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A. M. 2514
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Tisri to Adar.
Tisri to Adar,
Bezaleel makes the court,
iis pillars, hangings, fc. 9 And he made the court : on of silver; and all the pillars An. Exod. Isr. 1. the south side southward the of the court were filleted with An Exod. Isr. 1.
hangings of the court were of silver. fine twined linen, a hundred cubits :
18 And the hanging for the gate of the court 10 Their pillars were twenty, and their bra- was needlework, of blue, and purple, and zen sockets twenty; the hooks of the pillars scarlet, and fine twined linen : and twenty cuand their fillets were of silver.
bits was the length, and the height in the 11 And for the north side the hangings were breadth was five. cubits, answerable to the a hundred cubits, their pillars were twenty, hangings of the court. and their sockets of brass twenty; the hooks 19 And their pillars were four, and their of the pillars and their fillets of silver. sockets of brass four; their hooks of silver,
12 And for the west side were hangings of and the overlaying of their chapiters and their fifty cubits, their pillars ten, and their sockets fillets of silver. ten; the hooks of the pillars and their fillets 20 And all the pins of the tabernacle, and of silver.
of the court round about, were of brass. 13 And for the east side eastward, fifty cubits. 21 This is the sum of the tabernacle, even
14 The hangings of the one side of the gate of the tabernacle of testimony, as it was countwere fifteen cubits; their pillars three, and ed, according to the commandment of Moses, their sockets three.
for the service of the Levites, h by the hand 15 And for the other side of the court gate, of. Ithamar, son to Aaron the priest. on this hand and that hand, were hangings of 22 And i Bezaleel the son of Uri, the son of fifteen cubits; their pillars three, and their Hur, of the tribe of Judah, made all that the sockets three.
LORD commanded Moses. 16 All the hangings of the court round about 23. And with him was Aholiab, son of Ahisawere of fine twined linen.
mach, of the tribe of Dan, an engraver, and a 17 And the sockets for the pillars were of cunning workman, and an embroiderer in blue, brass ; the hooks of the pillars and their fillets and in purple, and in scarlet, and fine linen of silver; and the overlaying of their chapiters 24 All the gold that was occupied for the
the palace of the high priest, John xviii. 17: Then kings. Plaulus, Curcul., act i., scene 1, mentions an saith the Damsel that kept THE DOOR unto Peter; see old woman who was keeper of the gate. also Matt. xxvi. 69. In 2 Sam. iv. 6, both the Sep- Anus hic solet cubitare, custos janitrix. tuagint and Vulgate make a woman porter or doorkeeper to Ishboshėth. Aristophanes mentions them in Many other examples might be produced. It is therethe same' office, and calls them Enkis, Sekis, which fore very likely that the persons mentioned here, and seems to signify a common maid-servant. Aristoph. in 1 Sam. ii. 22, were the women who guarded the in Vespis, ver. 768 :
tabernacle ; and that they regularly relieved each other, Ότι την θυραν ανεωξεν η Σηκις λαθρα. .
a troop or company regularly keeping watch: and in
deed this seems to be implied in the original, ix35 Homer, Odyss., ¥, ver. 225-229, mentions Actoris, isabeu, they came by troops ; and these troops succesPenelope's maid, whose office it was to keep the door sively consecrated their mirrors to the service of the of her chamber :
tabernacle. See Calmet on John xviii. 16. Ακτορις
Verse 9. The court] See on chap. xxvii. 9. Η νωϊν ειρυτο θυρας πυκινου θαλαμοιο.
