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The meat-offering of flour,

CHAP. II.

with oil and incense. through. Him that thou canst be accepted, even when carried our sins, and bore our sorrows. Thank's be to tbou dedicatest thy whole body, soul, and substance to God, the rich and the poor have equal access unto him thy Maker. . Even when we present ourselves a living through the Son of his love, and equal right to claim sacrifice to God, we are accepted for his sake who I the benefits of the great sacrifice !

CHAPTER II.

The meat-offering of flour with oil and incense, 1-3. · The oblation of the meat-offering baked in the oven

and in the pan, 4-6.. The meat-offering baked in the frying-pan, 7-10. No leaven nor honey to be offered with the meat-offering, 11. The oblation of the first-fruits, 12: Salt to be offered with the meatoffering, 13. Green ears dried by the fire, and corn to be beaten out of full ears, with oil and frankincense, to be offered as a meat-offering of first-fruits, 14-16. A. M. 2514.

A. M. 2514. AND when any will offer a flour ; and he shall pour oil

B. C. 1490. An. Exod. Isr. 2. meåt-offering unto the LORD, upon it, and put frankincense An. Exod. Isr. 2. Abib or Nisan. his offering.

Abib or Nisan. shall be of fine thereon :

Chap. vi. 14; ix. 17; Num. xv. 4.

B. C. 1490.

2

NOTES ON CHAP. II..

examples are given. Ovid intimates that these gratiVerse 1. Meat-offering] mnoo minchah. For-an tude-offerings originated with agriculture. “ In the explanation of this word see the dote on Gen. iv. 3, most ancient times men lived by rapine, hunting, &c., and Lev. vii. Calmet has remarked that there are for the sword was considered to be more honourable five kinds of the minchah mentioned in this chapter. than the plough; but when they sowed their fields, 1. obo. soleth, simple flour or meal, ver. 1. 2. Cakes they dedicated the first-fruits of their harvest to Ceres, and wafers, or whatever was baked in the oven, ver. 4. to whom the ancients attributed the art of agriculture, 3. Cakes baked in the pan, ver. 5. 4. · Cakes baked and to whom burnt-offerings of corn were made, on the frying-pan, or probably a gridiron, verse 7. according to immemorial usages.” The passage to 5. Green ears of corn parched, ver. 14. All these which I refer, and of which I have given the substance, were offered without honey or learen, but accompa- is the following :nied with wine, oil, and frankincense. It is very likely

"Non habuit tellus doctos antiqua colonos : that the minchah, in some or'all of the above forms, was the earliest oblation offered to the Supreme Being,

Lássabant agiles aspera bella viros.. and probably was in use before sin entered into the

Plus erat in gladio quam curvo laudis aratro. world, and consequently, before bloody sacrifices, or

Neglectus domino ferebat

pauca

ager. piacular vịclims, had been ordained. The minchah

Farra tamen veteres jaciebant, farra metebant:

Primiiias Cereri farra resecta dabant. of green ears of corn dried by the fire, &c., was pro, perly the gratilude-offering for a good seed time, and

Usibus admoniti flammis torrenda dedere : the prospect of a plentiful harvest: . This appears to

Multaque peccato damna tulere suo." have been the offering brought by Cain, Gen. iv. 3;

