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Bezaleel and Aholiab

CHAP. XXXVI.

commence their work.

1. From the nature of the offerings made for the they can do, for they did it with a willing mind; they service of the tabernacle, we see of what sort the spoils were wise of heart—had learned a useful business, were which the Israelites brought out of Egypt: gold, their hearts were lifted up in the work, ver. 21, and silver, brass, blue, purple, scarlet, fine linen, rams' skins all felt it a high privilege to be able to put only a nail dyed red, what we call badgers' skins, oil, spices, in- in the holy place. By the free-will offerings of the cense, onyx stones, and other stones, the names of which people the tabernacle was erected, and all the costly are not here mentioned. They must also have brought utensils belonging to it provided. This was the primilooms, spinning wheels, instřuments for cutting precious tive mode of providing proper places for Divine worstones, anvils, hammers, furnaces, melting-pots with a ship; and as it was the primitive, so it is the most vast variety of tools for the different artists employed rational mode. Taxes levied by law for building or on the work of the tabernacle, viz., smiths, joiners, repairing churches were not known in the ancient carvers, gilders, &c.

times of religious simplicity. It is an honour to be per2. God could have erected his tabernacle without mitted to do any thing for the support of public worthe help or skill of man ; but he condescended to em- ship; and he must have a strange, unfeeling, and unploy him. As all are interested in the worship of godly heart, who does not esteem it a high privilege to God, so all should bear a part in it; here God employs have a stone of his own laying or procuring in the house the whole congregation : every male and female, with of God. How easily might all the buildings necessary even their sons and their daughters, and the very or- for the purpose of public worship be raised, if the money naments of their persons, are given to raise and adorn that is spent in needless self-indulgence by ourselves, the house of God. The women who had not orna- our sons, and our daughters, were devoted to this purments, and could neither give gold nor "silver, could pose! By sacrifices of this kind the house of the spin goat's hair, and the Lord graciously employs them Lord would be soon built, and the top-stone brought on in this work, and accepts what they can give and what with shouting, Grace, grace unto it!

A. M. 2514.

A. M. 2514.
B. C. 1490.

CHAPTER XXXVI. Moses appoints Bezaleel, Aholiab, and their associates, to the work, and delivers to them the free-will offerings

of the people, 1-3. The people bring offerings more than are needed for the work, and are only restrained by the proclamation of Moses, 4-7. The curtains, their loops, taches, fc., for the tabernacle, 8-18. The covering for the tent, 19. The boards, 20–30. The bars, 31-34. The veil and its pillars, 35, 36. The hangings and their pillars, 37, 38. THEN wrought Bezaleel and | 3 And they received of Moses

B. C. 1490. An. Exod. Isr. I.

Aholiab, and every · wise-all the offering which the chil- An. Exod. Isr. 1. Tisri to Adar.

Tisri to Adar. hearted man,

in whom the LORD |dren of Israel d had brought put wisdom and understanding, to know how for the work of the service of the sancto work all manner of work for the service of tuary, to make it withal.

And they the sanctuary, according to all that the LORD brought yet unto lim free offerings every had commanded.

morning. 2 And Moses called Bezaleel and Aholiab, 4 And all the wise men, that wrought all the and every wise-hearted man, in whose heart work of the sanctuary, came every man from the Lord had put wisdom, even every one his work which they made; · whose heart stirred him up to come unto the 5 And they spake unto Moses, saying, . The work to do it :

people bring, much more than enough for the

d Chapter xxxv. 27.

Chapter xxviii. 3; xxxi. 6; xxxv. 10, 35,-- Chapter

XXV, 8.

· Chapter xxxv. 2, 26; 1 Chron. xxix. 5:

e 2 Cor. viii. 2, 3.

NOTES ON CHAP. XXXVI..

verse of the preceding chapter the connection will apVerse 1. Then wrought, fc.). The firsi verse of pear thus, chap: xxxv. ver. 30, &c. :

The Lord hath this chapter should end the preceding chapter, and this called by name Bezaleel and Aholiab; them hath he should begin with verse the second ; as it now stands, filled with wisdom of heart to work all manner of it does not make a very consistent sense. By reading work. Chap. xxxvi. 1. : And Bezaleel and Aholiad the first word 70 Vr veasah, then wrought, in the future SHALL WORK, and every wise-hearted man, in whom the tense instead of the past, the proper connection will be Lord put wisdom. preserved : for all grammarians know that the conjunc- Verse 5. The people bring much more than enough) tion 1 vau is often conversive, i. e., it turns the pre- With what a liberal spirit do these people bring their terite tense of those verbs to which it is prefixed into free-will offerings unto the Lord ! Moses is obliged the future, and the future into the preterite : this to make a proclamation to prevent them from bringing power it evidently has here; and joined with the last any more, as there was at present more than enough!