Verse 17. The hooks—and their fillets) The capiAnd Euripides, in Troad., ver. 197, brings in He- tals, and the silver bands that went round them; see cuba, complaining that she who was wont to sit upon
the note on chap. xxvi. 32. a throne is now reduced to the miserable necessity of
Verse 21. This is the sum of the labernacle.) That becoming a doorkeeper or a nurse, in order to get a
is, The foregoing account contains a detail of all the morsel of bread.
articles which Bezaleel and Aholiab were commanded
to make ; and which were reckoned up by the Levites, Παρα προθυροις φυλακαν κατεχουσα,
over whom Ithamar, the son of Aaron, presided. ,
Verse 24. All the gold that was occupied for the Η παιδων θρεπτειρα. .
work, fc.) To be able to ascertain the quantum and Sir John Chardin observes, that women are em- value of the gold, silver, and brass, which were employed to keep the gate of the palace of the Persian ployed in the tabernacle, and its different utensils,
The amount of gold
contributed by the people. A. M. 2514. work, in all the work of the holy and seven hundred and thirty An. Exod. Isr
. 1. place, even the gold of the offer- shekels, after k the shekel of the An. Exod. Isr. 1.
ing, was twenty and nine talents, sanctuary.
B. C. 1490.
A. M. 2514.
Tisri to Adar.
Tisri to Adar.
* Chap. xxx. 13, 24 ; Lev. v. 15; xxvii. 3, 25; Num. iii. 47 ; xviii. 16.
altars, &c., it will be necessary to enter into the sub- SHEKEL, three shillings; a MINA, nine pounds; and a ject in considerable detail.
TALENT, four hundred and fifty pounds. So it was In the course of my notes on this and the preceding in the time of Moses and Ezekiel ; and so was it in the book, I have had frequent occasion to speak of the time of Josephus among that people, for he tells us, shekel in use among the ancient Hebrews, which, fol- Antiq., lib. xiv., c. 12, that a Hebrew mina contained lowing Dean Prideaux, I have always computed at 3s. two LITRAS and a half, which comes exactly to nine English. As some value it at 2s. 6d., and others at pounds of our money : for a litra, being the same with 2s. 4d., I think it necessary to lay before the reader a Roman libra, contained twelve ounces troy weight, the learned dean's mode of computation as a proper that is, ninety-six drachms ; and therefore two lilras introduction to the calculations which immediately and a half must contain two hundred and forty follow.
drachms, which being estimated at nine-pence a “ Among the ancients, the way of reckoning their drachm, according to the Jewish valuation, comes exmoney was by talents. So the Hebrews, so the Baby- actly to'sirly shekels, or nine pounds of our money. lonians, and so the Romans did reckon. And of these And this account agrees exactly with that of Alexantalents they had subdivisions which were usually in dria. For the Alexandrian talent contained 12,000 minas and drachms ; i. e., of their talents into minas, Attic drachms; and 12,000 Attic drachms, according and their minas into drachms. The Hebrews had, to the Jewish valuation, being 12,000- of our ninebesides these, their shekels and half-shekels or bekas ; pences, they amount to 450 pounds of sterling money and the Romans their denarii, which last were very which is the same in value as the Mosaic talent. But nearly of the same' value with the drachms of the here it is to be observed, that though the Alexandrian Greeks. · What was the value of a Hebrew talent ap- talent amounted to 12,000 Attic drachms, yet they pears from Exod. xxxviii. 25, 26, for there 603,550 themselves reckoned it but at 6000 drachms, because persons being taxed at half a shekel a head, they must every Alexandrian drachm contained two Atlic have paid in the whole 301,775 shekels; and that sum drachms; and therefore the Septuagint version being is there said to amount to one hundred talents, and made by the Alexandrian Jews, they there render the 1775 shekels over : if therefore we deduct the 1775 Hebrew word shekel, by the Greek Sidpaxuov, which shekels from the number 301,775, and divide the re- signifies two drachms, because two Alexandrian drachms maining sum, i. .e., 300,000, by a hundred, this will make a shekel, two of them amounting to as much as prove each of those talents to contain three thousand four Attic drachms. And therefore, computing the shekels. Each of these