FASTOR., lib. ii., ver. 515. see the note there. The flour, whether of wheat, rice, Pliny observes that “ Numa taught the Romans to barley, rye, or any other grain used for aliment, was offer fruits to the gods, and to make supplications in all likelihood equally proper; for in Num. v. 15, before them, bringiog salt cakes and parched corn; we find the flour of barley, or barley meal, is called as grain in this state was deemed most wholesome.” minchah. It is plain that in the institution of the min- Numa instituit deos FRUGE colere, et MOLA SALSA supchah no animal was here included, though in other plicare, atque (ut auctor est Hemipa) far torrere, quoplaces it seems to include both kinds; but in generalniam tostum cibo salubrius esset.-Hist. Nar., lib. the minchah was not a bloody offering, nor used by xviii., c. 2. And it is worthy of remark, that the way of atonement or expialion, but merely in a eucha- ancient Romans considered no grain as pure or proristic way, expressing gratitude to God for the pro- per for divine, service that had not been - previously duce of the soil. It is such an offering as what is parched.” Id uno modo consecutum, statuendo non called natural religion might be reasonably expected to 'esse purum ad rem divinam nisi tostum.-Ibid. suggest : but alas ! so far lost is man, that even thank- God, says Calmet, requires nothing here which was fulness to God for the fruits of the earth must be taught not in common use for nourishment; but he commands by a Divine revelation ; for in the heart of man even') that these things should be offered with such articles the seeds of gratilude are not found, till sown there as might give them the most exquisite relish, such as by the hand of Divine grace.

salt, oil, and wine, and that the flour should be of the Offerings of different kinds of grain, flour, bread, finest and purest kind. The ancients, according to fruits, &c., are the most ancient among the heathen Suidas, seem to have made much use of meal formed nations, and even the people of God have had them into a paste with milk, and sometimes with water. from the beginning of the world. See this subject (See Suidas in Maça.) The priests- kept in the temlargely discussed on Exod. xxiii. 29, where several i ples a certain mixture of flour mingled with oil and

A. M. 2514.
B. C. 1490.

A. M. 2514.
B. C. 1490.

Abib or Nisan.

Of the meat-offerings

LEVITICUS.

baked in the oven and pan. 2 And he shall bring it to Aa- |- 4 And if thou bring an oblation An Exod. Isr: 2. ron's sons the priests: and he of a meat-offering baken in the An Exod. 1st: 2.

shall take thereout his handsul oven, it shall be unleavened cakes Abib or Nisan. of the flour thereof, and of the oil thereof, with of fine flour mingled with oil, or unleavened all the frankincense thereof; and the priest wafers . anointed with oil. shall burn the memorial of it upon the altar, 5 And if thy oblation be a meat-offering to be an offering made by fire, of a sweet sayour baken.' in a pan, it shall be of fine flour ununto the Lord :

leavened, mingled with oil, ; 3. And the remnant of the meat-offering shall |. 6 Thou shalt part it in pieces, and pour oil be Aaron's and his sons': dit is a thing most thereon : it is a meat-offering. holy of the offerings of the Lord made by fire. 7 And if thy oblation be. á meat-offering

b Ver. 9; chap. v. 12 ; vi. 15; xxiv. 7; Isa. lxvi. 3; Ecclus. xlv. 16; Acts x: 4. - Chap. vii. 9; x. 12, 13; Ecclus. vii. 31.

-c Exod. xxix. 2.

Or,

d Exod. xxix. 37; Num. xviii. 9. on a flat plate or slice.

nar,

wine, which they called 'Yyreia llúgieia or health, and as well as meaning, was among the Greeks. So the which they used as a kind of amulet or charm against Septuagint, chap. ii. 5: If ihy oblation be a meal-ofsickness ; after they had finished their sacrifices, they fering, baken in a pan, (ato mnyavov,) it shall be of generally threw some flour upon the fire, mingled with fine flour unleavened, mingled with oil. oil and wine, which they called Oumuara thulemata, “ This account given by the doctor is curious; but and which, according to Theophrastus, was the ordi- as it does not give us all the eastern ways of baking, nary sacrifice of the poor.

so neither does it furnish us, I am afraid, with a comVerse 2. His handsul of the flour] This was for plete comment on that yariety of methods of preparing a memorial, to put God in mind of his covenant with the meat-offerings which is mentioned by Moses in their fathers, and to recall to their mind his gracious chap. ii. So long ago as Queen Elizabeth's time, conduct towards them and their ancestors. Mr. Ains- Rauwolf observed that travellers frequently baked worth properly remarks,." that there was neither oil bread in the deserts of Arabia on the ground, heated nor incense offered with the sin and jealousy offerings; for that purpose by fire, covering their cakes of bread because they were no offerings of memorial, but such with ashes and coals, and turning them several times as brought iniquities to remembrance, which were until they were baked enough ; but that some of the neither gracious nor sweet-smelling before the Lord.” Arabians had in their tents, stones, or copper plates, Num. v. 15; Lev. v. 11.