B. C. 1490.

Tisri to Adar.

The curtains and boards

EXODUS.

of the tabernacle. A. M. 2514. service of the work, which the 15 The length of one curtain A. M. 2574.

B. C. 1490. An. Exod. Isr. 1. LORD commanded to make. was thirty cubits, and four An. Exod. lst. 1. 6 And Moses gave command- cubits was the breadth of one

Tisri to Adar. ment, and they caused it to be proclaimed curtain : the eleven curtains were of one throughout the camp, saying, Let neither man size. nor woman make any more work for the offer- 16 And he coupled five curtains by theming of the sanctuary. So the people were selves, and six curtains by themselves. restrained from bringing.

17 And he made fifty loops upon the utter7 For the stuff they had was sufficient for most edge of the curtain in the coupling, and all the work to make it, and too much. fifty loops made he upon the edge of the cur

8 f And every wise-hearted man among them tain' which coupleth the second. that wrought the work of the tabernacle, made 18 And he made fifty taches of brass, to ten curtains of fine twined linen, and blue, and couple the tent together, that it might be one. purple, and scarlet : with cherubims of cun- 19 i And he made a covering for the tent ning work made he them.

of rams' skins dyed red, and a covering of 9 The length of one curtain was twenty and badgers' skins above that. eight cubits, and the breadth of one curtain 20 And he made boards for the tabernacle four cubits: the curtains were all of one size. of shittim wood, standing up.

10 And he coupled the five curtains one unto 21 The length of a board was ten cubits, and another: and the other five curtains he coupled the breadth of a board one cubit and a half. one unto another.

22 One board had two tenons, equally distant 11 And he made loops of blue on the edge one from another : thus did he make for all of one curtain from the selvage in the coup- the boards of the tabernacle. ling: likewise he made in the uttermost side 23 And he made boards for the tabernacle; of another curtain in the coupling of the second. twenty boards for the south side southward :

12 . Fifty loops made he in one curtain, and 24 And forty sockets of silver he made under fifty loops made he in the edge of the curtain the twenty boards; two sockets under one which was in the coupling of the second : the board for his two tenons, and two sockets unloops held one curtain to another.

der another board for his two tenons. 13 And he made fifty taches of gold, and 25 And for the other side of the tabernacle, coupled the curtains one unto another with the which is toward the north corner, he made taches : so it became one tabernacle.

twenty boards, 14 h And he made curtains of goats' hair for 26 And their forty sockets of silver; two the tent over the tabernacle : eleven curtains sockets under one board, and two . sockets he made them.

under another board.

Chap. xxvi. 1. Chap. xxvi. 5.— Chap. xxvi. 7.

i Chap. xxvi. 14. - Chap. xxvi. 15. Had Moses been intent upon gain, and had he not been ceedingly injures their usefulness. See the note on Gen. perfectly disinterested, he would have encouraged them xxviii. in fine, where the subject is viewed on all sides. to continue their contributions, as thereby he might Verse 3. Cherubims of cunning work] See on chap. have multiplied to himself gold, silver, and precious xxvi. 18. Probably the word means no more than stones. But he was doing the Lord's work, under the figures of any kind wrought in the diaper fashion in inspiration of the Divine Spirit, and therefore he sought the loom, or by the needle in embroidery, or by the no secular gain. Indeed, this one circumstance is an chisel or graving tool in wood, shone, or metal ; see on ample proof of it. Every thing necessary for the wor-, chap. xxv. 18. This meaning Houbigant and other ship of God will be cheerfully provided by a people excellent critics contend for. In some places the word whose hearts are in that worship. In a state where seems to be restricted to express a particular figure all forms of religion and modes of worship are tolerated then well known; but in many other places it seems by the laws, it would be well to find out some less ex- to imply any kind of figure commonly formed by sculpceptionable way of providing for the national clergy ture on stone, by carving on wood, by engraving upon than by tithes. Let them by all means have the pro- brass, and by weaving in the loom, &c. vision allowed them by the law; but let them not be . Verse 9. The length of one curtain] Concerning needlessly exposed to the resentment of the people by these curtains, see chap. xxvi. 1, &c. the mode in which this provision is made, as this often Verse 20. And he made boards] See the notes on alienates the affections of their flocks from them, and ex-chap. xxvi. 15, &c.