shekels weighed about three Alexandrian money according to the same method in shillings of our money ; and sixty of them, Ezekiel which we have computed the Jewish, it will be as tells us, chap. xlv. 12, made a mina; and therefore follows : One drachm of Alexandra will be of our fifty of those minas made a talent. · And as to their money eighteen pence; one didrachm or shekel, condrachms, it appears by the Gospel of St. Matthew that sisting of two drachms of Alexandria, or four of Attica, it was the fouth part of a shekel, that is, nine-pence will be three shillings; one mina, consisting of sixty of our money. For there (chap. xvii. 24) the tribute didrachms or shekels, will be nine pounds; and one money annually paid to the temple, by every Jew, talent, consisting of fifty minas, will be four hundred (Talmud in shekalim,) which was half a shekel, is and fifty pounds, which is the talent of Moses, Exod. called Alpaguov, fi. e., the two drachm piece ;) and xxxviii. 25, 26 : and so also is it the talent of Josetherefore, if half a shekel contained two drachms, a phus, Antiq., lib. iii., c. 7; for he tells us that a Hedrachm must have been the quarter part of a shekel, brew talent contained one hundred Greek (i. e., Attic) and every shekel must have contained four of them : minas. For those fifty minas, which here make an and so Josephus tells us it did ; for he says, Antiq., Alexandrian talent, would be one hundred Attic minas lib. iii., c. 9, that a shekel contained four Altic drachms, in the like method of valuation; the Alexandrian which is not exactly to be understood according to the talent containing double as much as the Attic talent, weight, but according to the valuation in the currency both in the whole, and also in all its parts, in whatof common payments. For according to the weight, ever method both shall be equally distributed. Among the heaviest Attic drachms did not exceed eight-pence the Greeks the established rule was, Jul. Polluc. farthing half-farthing, of our money; and a Hebrew Onomast., lib. x., c. 6, that one hundred drachms drachm, as I have said, was nine-pence; but what the made a mina, and sixty minas a talent. But in some Allic drachm fell short of the Hebrew in weight might different states their drachms being different, accordbe made up in the fineness, and its ready currency in ingly their minas and talents were within the same all countries, (which last the Hebrew drachm could not proportion different also. But the money of Altica have,) and so might be made equivalent în common was the standard by which all the rest were valued, estimation among the Jews. Allowing therefore a according as they more or less differed from it. And drachm, as well Attic as Jewish, as valued in Judea, therefore, it being of most note, wherever any Greek to be equivalent to nine-pence of our money, a beka historian speaks of talents, minas, or drachms, if they or half-shekel will be one shilling and sit-pence ; a l be simply mentioned, it is to be always understood of The amount of silver
contributed by the people. 25 And the silver of them that thousand seven hundred and three- A. M. 2514. An. Exod. Isr. 1. were numbered of the congrega- score and fifteen shekels, after the An. Exod. lør: 1.
Tisri to Adar. tion was a hundred talents, and a shekel of the sanctuary :
A. M. 2514.
B. C. 1490.
Tisri to Adar.
talents, minas, or drachms of Attica, and never of the BABYLONISH money, according to Dr. BERNARD. talents, minas, or drachms of any other place, unless A Babylonish talent in silver - - £240.12.6 it be expressed. Mr. Brerewood, going by the gold- A Babylonish talent in gold, sixteen smith's weights, reckons an Attic drachm to be the
3850. 0 0 same with a drachm now in use in their shops, that is,
ALEXANDRIAN money, the eighth part of an ounce; and therefore lays it at A drachm of Alexandria, containing two . the value of seven-pence halfpenny of our money, or Attic drachms, as valued by the Jews 1 6 the eighth part of a crown, which is or ought to be an A didrachm of Alexandria, containing ounce weight. But Dr. Bernard, going more accu- two Alexandrian drachms, which rately to work, lays the middle sort of Altic drachms
was a Hebrew shekel
3 0 at eight-pence farthing of our money, and the minas Sixty didrachms or Hebrew shekels and talents accordingly, in the proportions above men- made a mina a