made on purpose for baking. Dr. Pococke very lately In this case a handful only was burnt, the rest was made a like observation, speaking of iron hearths used reserved for the priest's use; but all the frankincense for baking their bread. was burnt, because from it the priest could derive no “Sir John Chardin, mentioning the several ways of advantage.

baking their bread in the east, describes these iron platès Verse 4. Baken in the quen]' in tannur, from 7 as small and conver. These plates are most commonly

to split, divide, says Mr. Parkhurst; and hence uşed, he tells us, in Persia, and among the wandering the oven, because of its burning, dissolving, and melting people that dwell in tents, as being the easiest way of heat.

baking, and done with the least expense; the bread Verse 5. Baken in a pan] niny machabath, sup- being as thin as a skin, and soon prepared. Another posed to be a flat iron plate, placed over the fire ; such way (for he mentions four) is by baking on the hearth. as is called a griddle in some countries.

That bread is about an inch thick ; they make no other Verse 7. The frying-pan] nonno marchesheth, all along the Black Sea from the Palus Mæotis to the supposed to be the same with that called by the Arabs Caspian Sea, in Chaldea, and in Mesopotamia, except a la-jen, a shallow earthen vessel like a frying-pan, in towns. This,' he supposes, is owing to their being used, not only to fry in, but for other purposes. On woody countries: These people make a fire in the the different instruments, as well as the manner of middle of a room, when the bread is ready for baking baking in the east, Mrr Harmer, in his observations on they sweep. a corner of the hearth, lay the bread there, select passages of Scripture, has collected the follow- and cover it with hot ashes and embers ; -in a quarter ing curious information.

of an hour they turn it : this bread is very good. The “Dr. Shaw informs us that in the cities and villages third way is that which is common among us.

The of Barbary, there are public ovens, but that among the last way, and that which is common through allo Asia, Bedouins, who live în tents, and the Kabyles, who live is thus : they make an oven in the ground, four or five in miserable hovels in the mountains, their bread, made feet deep and three in diameter, well plastered with into thin cakes, is baked either immediately upon the mortar. When it is hot, they place the bread (which coals, or else in a ta-jen, which he tells us is a shallow is commonly long, and not thicker than a finger) earthen vessel like a frying-pan: and then cites the against the sides, and it is baked in a moment." Septuagint to show that the supposed pan, mentioned “D'Arvieux mentions another way used by the Arabs chap. ii. 5, was the same thing as a fa-jen. The ta:about Mount Carmel, who sometimes bake in an oven, jen, according to Dr. Russel, is exactly the same among and at other time on the hearth;. but have a third the Bedouins as the tnyavov, a word of the same sound | method, which is, to make a fire in a great stone pitcher,

A. M. 2514.

Different methods of baking

CHAP. II.

among the Asiatics. A. M. 2514. baken in the frying-pan, it shall meat-offering that is made of B. C. 1490.

B. C. 1.190. An. Exod. Isri 2. be made of fine flour with oil. these things unto the LORD : An. Exod. Isr. 2. Abibor Nisan. 8 And thou shalt bring the and when it is presented unto

Abib or Nisan.

and when it is heated, they mix meal and water, as we The thought, however, of Maimonides seems to be do to make paste to glue things together, which they most just, as Moses appears to be speaking of different apply with the hollow of their hands to the outside of kinds of bread only, not of other farinaceous preparathe pitcher, and this extremely soft paste spreading tions. itself upon it is baked in an instant. The heat of the “ These oven pitchers mentioned by D' Arvieur, and pitcher having dried up all the moisture, the bread used by the modern Arabs for baking cakes of bread comes off as thin as our wafers; and the operation is in them, and wafers on their outsides, are not the only so speedily performed that in a very little time a suffi- portable ovens of the east. St. Jerome, in his comcient quantity is made.