Bezaleel makes the ark,
CHAP. XXXVII.

and the mercy-seat. A. M. 2514. 27 And for the sides of the through the boards from the one A. M. 2514. B. C. 1490.

- B. C. 1490. An. Exod. Isr. 1. tabernacle westward he made end to the other.

An. Exod. Isr. 1. Tisri lo Adar. six boards.

Tisri to Adar.

34 And he overlaid the boards 28 And two boards made he for the corners with gold, and made their rings of gold to be of the tabernacle in the two sides.

places for the bars, and overlaid the bars 29 And they were coupled beneath, and with gold. coupled together at the head thereof, to one 35 And he made a veil of blue, and purring : thus he did to both of them, in both the ple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen: with corners.

cherubims made he it of cunning work. 30 And there were eight boards; and their 36 And he made thereunto four pillars of sockets were sixteen sockets of silver, under shittim wood, and overlaid them with gold : every board two sockets.

their hooks were of gold; and he cast for them 31 And he made bars of shittim wood; four sockets of silver. five for the boards of the one side of the 37 And he made a P hanging for the tabertabernacle,

nacle door, of blue, and purple, and scarlet, 32 And five bars for the boards of the other and fine twined linen, of needle-work; side of the tabernacle, and five bars for the 38 And the five pillars of it with their hooks; boards of the tabernacle for the sides westward. and he overlaid their chapiters and their fillets

33 And he made the middle bar to shoot with gold; but their five sockets were of brass. 1 Heb. twined. Heb. two sockets, two sockets under one board. •Chap. xxvi. 31. Chap. xxvi. 36. — Heb. the work of a Chap. xxvi. 26.

needle-worker or embroiderer. Verse 31. He made bars] See on chap. xxvi. 26,&c. God had before commanded this work to be done, and Verse 35. He made a veil] See on chap. xxvi. 31, &c. it was necessary to record the execution of it to show Verse 37. Hanging for the-door] See on ch. xxvi.36. that all was done according to the pattern shown to Verse 38. The five pillars of il with their hooks) Moses ; without this detailed account we should not Their capitals. See the note on chap. xxvi. 32. have known whether the work had ever been executed

according to the directions given. THERE is scarcely any thing particular in this chap- At the commencement of this chapter the reader ter that has not been touched on before ; both it and I will observe that I have advanced the dates A. M. and the following to the end of the book being in general | B. C. one year, without altering the year of the exoa repetition of what we have already met in detail in dus, which at first view may appear an error; the the preceding chapters from chap. xxv. to xxxi. inclu- reason is, that the above dates commence at Tisri, but sive, and to those the reader is requested to refer. I the years of the exodus are dated from Abib.

m

B. C. 1490.

CHAPTER XXXVII. Bezaleel and Aholiab make the ark, 1-5. The mercy-seat, 6. The lwo cherubim, 7–9. The table of the

shew-bread, and its vessels, 10-16. The candlestick, 17—24.: The golden altar of incense, 25-28. The holy anointing oil and perfume, 29. 4. M: 2586. AND Bezalcel made • the ark upon the one side of it, and two A.M. 2514. An. Exod. Isr. 1. of shittim wood : two cubits rings upon the other side of it. An. Exod. Isr. 1. Tisri to Adar. and a half was the length of it,

4 And he made stávcs of shittim Tisri to Adar. and a cubit and a half the height of it: wood, and overlaid them with gold.

2 And he overlaid it with pure gold within 5 And he put the staves into the rings by and without, and made a crown of gold to it the sides of the ark, to bear the ark. round about.

6 And he made the mercy-seat of pure gold: 3 And he cast for it four rings of gold, to be two cubits and a half was the length thereof, set by the four corners of it; even two rings and one cubit and a half the breadth thereof. - Chap. xxv. 10,

+ Chap. xxv. 17. NOTES ON CHAP. XXXVII.

Verse 6. He made the mercy-seat] See this deVerse 1. And Bezaleel made the ark, fc.) For a scribed chap. xxv. 17. description of the ark, see chap. xxv. 10, &c. Verse 10. He made the table] See chap. xxv. 23, Vol. I. ( 32 )

481

Bezaleel makes the

EXODUS.

furniture of the tabernacle.

