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The law concerning

LEVITICUS.

the peace-offering

A. M. 2514.
B. C. 1490.

An. Exod. Isr. 2.

CHAPTER III. The law of the peace-offering in general, 1-5. That of the peace-offering taken from the flock, 6-11; and

the same when the offering is a goat, 12-17. A: M: 25:46AND if his oblation be a sa-offering unto the Lord be of the

crifice of peace-offering, if flock, male or female, the shall an. Exod. Isr: 2. Abib or Nisan. he offer it of the herd, whether offer it without blemish.

Abib or Nisan. it be a male or female, he shall offer it with- 7 If he offer a lamb for his offering, then out blemish before the LORD.

shall he offer it before the LORD. 2 And he shall lay his hand upon the head 8 And he shall lay his hand upon the head of his offering, and kill it at the door of the of his offering, and kill it before the tabernatabernacle of the congregation : and Aaron's cle of the congregation : and Aaron's sons shall sons the priests shall sprinkle the blood upon sprinkle the blood thereof round about upon the altar round about.

the altar. 3 And he shall offer of the sacrifice of the 9 And he shal offer of the sacrifice of the peace-offering an offering made by fire unto the peace-offering, an offering made by fire unto LORD; 4 the fat that covereth the inwards, the LORD; the fat thereof, and the whole rump, and all the fat that is upon the inwards, it shall he take off hard by the backbone; and

4 And the two kidneys, and the fat that is on the fat that covereth the inwards, and all the them, which is by the flanks, and the caul fat that is upon the inwards, above the liver, with the kidneys, it shall he 10 And the two kidneys, and the fat that is

upon them, which is by the flanks, and the 5 And Aaron's sons & shall burn it on the altar caul above the liver, with the kidneys, it shall upon the burnt-sacrifice, which is upon the he take away: wood that is on the fire : it is an offering made 11 And the priest shall burn it upon the altar by fire, of a sweet savour unto the Lord. it is i the food of the offering made by fire 6 And if his offering for a sacrifice of peace- unto the LORD.

take away:

a Chap. vii. 11, 29 ; xxii. 21.- ob Chap. i. 3. ce Chap. i. 4,1: 'Or, midriff over the liver and over the kidneys.—5 Chap. vi. 5; Exodus xxix. 10. -d Exod. xxix. 13, 22; chapter iv. 8, 9. 12; Exod. xxix. 13. Ver. 1, &c.— See chapter xxi. 6, 8, Or, suet.

17, 21, 22 ; xxii. 25; Ezek. xliv:7; Mal. i. 7, 12.

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NOTES ON CHAP. HI.

the lails of the eastern sheep, in the note on Exod. Verse 1. Peace-offering] by so shelamim, an offer- xxix. 22, we may add the following observation from ing to make peace between God and man; see on chap. Dr. Russel concerning the sheep at Aleppo. “ Their vii., and Gen. xiv. 18.

tails,” says he, “are of a substance between fal and Verse 2. Lay his hand upon the head of his offer- marrow, and are not eaten separately, but mixed with ing] See this rite explained on Exod: xxix. 10, and the lean meat in many of their dishes, and also often chap. i. 4. “ As the burnt-offering, (chap. i.,)” says used instead of butter.” He states also that a comMr. Ainsworth, " figured our reconciliation to God by mon sheep of this kind, without the head, sat, skin, the death of Christ, and the meat-offering, (chap ii.,) and entrails, weighs from sixty to seventy English our sanctification in him before God, so this peace-pounds, of which the tail usually weighs fifteen pounds offering signified both - Christ's oblation of himself and upwards; but that those of the largest breed, when whereby he became our peace and salvation, (Eph. ii. fattened, will weigh one hundred and fifty pounds, and 14-16 ; Acts xiii. 47; Heb. v. 9; ix. 28;) and our their tails fifty, which corresponds with the account oblation of praise, thanksgiving, and prayer unto God." given by Ludolf in the note referred to above. The

Verse 3. The fat that covereth the inwards] The sheep about Jerusalem are the same with those in omentum, caul or web, as some term it. The fat that Abyssinia mentioned by Ludolf, and those of Syria is upon the inwards ; probably the mesentery or fatty mentioned by Dr. Russel. part of the substance which connects the convolutions Verse 11. It is the food of the offering) We have of the alimentary canal or small intestines.

