters, which, to the present day, the Jews will neither

Verse 42. Linen breeches] This command had in write nor pronounce. The Jews teach that these let- view the necessity of purity and decency, in every part ters were embossed on the gold, and not engraven in of the Divine worship, in opposition to the shocking it, and that the plate on which they were embossed was

indecency of the pagan worship in general, in which about two fingers broad, and that it oecupied a space the priests often ministered naked, as in the sacrifices on the forehead between the hair and the eyebrows.

to Bacchus, &c. But it is most likely that it was attached to the lower part of the mitre.

Verse 38. May bear the iniquity of the holy things] On the garments of the high priest some general D'UTPAT IW NA 1978 NØJy venasa Aharon eth avon hak- reflections have already been made ; see ver. 2: and kodashim. And Aaron shall bear (in a vicarious and to what is there said it may be just necessary to add, typical manner) the sin of the holy or separated things that there can be no doubt of their being all emble-offerings or sacrifiees. Aaron was, as the high matical of spiritual things; but of which, and in what priest of the Jews, the type or representative of our way, no man can positively say. Many commentators blessed Redeemer; and as he offered the sacrifices pre- have entered largely into this subject, and have made scribed by the law to make an atonement for sin, and many edifying and useful remarks; but where no clue was thereby represented as bearing their sins because is given to guide us through a labyrinth in which the he was bound to make an atonement for them ; 89 possibility of mistake is every moment occurring, it is Christ is represented as bearing their sins, i. e., the much better not to attempt to be wise above what is punishment due to the sins of the world, in his becom- | written; for however edifying the reflections may be ing a sacrifice for the human race. See Isa. liii. 4, which are made on these subjects, yet, as they are not

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