9 0 0 tioned. The Babylonish talent, according to Pollux, Fifty minas made a talent
450 0 0 Onomast., lib, *., . 6, contained seven thousand of A talent of gold, sixteen to one 72000 0 those drachms. The Roman talent (see Festus Pom
ROMAN money. peius) contained seventy-two Italic minas, which were Four sésterciuses made a Roman dethe same with the Roman libras ; and ninety-six Ro
73 man denariuses, each being of the value of seven-pence Ninety-six Roman denariuses made an halfpenny of our money, made a Roman libra. But
Ilalic mina, which was the same all the valuations I have hitherto mentioned must be
with à Roman libra
3 0 0 understood only of silver money, and not of gold; for Seventy-two Roman libras made a talent 216 0 0" that was much higher. The proportion of gold to
See the Old and New Testament connected, &c. silver was among the ancients commonly as ten to Vol. i.; preface, pp. xx -xxvii. one ; sometimes it was raised to be as eleven to one,
There were twenty-nine talents seven hundred and sometimes as twelve, and sometimes as thirteen to one. thirty shekels of Gold; one hundred talents one thouIn the time of King Edward the First it was here, in sand seven hundred and seventy-five shekels of siLVER.; England, at the value of ten to one; but it is now and seventy talents two thousand four hundred shekels gotten at sixteen to one, and so Į value it in all the
of BRASS. reductions which I make in this history of ancient
If with Dean Prideaux we estimate the value of the sums to the present value. But to make the whole silver shekel at three shillings English, we shall obtain of this matter the easier to the reader, I will lay all the woight of the shekel by making use of the followof it before him for his clear view in this fallowing ing proportion. As sixty-two shillings, the value of a table of valuations :
pound weight of silver as settled by the British laws, HEBREW money.'
* £ .s. . d. is to two hundred and, forty, the number of pennyA Hebrew drachm
9 weights in a pound troy, so is three shillings, the value Two drachms made a beka or half-she
of a shekel of silver, to 11 dwts. 14f1 grains, the kel, which was the tribute money
weight of the shekel required. paid by every Jew to the temple
1 6 In the next place, to find the value of a shekel of Two bekas made a shekel .
3 0 gold we must make use of the proportion following: Sixty shekels made a mina
9 0 0 As one ounce troy is to 31. 175. 104d., the legal value Fifty minas made a talent
450 0 0 of an ounce of gold, so is 11 dwts. 1431 grains, the A talent of gold, sixteen to one 7200 0 0 weight of the shekel as found by the last proportion, Attic money, according to Mr. BrEREWOOD.
to 21. 55. 2} }d., the value of the shekel of gold re
quired. From this datum we shall soon be able to asAn Attic drachm
79 certain the vaļue of all the gold employed in the work A hundred drachms made a mina
3 2 6
of this holy place, by the following arithmetical proSixty minas made a talent
187 10 0
cess : Reduce 21. 5s. 2) ijd. to the lowest term menA talent of gold, sixteen to one 3000 0 0
tioned, which is 201,852 ninety-third parts of a farATTIG money, according to Dr. BERNARD. thing. Multiply this last number by 3000, the number An Attic drachm
of shekels in a talent, and the product by 29, the numA hundred drachms made a mina
ber of talents; and add in 730 times 201,852, on ac
3 8 9 Sixty minas made a talent
count of the 730 shekels which were above the 29
0 A talent of gold, sixteen to one 3300 0 0
talents employed in the work, and we shall have for
the last product 17,708,475,960, which, divided sucBABYLONISH money, according to Mr. BREREWOOD.
cessively by 93, 4, 12, and 20, will give 198,3471. Ą Babylonish talent of silver contain
12s. 6d. for the total value of the gold employed in the ing seven thousand Altic drachms 218 15 0 tabernacle, &c. A Babylonish talent in gold, sixteen
The value of the silver contributed by 603,550 to one
3500 0 0 Israelites, at half a shekel or eighteen pence per man,
Bezaleel makes the
clothes of service, fc. A. M. 2514. 26 ? A bekah form every man, the pillars, and overlaid their chap- A. M. 2514. B. C. 1490.
B. C. 1490. An. Exod. Isr. 1. that is, half a shekel, after the iters, and filleted them.
An. Exod. Isr. 1. Tisri to Adar.