already remarked that God is frequently represented as Verse 5. Aaron's sons shall burn it] As the fat was feasting with his people on the sacrifices they offered; deemed the most valuable part of the animal, it was and because these sacrifices were consumed by that offered in preference to all other parts; and the hcathens fire which was kindled from heaven, therefore they probably borrowed this custom from the Jews, for they were considered as the food of that fire, or rather of burnt the omentum or caul in honour of their gods. the Divine Being who was represented by it. “In

Verse 9. The whole rump, it shall he take off hard the same idiom of speechi,” says Dodd, "the gods by the backbone) To what has already been said on / of the heathens are said, Deut. xxxii. 38, to eat 514

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a

Directions concerning

CHAP. IV.

sins of ignorance. A. M. 2514. 12 And if his offering be al 15 And the two kidneys, and A. M. 2514. B.

B. C. 1490. An. Exod. Isr: 2. goat, then he shall offer it be- the fat that is upon them, which An. Exod. Isr. 2. Abib or Nisan.

Abib or Nisan. fore the LORD.

is by the flanks, , and the caul 13 And he shall lay his hand upon the head above, the liver, with the kidneys, it shall he of it, and kill it before the tabernacle of the take away. congregation : and the sons of Aaron shall 16 And the priest shall burn them upon the sprinkle the blood thereof upon the altar round altar : it is the food of the offering made by about.

fire for a sweet savour : all the fat is the 14 And he shall offer thereof his offering, Lord's. even an offering made by fire unto the LORD; 17 It shall be perpetual statute for your the fat that covereth the inwards, and all the generations throughout all your dwellings, that fat that is upon the inwards,

ye eat neither a fat nor · blood. k Verses 1, 7, &c. Chapter vii. 23, 25; 1 Sam. ii. 15; viii. 10.-Gen. ix. 4 ; chap. vii. 23, 26 ; xvji. 10, 14; 2 Chron. vii. 7. Chapter vi. 18; vii. 36; xvii. 7; xxii, 14. Deuteronomy xi. 16; 1 Samuel xiv. 33 ; Ezekiel xliv. Verse 16; compare with Deuteronomy xxxii. 14; Nehemiah 7, 15. the fat and drink the wine which were consumed on As all temporal as well as spiritual blessings come their altars."

from God, he has a right to require that such of them Verse 12. A goat] Implying the whole species, should be dedicated to his service as he may think he-goat, she-goal, and kid, as we have already seen. proper to demand. · He required the most perfect of

Verse 17. That ye cat neither fat nor blood.] It is all the animals, and the best parts of these perfect not likely that the fat should be forbidden in the same animals. This he did, not that he needed any thing, manner and in the same latitude as the blood. The but to show the perfection of his nature and the purity. blood was the life of the beast, and that was offered of his service. Had he condescended to receive the to make an atonement for their souls; consequently, meanest animals and the meanest parts of animals as this was never eaten in all their generations : but it his offerings, what opinion could his worshippers have was impossible to separate the fat from the flesh, entertained of the perfection of his nature ? If such which in many parts is so intimately intermixed with imperfect offerings were worthy of this God, then his the muscular fibres; but the blood, being contained in nature must be only worthy of such offerings. It is separate vessels, the arteries and veins, might with necessary that every thing employed in the worship great ease be entirely removed by cutting the throat of God should be the most perfect of its kind that the of the animal, which was the Jewish method. By the time and circumstances can afford. As sensible things fat therefore mentioned here and in the preceding are generally the medium through which spiritual imverse, we may understand any fát that exists in a pressions are made, and the impression usually parseparate or unmired state, such as the omentum or takes of the nature of the medium through which caul, the fat of the mesentery, the fat on the kidneys, these impressions are communicated; hence every and whatever else' of the internal fat was easily sepa- thing should not only be decent, but as far as circumrable, together with the whole of the tail already de- stances will admit dignified, in the worship of God : scribed. And probably it was the fat of such animals the object of "religious worship, the place in which he only as were offered to God in sacrifice, that was is worshipped, and the worship itself, should have the unlawful to be eaten.

strongest and most impressive correspondence possible.