mentary on Lam. v. 10, describes an eastern oven as Maimonides and the Septuagint differ in their ex- a round vessel of brass, blackened on the outside by planation of ver. 5; for that Egyptian rabbi supposes. the surrounding fire which heats it within. Such an this verse speaks of a flat plate, and these more ancient oven I have seen used in England. Which of these interpreters, of a la-jen. But they both seem to agree the Mishnah refers to when it speaks of the women that these were two of the methods of preparing the lending their ovens to one another, as well as their meat-offering; for Maimonides supposes the seventh mills and their sieves, I do not know; but the foregoverse speaks of a frying-pan or ta-jen; whereas the ing observations may serve to remove a surprise that Sepluagint, on the contrary, thought the word, there this circumstance may otherwise occasion in the reader meant a hearth, which term takes in an iron or copper of the Mishnah. Almost every body knows that little plate, though it extends farther.

portable handmills are extremely common in the LeThe meat-offerings of the fourth verse answer as vant; movable ovens are not so well known. Whether well to the Arab bread, baked by means of their stone ovens of the kind which St. Jerome mentions be as pitchers, which are used by them for the baking of wa-' ancient as the days of Moses, does not appear, unless fers, as to their cakes of bread mentioned by D'Ar- the ta-jen be used after this manner ; but the pitcher vieur, who, describing the way of baking among the ovens of the Arabs are, without doubt, of that remote modern Arabs, after mentioning some of their methods, antiquity.. says they bake their best sort of bread, either by heat- .“ Travellers agrce that the eastern brcad is made ing an oven, or a large pitcher, half full of certain in small thin moist cakes, must be eaten new, and is little smooth shining finis, upon which they lay the good for nothing when kept longer than a day. This dough, spread out in form of a thin broad cake. The however, admits of exceptions. Dr. Russel of late inention of wafers seems to fix the meaning of Moses and Rauwolff formerly, assure us that they have seve. to these oven pitchers, though perhaps it may be thought ral sorts of bread and cakes : some, Rauwolff tells us, an objection that this meat-offering is said to have been done with yolk of eggs; some mixed with several sorts baked in an oven; but it will be sufficient to observe of seed, as of sesamum, Romish coriander, and wild that the Hebrew words only signify a meat-offering of garden saffron, which are also strewed upon it; and the oven, and consequently may be understood as well he elsewhere supposes that they prepare biscuits for of wafers baked on the outside of these oven pitchers, travelling. Russel, who mentions this strewing of as of cakes, of bread baked in them. And if thou seeds on their cakes says, they have a variety of rusks bring an oblation, a baked thing, of the oven, it shall and biscuits. To these authors let me add. Pitts, who be an unleavened cake of fine flour mingled with oil, tells us the biscuits they carry with them from Egypt or unleavened wafers anointed with oil. Whoever then will last them to Mecca and back again. attends to these accounts of the stone pitcher, the ta- “ The Scriptures suppose their loaves of bread were jen, and the copper plate or iron hearth, will entër into very small, three of them being requisite for the enterthis second of Leviticus, I believe, much more per- tainment of a single person, Luke xi. 5. That they fectly than any commentator has done, and will find in were generally eaten new, and baked as they wanted these accounts what answers perfectly well to the de-them, as appears from the case of Abraham. That scription Moses gives us of the different ways of pre- sometimes, however, they were made so as to keep paring the meat-offerings. A ta-jen indeed, according several days ; so the shew-bread was fit food, after to Dr. Shaw, serves for a frying-pan as well as for a lying before the Lord a week. And that bread for baking vessel ; for he says, the bagreah of the people travellers was wont to be made to keep some time, as of. Barbary differs not much from our pancakes, only appears from the pretences of the Gibeonites, Josh. ix. that, instead of rubbing the ta-jen or pan in which they 12, and the preparations made for Jacob's journey into fry them with butter, they rub it with soap, to make Egypt, Gen. xlv. 23. The bread or rusks for trathem like a honeycomb.