A. M. 2514.

.

B. C. 1490.

Tisri to Adar.

And he made two cheru- 1 of the one side thereof, and three A. M. 2514. An. Exod. Isr. 1. bims of gold, beaten out of one branches of the candlestick out An. Exod. Isr. 1. Tisri to Adar.

piece made he them, on the two of the other side thereof: ends of the mercy-seat.

19 Three bowls made after the fashion of 8. One cherub on the end on this side, and almonds in one branch, a knop and a flower; another cherub d on the other end on that side: and three bowls made like almonds in another out of the mercy-seat made he the cherubims, branch, a knop and a flower : so throughout on the two ends thereof.

the six branches going out of the candlestick. 9 And the cherubims spread out their wings 20 And in the candlestick were four bowls on high, and covered with their wings over made like almonds, his knops, and his flowers : the mercy-seat, with their faces one to another; 21 And a knop under two branches of the even to the mercy-seatward were the faces of same, and a knop under two branches of the the cherubims.

same, and a knop under two branches of the 10 And he made the table of shittim wood: same, according to the six branches going out two cubits was the length thereof, and a cubit of it. the breadth thereof, and a cubit and a half the 22 Their knops and their branches were of height thereof:.

the same.: all of it was one beaten work of 11 And he overlaid it with pure gold, and pure gold. made thereunto a crown of gold round about. 23. And he made his seven lamps, and his

12 Also he made thereunto a border of a snuffers, and his snuff dishes, of pure gold. hand breadth round about; and made a crown 24 Of a talent of pure gold made he it, and of gold for the border thereof round about, all the vessels thereof.

13 And he cast for it four rings of gold, and 25 · And he made the incense altar of shitput the rings upon the four corners that were tim wood : the length of it was a cubit, and in the four feet thereof.

the breadth of it a cubit; it was four-square; 14. Over against the border were the rings, and two cubits was the height of it; the horns the places for the staves to bear the table. thereof were of the same.

15. And he made the staves of shittim wood, 26 And he overlaid it with pure gold, both and overlaid them with gold, to bear the the top of it, and the sides thereof round about, table.

and the horns of it; also he made unto it a 16 And he made the vessels which were crown of gold round about. upon the table, his dishes, and his spoons, 27 And he made two rings of gold for it and his bowls, and his covers & to cover withal, under the crown thereof, by, the two corners of pure gold.

of it, upon the two sides thereof, to be places 17 And he made the candlestick of pure for the staves to bear it withal. gold : of beaten work made he the candlestick; 28 And he made the staves of shittim wood, his shaft, and his branch, his bowls, his knops, and overlaid them with gold. and his flowers, were of the same :

29 And he made the holy anointing oil, and 18 And six branches going out of the sides the pure incense of sweet spices, according to thereof; three branches of the candlestick out the work of the apothecary.

c Or, out of, &c.- d'Or, out of, &c.- - Chap. XXV. 23.

Chap. xxv. 29. Or, to pour out withal.

Chap. xxv. 31. Li Chap. xxx, 1. * Chap. xxx. 23, 34 ; Isa.

lxi, 1; 1 John ii. 20, 27 ; Psa. cxli. 2.

Verse 16. He made the vessels) See all these par- Verse 29. He made the holy anointing oil] See this ticularly described in the notes on chap. xxv. 29. and the perfume, and the materials out of which they

Verse 17. He made the candlestick] See this de- were made, described at large in the notes on chap. scribed in the note on chap. xxv. 31.

XXX. 23–25 and 34–38. - As this chapter also is a Verse 25. He made the incense allar) See this repetition of what has been mentioned in preceding described chap. xxx. 1.

chapters, the reader is desired to refer to them. 482

( 32* ).

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He makes the altar of

CHAP. XXXVIII.

burnt-offering, the laver, fo.

CHAPTER XXXVIII.

B. C. 1490.

Bezaleel makes the altar of burnt-offering, 1-7. He makes the laver and its foot out of the mirrors given

by the women, 8. The court, its pillars, hangings, &c.; 9-20. The whole tabernacle and work finished by Bezaleel, Aholiab, and their assistants, 21–23. The amount of the gold contributed, 24. The amount of the silver, and how it was expended, 25-28. The amount of the brass, and how this was used; 29–31. A. ML 23 AND, he made the altar of network, under the compass

A. M. 2514. An. Exod. Isr. I. of burnt-offering of shittim thereof beneath, unto the midst An. Exod. Isr. 1 Tisri to Adar. wood : five cubits was the length of it.