Tisri to Adar. shekel of the sanctuary,
every 29 And the brass of the offering one that went to be numbered, from twenty was seventy talents, and two thousand and years old and upward, for " six hundred thou- four hundred shekels. sand, and three thousand, and five hundred and 30 And therewith he made the sockets to fifty men.
the door of the tabernacle of the congregation, 27 And of the hundred talents of silver were and the brazen altar, and the brazen grate for cast • the sockets of the sanctuary, and the it, and all the vessels of the altar. sockets of the veil; a hundred sockets of the 31 And the Psockets of the court round about, hundred talents, a talent for a socket. and the sockets of the court gate, and all the
28 And of the thousand seven hundred pins of the tabernacle, and all the pins of the seventy and five shekels he made hooks for court round about. Chap. xxx. 13, 15. -m Heb. a poll.
n Num. i. 46. Chap: xxvi. 19, 21, 25, 32. —p Chap. xxvi. 37; chap. xxvii. 10, 17. may be found by an easy'arithmetical calculation to penny; hence its name fourthing or fourthling, since amount to 45,2661, 5s.
corrupted into farthing. • The value of the brass at 1s. per pound will amount
There appear to be three particular reasons why to 5131. 17's.
much riches should be employed in the construction The Gold of the holy place weighed 4245 pounds. of the tabernacle, &c. 1. To impress the people's The silver of the tabernacle 14,602 pounds.
minds with the glory and dignity of the Divine MaThe Brass 10,277 pounds troy weight.
jesty, and the importance of his service. 2. To take The total value of all the gold, silver, and brass of out of their hands the occasion of covetousness; for the tabernacle will consequently amount to 244,1271. as they brought much spoils out of Egypt, and could 14s. 6d. And the total weight of all these three metals have little if any use for gold and silver in the wilderamounts to 29,124 pounds troy, which, reduced to ness, where it does not appear that they had much inavoirdupois weight, is nearly ten tons and a half. tercourse with any other people, and were miraculously When all this is considered, besides the quantity of supported, so that they did not need their riches, it was gold which was employed in the golden calf, and which right to employ that in the worship of God which otherwas all destroyed, it is no wonder that the sacred text wise might have engendered that love which is the should say the Hebrews spoiled the Egyptians, parti- root of all evil. 3. To prevent pride and vain-glory, cularly as in those early times the precious metals were by leading them to give up to the Divine service even probably not very plentiful in Egypt.
the ornaments of their persons, which would have had Verse 26. A bekah for every man] The Hebrew too direct a tendency to divert their minds from better word
beka, from ypa baka, to divide, separate into things. Thus God's worship was rendered august and two, seems to signify, not a particular coin, but a shekel respectable, incitements to sin and low desires removed, broken or cut in two ; so, anciently, our farthing was and the people instructed to consider nothing valuable, a penny divided in the midst and then subdivided, so but as far as it might be employed to the glory and in that each division contained the fourth part of the the service of God.
CHAPTER XXXIX. Bezaleel makes the clothes of service for the holy place, and the holy garments, 1. The ephod, 2. Gold is
beaten into plates, and cut into wires for embroidery, 3. He makes the shoulder-pieces of the ephod, 4. The curious girdle, 5. Cuts the onyx stones for the shoulder-pieces, 6. Makes the breastplate, its chains, ouches, rings, fc., 7-21. The robe of the ephod, 22-26. Coats of fine linen, 27. The mitre, 28. The girdle, 29. The plate of the holy crown, 30, 31. The completion of the work of the tabernacle, 32. All the work is brought unto Moses, 33–41. Moses, having examined the whole, finds every thing done as the Lord had commanded, in consequence of which he blesses the people, 42, 43.
A. M. 2514. B. M. 125.0 AND of the blue, and pur-1 in the holy place, and made the
B. C. 1490. An. Exod. Isr. I. ple, and scarlet, they made holy garments for Aaron; e as the An. Exod. Isr. 1, Tisri to Adar.
Tisri to Adar. clothes of service, to do service LORD commanded Moses.
Chap. xxxv. 23.
6 Chap. xxxi. 10; xxxv. 19.
• Chap. xxviii. 4.
NOTES ON CHAP. XXXIX.