velling is often made in the form of large rings, and “ Moses possibly intended a meat-offering of that is moistened or soaked in water before it is used. In kind might be presented to the Lord ; and our trans- like manner, too, they seem to have had there a valators seem to prefer that supposition, since, though the riety of eatables of this kind as the Aleppines now margin mentions the opinion of Maimonides, the read-, have. In particular, some made like those in which ing of the text in the sixth verse opposes a pan for seeds are strewed, as we may collect from that part baking to a pan for frying in the seventeenth verse. of the presents of Jeroboam's wife to the Prophet Ahi

The priest's portion

LEVITICUS.

of the meat-offering. A. M. 2514. the priest, he shall bring it unto I thing most holy of the offerings A. M. 2514. B. C. 1490.

B. C. 1490. An. Exod. Isr. 2. the altar.

of the LORD made by fire.

An. Exod. Isr. 2. Abib or Nisan. 9 And the priest shall take from

Abib or Nisan.

11 No meat-offering, which ye the meat-offering sa memorial thereof, and shall bring unto the LORD, shall be made shall burn it upon the altar : it is an offering with " leaven: for ye shall burn no leaven, made by fire, of a sweet savour unto the nor any honey, in any offering of the LORD LORD.

made by fire. 10 And i that which is left of the meat- 12 1 As for the oblation of the first-fruits, ye offering shall be Aaron's and his sons': it is a shah offer them unto the LORD: but they

5 Verse 2. -b Exodus xxix. 18.-i Verse 3. -Chapter 1 Corinthians v. 8; Gal. v. 9. - Exod. xxii. 29; chap. xxiii. vi. 17; see Matthew xvi. 12; Mark viii. 15; Luke xii. 1; 10, 11. jah, which our translators have rendered cracknels, in a large botyl, and mould the cakes to the desired 1 Kings xiv. 3. Buxtorf indeed supposes the orig size on a board or stone placed near the oven. After nal word 'p3 nikkuddim signifies biscuits, called by they have kneaded the cake to a proper consistence, this name, either because they were formed into little they pat it a little, then toss it about with great dexbuttons like some of our gingerbread, or because they terity in one hand tilf it is as thin as they choose to. were pricked full of holes after a particular manner. make it. They then wet one side of it with water, The last of these two conjectures, I imagine, was em- at the same time wetting the hand and arm with which braced by our translators of this passage; for cracknels, they put it into the .oven.. The side of the cake adif they are all over England of the same form, are full heres fast to the side of the oven till it is sufficiently of holes, being formed into a kind of flourish of lattice - baked, when, if not paid proper attention to, it would work. I have seen some of the unleavened bread of fall down among the embers. If they were not exthe English Jews made in like manner in a net form. ceedingly quick at this work, the heat of the oven Nevertheless. I should think it more, natural to under- would burn their arms; but they perform it with such stand the word of biscuit spotted with seeds; for it is amazing dexterity that one woman will continue keepused elsewhere to signify works of gold spotted with ing three or four cakes in the oven at once, till she studs of silver ; and, as it should seem, bread spotted has done baking. This mode, let me add, does not with mould, Josh. ix. 5-12 ; how much more natural require half the fuel that is made use of in Europe."" is it then to understand the word of cakes spotted with See more in Harmer's Observat., vol. i.q.p. 414, &c., seeds, which are so common in the east ! Is not Edit. 1808. nigah lebiboth, in particular, the word that in general Verse 8. Thou shalt bring the meat offering] It is means rich cakes? a sort of which Tamar used to pre- likely that the person himself who offered the sacrifice pare that was not common, and furnished Amnon with brought it to the priest, and then the priest presented a pretence for desiring ber being sent to his house, it before the Lord. that she might make some of that kind for him in the Verse 11, No meat-offering shall be made with time of his indisposition, his fancy running upon-them; leaven] See the reason of this prohibition in the note see 2 Sam. xiii. 2-8. Parkhurst supposes the ori- on Exod. xii. 8. ginal word to signily pancakes, and translates the root Nor any honey) Because it was apt to produce 335 labab to move or loss up and down : •And she acidity, as some think, when wrought up with four took the dough, (vibns vattalosh,) and kneaded (73401 paste; or rather because it was apt to gripe and prove vattelabbeb, and tossed) it in his sight, yani vatte- purgative. On this latter account the College of Phybashshel, and dressed the cakes.' In this passage, says sicians have totally left it out of all medicinal prepaMr. Parkhurst, it is to be observed that 304 is distin- rations. This effect which it has in most constituguished from wh to knead, and from you to dress, tions was a sufficient reason why it should be prohibited which agrees with the interpretation here given. here, as a principal part of all these offerings was