CHAPTER IV. The law concerning the sin-offering for transgressions committed through ignorance, 1, 2. For the priest

thus" sinning, 3-12. For the sins of ignorance of the whole congregation, 13-21. For the sins of ignorance of a ruler, 22-26. For the sins of ignorance of any of the common people, 27–35. . . 2520. AND the Lord spake unto Israel, saying, “ If a soul shall Moses, saying,

sin through ignorance against any An. Exod. Isr. 2. Abib or Nisan.

2 Speak unto the children of of the commandments of the

A. M. 2514.
B. C. 1490.

An Exod. Isr. 2.

Abib or Nisan.

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as the transgression or omission comes to his knowVerse 2. If a soul shall sin through ignorance) ledge, he shall offer the sacrifice here prescribed, and That is, If any man shall do what God has forbidden, shall not suppose that his ignorance is an excuse for or leave uudone what God has commanded, through his sin. He who, when his iniquity comes to his knowignorance of the law relative to these points ; as soon ledge, refuses to offer such a sacrifice, sins obstinately

NOTES ON CHAP. IV.

A. M. 2514.

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Concerning sins of ignorance

LEVITICUS.

committed by the priests. A. M. 2514. LORD, concerning things which 8 And he shall take off from it

B. C. 1490. An. Exod. Isr: 2. ought not to be done, and shall all the fat of the bullock for the An. Exod. Isr. 2 Abib or Nisan. do against any of them:

sin-offering; the fat that cover

Abib or Nisan. 3 If the priest that is anointed do sin ac-eth the inwards, and all the fat that is upon cording to the sin of the people; then let him the inwards, bring for his sin, which he hath sinned, • a 9 And the two kidneys, and the fat that is young bullock without blemish, unto the Lord, upon them, which is by the flanks, and the caul for a sin-offering.

above the liver, with the kidneys, it shall he 4 And he shall bring the bullock d unto the take away, door of the tabernacle of the congregation, 10 h As it was taken off from the bullock of before the LORD; and shall lay his hand upon the sacrifice of peace-offerings : and the priest the bullock's head, and kill the bullock before shall burn them upon the altar of the burnt-, the LORD.

offering. 5 And the priest that is anointed • shall take 11 And the skin of the bullock, and all his of the bullock's blood, and bring it to the flesh, with his head, and with his legs, and his tabernacle of the congregation

inwards, and his dung, 6 And the priest shall dip his finger in the 12 Even the whole bullock shall he carry blood, and sprinkle of the blood seven times forth k without the camp. unto a clean place, before the LORD, before the veil of the sanc-where the ashes are poured out, and burn tuary.

him on the wood with fire : -- where the ashes 7 And the priest 'shall. f put some of the are, poured out shall he be burnt. blood upon

the horns of the altar of sweet 13 And if the whole congregation of Israel incense before the LORD, which is in the taber- sin through ignorance, Pand the thing be hid nacle of the congregation ; and shall pour 8 all from the eyes of the assembly, and they have the blood of the bullock at the bottom of the done somewhat against any of the commandaltar of the burnt-offering, which is at the door ments of the LORD, concerning things which of the tabernacle of the congregation. should not be done, and are guilty; • Chap. viii. 12.- Chap: ix. 2. d Chap. i. 3, 4.

Chap. vi. 11. Heb. xiii. xvi. 14; Numbers xix. 4. :- Chapter viii. 15; ix. 9; xvi. 18. -- Heb. at the pouring out of the ashes. Num. w. 24; 6 Ch. v. 9. Ch. iii. 3, 4, 5.-- Exod. xxix. 14; Num. xix. 5. Josh. vii. 11. -p Chap. y. 2, 3, 4, 17. and wilfully, and to him there remains no other sacri- Verse 6. Seven times! See the note on Exod. fice for sin-no other mode by which he can be re- xxix. 30. The blood of this sacrifice was applied in conciled to God, but he has a certain fearful looking three different ways: 1. The priest put his finger in for of judgmentwhich shall devour such adversa- it, and sprinkled it seven times before the veil, ver. 6. ries ; and this seems the case to which the apostle 2. He put some of it on the horns of the altar of inalludes, Heb. x. 26, &c., in the words above quoted. cense. 3. He poured the remaining part at the botThere have been a great number of subtle questions tom of the altar of burnt-offerings, ver: 7. started on this subject, both by Jews and Christians, but Verse 12. Without the camp] This was intended the above I believe to be the sense and spirit of the law. figuratively to express the sinfulness of this sin, and