Verse 2. Ephod] See this described, chap. xxv. 7. Verse 1. Blue; and purple, and scarlel] See this Verse 3. They did beat the gold into thin plates] subject largely explained in the notes on chap. xxv. 4, For the purpose, as it is supposed, of cutting it into
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Tisri to Adar,
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Of the ephod, breastplate, and
EXODUS. the four rows of precious stones. 2 a And he made the ephod of ing to their names, like the enAn. Exod. Isr. 1. gold, blue, and purple, and scar-gravings of a signet, every one An. Exod. Ist. 1.
let, and fine twined linen. with his name, according to the 3 And they did beat the gold into thin plates, twelve tribes. and cut it into wires, to work it in the blue, 15 And they made upon the breastplate chains and in the purple, and in the scarlet, and in at the ends, of wreathen work of pure gold. thé fine linen, with cunning work.
16 And they made two ouches of gold, and 4 They made shoulder-pieces for it, to couple two gold rings, and put the two rings in the it together : by the two edges was it coupled two ends of the breastplate. together.
17 And they put the two wreathen chains 5 And the curious girdle of his ephod, that of gold in the tyvo rings on the ends of the was upon it, was of the same, according to the breastplate. work thereof; of gold, blue, and purple, and - 18 And the two ends of the two wreathen scarlet, and fine twined linen; as the Lord chains they fastened in the two ouches, and commanded Moses.
put them on the shoulder-pieces of the ephod 6 e And they wrought onyx stones inclosed in before it.. ouches of gold, graven, as signets are graven, 19 And they made two rings of gold, and with the names of the children of Israel. put them on the two ends of the breastplate,
og And he put them on the shoulders of the upon the border of it, which was on the side ephod, that they should be stones for a 'me-of the ephod inward. morial to the children of Israel; as the LORD 20 And they made two other golden rings, commanded Moses.
and put them on the two sides of the ephod 8 6 And he made the breastplate of cunning underneath, toward the forepart of it, over work, like the work of the ephod; of gold, blue, against the other coupling thereof, above the and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen. curious girdle of the ephod.
9 It was four-square; they made the breast- 21 And they did bind the breastplate by his plate double : a span was the length thereof, rings unto the rings of the ephod with a lace and a span the breadth thereof, being doubled. of blue, that it might be above the curious
10 h. And they set in it four rows of stones; girdle of the ephod, and that the breastplate the first row was a i. sardius, a topaz, and a might not be loosed from the ephod; as the earbuncle : this was the first row.
LORD commanded Moses. 11 And the second row, an emerald, a sap- 22 k And he made the robe of the ephod of phire, and a diamond,
woven work, all of blue. 12 And the third row, a ligure, an agate,
23 And there was a hole in the midst of the and an amethyst.
robe, as the hole of a habergeon, with a band 13 And the fourth row, a beryl, an onyx, round about the hole, that it should not rend. and a jasper : they were inclosed in ouches of 24 And they made upon the hems of the gold in their inclosings.
robe pomegranates of blue, and purple, and 14 And the stones were according to the scarlet, and twined linen. names of the children of Israel, twelve, accord. 25 And they made a bells of pure gold, and
wires (o'Yuno) or threads, for to twist or twine is the Verse 10. And they set in it four roos of stones] common acceptation of the root Sno pathal. I cannot See all these precious stones particularly explained in suppose that the Israelites had not then the art of the notes on chap. xxviii. 17, &c. making gold thread, as they possessed several orna- Verse 23, As the hole of a habergeon] The habermental arts much more difñcult : but in the present geon or hauberk was a small coat of mail, something instance, figures made in a more solid form than that in form of a half shirt, made of small iron rings which could have been effected by gold thread, might curiously united together. It covered the neck and have been required.
breast, was very light, and resisted the stroke of a Verse 6. Onyx stones) Possibly the Egyptian sword. Sometimes it went over the whole head as pebble. See chap. xxv. 7, and xxviii. 17, &c. well as over the breast. This kind of defensive-ar. Verse 8. Breastplate) See on chap. xxviii, 18, mour was used among the Asiatics, particularly, the