“ The account which, Mr. Jackson gives of an Arab used by the priests as a part of their ordinary diet ; baking apparatus, and the manner of kneading and and these offerings, being those of the poorer sort, were tossing their cakes, will at once, if I mistake not, fix in greater abundance than most others. On this acthe meaning of this passage, and cast much light on count, the griping, and purgative quality of the honey chap. xi. 35. “I was much amused by observing the must render it extremely improper. As leaven was dexterity of the Arab women in baking their bread. forbidden because producing fermentation, it was conThey have a small place built with clay, between two sidered a species of corruption, and was therefore and three feet high, having a hole in the bottom for used to signify hypocrisy, malice, &c., which corrupt the convenience of drawing out the ashes, somewhat the soul; it is possible that honey might- have had a similar to that of a lime-kiln, The oven, which I moral reference, also, and have signified, as St. Jethink is the most proper name for this place, is usually rome thought, carnal pleasures and sensual gratificaabout fifteen inches wide at top, and gradually grows tions. Some suppose that the honey mentioned here wider to the bottom. It is heated with wood, and was a sort of saccharine matter extracted from dates. when sufficiently hot, and perfectly clear from smoke, Leaven and honey might be offered with the firsthaving nothing bat clear embers at the bottom, which fruits, as we learn from the next verse ; but they continue to reflect great heat, they prepare the dough I were forbidden to be burnt on the altar.

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A. M: 2514:

Abib or Nisan.

The use of salt with

CHAP. II.

their offerings enjoined. A. M. 2514. shall not m be burnt on the altar for the meat-offering of thy firstB. C. 1490.

B. C. 1490. An. Exod. Igr. 2. for a sweet savour.

fruits, green ears of corn dried An. Exod. Isr. 2. Abib or Nisan.

13 And every oblation of thy by the fire, even corn beaten out meat-offering a shalt thou season with salt: offull ears. neither shalt thou suffer the salt of the cove- 15 And thou shalt put oil upon it, and lay nant of thy God to be lacking from thy meat- frankincense thereon : it is a meat-offering. offering : P with all thine offerings thou shalt 16 And the priest shall burn the memorial of offer salt.

it, part of the beaten corn thereof, and part of 14 And if thou offer a meat-offering of thy the oil thereof, with all the frankincense therefirst-fruits unto the LORD, thou shalt offer, of: it is an offering made by fire unto the LORD.

Heb. ascend.

Num. xviii.

A Mark ix. 49; Col. iv. 6.

19.-Ezek. xliii. 24.

Verse 1.

4 Chapter xxiii. 10, 14.2 Kings iv. 42.

Ver. 2.