Tisri to Adar thereof, and five cubits the breadth thereof; it 5 And he cast four rings for the four ends of was four-square; and three cubits the height the grate of brass, to be places for the staves. thereof.

: 6 And he made the staves of shittim wood, 2 And he made the horns thereof on the four and overlaid them with brass. corners of it ; the horns thereof were of the 7 And he put the staves into the rings on same : and he overlaid it with brass,

the sides of the altar, to bear it withal ; he 3 And he made all the vessels of the altar, made the altar hollow with boards. the pots, and the shovels, and the basins, and 8 And he made the laver of brass, and the the flesh hooks, and the firepans : all the ves- foot of it of brass, of the looking-glasses of sels thereof made he of brass.

the women 4 assembling, which assembled at 4 And he made for the altar a brazen grate the door of the tabernacle of the congregation. a Chap. xxvij. 1-8; chap. xl. 6, 20.- ob Chap. xxx.'18. - Or, brazen glasses.- d Heb. asse:nbling by troops, as 1 Sam. ï. 22. NOTES ON CHAP. XXXVIII.

tima apud majores fuerant Brundisina, stanno et ære Verse 1. The altar of burnt-offering] See the notes mixtis. -Hist. Nat. lib. xxxiii., cap. 9. But, accordon chap. xxvii. 1; and for its horns, pots, shuvels, ing to him, the most esteemed were those made of tin; basins, &c., see the meaning of the Hebrew terms and he says that silver mirrors became so common explained, chap. xxvii. 3-5.

that even the servant girls used them : Specula (ex. Verse 8. He made the laver) See the notes on stanno) laudatissima Brundisii tèmperabantur; donec chap. xxx, 18, &c.

argenteis uti cæpere el ancillæ ; lib. xxxiv., cap. 17. The looking-glasses] The word nx maroth, from When the Egyptian women went to the temples, they 787 raah, he saw, signifies reflectors or mirrors of any always carried their mirrors with them. The Israelkind. Here metal, highly polished, must certainly be itish women probably did the same, and Dr. Shaw meant, as glass was not yet in use; and had it even states that the Arabian women carry them constantly been in use, we are sure that looking-GLASSES could hung at their breasts. It is worthy of remark, that at not make a BRAZEN laver. The word therefore should first these women freely gave up their ornaments for be rendered mirrors, not looking-glasses, which in the this important service, and now give their very mirabove verse is perfectly absurd, because from those rors, probably as being of little farther service, seeing maroth the brazen laver was made. The first mirrors they had already given up the principal decorations of known among men were the clear, still fountain, and their persons. Woman has been invidiously defined unruffled lake ; and probably the mineral called mica, by Aristotle, an animal fond of dress, (though this bewhich is a very general substance through all parts of longs to the whole human race, and not exclusively to the earth. Plates of it have been found of three feet woman.) Had this been true of the Israelitish women, square, and it is so extremely divisible into laminæ, in the present case we must say they nobly sacrificed that it -has been divided into plates so thin as to be their incentives to pride to the service of their God. only the three hundred thousandth part of an inch. Woman, go thou and do likewise. A plate of this forms an excellent mirror when any Of the women—which assembled at the door] What thing black is attached to the opposite side. A plate the employment of these women was at the door of the of this mineral, nine inches by eight, now lies before tabernacle, is not easily, known. Some think they me ; a piece of black cloth, or any other black sub-assembled there for purposes of devotion. Others, stance, at the back, converts it into a good mirror ; or that they kept watch there during the night; and this it would serve as it is for a square of glass, as every is the most probable opinion, for they appear to have object is clearly perceivable through it. It is used in been in the same employment as those who assembled Russian ships of war, instead of glass, for windows. at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation in The first artificial mirrors were apparently made of the days of Samuel, who were abused by the sons of brass, afterwards of polished steel, and when luxury the high priest Eli, 1 Sam. ii. 22. Among the anincreased they were made of silver ; but they were cients women were generally employed in the office made at a very early period of mixed metal, particu- of porters or doorkeepers. Such were employed about larly of tin and copper, the best of which, as Pliny tells the house of the high priest in our Lord's time ; for a us, were formerly manufactured at Brundusium : Op. I woman is actually represented as keeping the door of

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