Verse 13. With all thine offerings thou shalt offer “Now with the sacred cake, and lifted hands, sall.] Salt was the opposite to leaven, for it pre- All bent on death, before her altar stands." served from putrefaclion and corruption, and signified

Pitr. the purity and persevering fidelity that were necessary In like manner Homer : in the worship of God. · Every thing was - seasoned with it, to signify the purity and perfection that should

Πασσε δ' άλος θειοιο, κρατευταων επαειρας. be extended through every part of the Divine service,

Iliad, lib. ix., ver. 214 and through the hearts and lives of God's worshippers. “And taking sacred salt from the hearth sides It was called the salt of the covenant of God, because Where it was treasured, pour'd it o'er the feast." as salt is incorruptible, so was the covenant' made with

CowPER. Abram, Isaac, Jacob, and the patriarchs, relative to the redemption of the world by the incarnation and

Quotations of this kind might be easily multiplied, death of Jesus Christ. Among the heathens salt was

but the above may be deemed sufficient. a common ingredient in all their sacrificial offerings ; Green or half-ripe ears of wheat parched with fire is a

Verse 14. Green edrs of corn dried by the fire] and as it was considered essential to the comfort and preservation of life, and an emblem of the most perfect species of food in use among the poor people of Palescorporeal and mental endowments, so it was supposed

tine and Egypt to the present day. As God is repreto be one of the most acceptable presents they could sented as keeping a table among his people, (for the make unto their gods, from whose sacrifices it was

tabernaele was his house, where he had the golden never absent. - That inimitable and invaluable writer,

table, shew-bread, &c.,) so he represents himself as Pliny, has left a long chapter on this subject, the parlaking with them of all the aliments that were in seventh of the thirty-first book of his Natural History, use, and even sitting down with the poor to a repast

We have already seen that these a few extracts from which will not displease the intel" on parched corn! ligent reader. Ergo, hercule, vita humanior sine Sale green ears were presented as a sort of eucharistical nequit degere : adeoque necessarium elementum est,

offering for the blessings of seed time, and the prosat transierit intellectus ad voluptates animi quoque. Several other examples might be added here, but they

pect of a plentiful harvest. See the note on ver. 1 ; Nam ita Sales appellantur omnisque vitæ lepos et summa hilaritas, laborumque requies non alio magis

are not necessary. . vocabulo constat. 'Honoribus etiam militiæque inter

• The command to offer salt with every oblation, and ponitur, Salartis inde dịctis–Maxime tamen in sacris which was punctually observed by the Jews; will afford intelligitur auctoritas, quando nulla conficiuntur sine

the pious reader some profitable reflections. It is well mola salsa. "So 'essentially necessary is salt that

known that salt has two grand properties. 1. It seawithout it human life cannot be preserved : and even

sons and renders palatable the principal aliments used the pleasures and endowments of the unind are ex

for the support of life. 2. It prevents putrefaction pressed by it; the delights of life, repose, and the and decay. The covenant of God, that is, his agreehighest mental serenity, are expressed by no other ment with his people, is called a covenani of salt, to term than sales among the Latins. It has also been denote as we have seen above, its stable undecaying applied to designate the honourable rewards given to nature, as well as to point out its importance and soldiers, which are called salarii or sularies. But its utility in the preservation of the life of the soul. The importance may be farther understood by its use in grace of God by Christ Jesus is represented under the sacred ihings, as no sacrifice was offered to the gods 6,) because of its relishing, nourishing, and preserving.

emblem of salt, (see Mark ix. 49; Eph. iv. 29; Col. iv. without the salt cake," So Virgil, Eclog. viii., ver. 82 : Sparge molam.

quality. Without it no offering, no sacrifice, no reli

gious service, no work even of charity and mercy, can " Crumble the sacred mole of salt and corn." be acceptable in the sight of God. In all things we

must come unto the Father THROUGH HIM. And from And again, Æneid., lib. iv., ver. 517:

none of our sacrifices or services must this salt of the Ipsa mola, manibusque piis, altaria jutta. covenant of our God be lacking. VOL. I. ( 34 )

513

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