Verse 3. If the priest that is anointed] Meaning, the availableness of the atonement. The sacrifice, as most probably, the high priest. According to the sin having the sin of the priest transferred from himself of the people ; for although he had greater advantages to it by his confession and imposition of hands, was than the people could have, in being more conversant become unclean and abominable, and was carried, as it with the law of God, and his lips should understand were, out of the Lord's sight; from the tabernacle and and preserve knowledge, yet it was possible even for congregation it must be carried without the camp, and him, in that time in which the word of God had not thus its own offensiveness was removed, and the sin been fully revealed, to transgress through ignorance; of the person in whose behalf it was offered. The and his transgression might have the very worst ten- apostle (Heb. xiii. 11-13) applies this in the most dency, because the people might be thereby led into pointed manner to Christ : “For the bodies of those sin. Hence several critics understand this passage in-beasts whose blood is brought into the sanctuary by the this way, and translate it thus : If the anointed priest high priest for sin, are burned without the camp. shall lead the people to sin; or, literally, if the anointed Wherefore Jesus also, that he might sanctify the people priesl shall sin to the sin of the people ; that is, so as with his own blood, suffered without the gate. Let us to cause the people to transgress, the shepherd going go forth therefore unto him without the camp, bearing astray, and the sheep following after him,

his reproach." Verse 4. Lay his hand upon the bullock's head] Verse 13. If the whole congregation of Israel sin) See on chap. i. 4.

This probably refers to some oversight in acts of re

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k Heb. to without the

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11.

B. C. 1490.

A. M. 2514.
B. C. 1490.

Concerning sins of ignorance

CHAP. IV. in the whole congregation, fc. A: M. 2514. 14 When the sin, which they out the camp, and burn him as An. Exod. Isr. 2. have sinned against it, is known, he burned the first bullock : it An. Exod. Isr: 2. Abib or Nisan. then the congregation shall offer is a sin-offering for the con

Abib or Nisan. a young bullock for the sin, and bring him gregation. before the tabernacle of the congregation. 22 When a ruler hath sinned, and done

15 And the elders of the congregation shall somewhat through ignorance against any of lay their hands upon the head of the bullock the commandments of the LORD his God, before the LORD : and the bullock shall be concerning things which should not be done, killed before the LORD.

and is guilty ; 16 - And the priest that is anointed shall 23 Or if his sin, wherein he hath sinned, bring of the bullock's blood to the tabernacle come to his knowledge ; he shall bring his of the congregation.

offering, a kid of the goats, a male without ble17 And the priest shall dip his finger in mish : some of the blood, and sprinkle it seven times 24 And whe shall lay his hand upon the before the Lord, even before the veil. head of the goat, and kill it in the place where

18 And he shall put some of the blood upon they kill the burnt-offering before the LORD: the horns of the altar which is before the it is a sin-offering. LORD, that is in the tabernacle of the congre- 25. * And the priest shall take of the blood gation, and shall pour out all the blood at the of the sin-offering with his finger, and put it bottom of the altar of the burnt-offering, which upon the horns of the altar of burnt-offering, is at the door of the tabernacle of the congre- and shall pour out his blood at the bottom of gation.

the altar of burnt-offering. 19 And he shall take all his fat from him, 26 And he shall burn all his fat

upon

the and burn it upon the altar.

altar, as y the fat of the sacrifice of peace20 And he shall do with the bullock as he offerings : ? and the priest shall make an did with the bullock for a sin-offering, so atonement for him as concerning his sin, and shall he do with this : t and the priest shall it shall be forgiven him. make an atonement for them, and it shall be 27 And a if any one of the common peoforgiven them.

ple sin through ignorance, while he doeth some21 And he shall carry forth the bullock with- what against any of the commandments of the

4 Chap. i. 4- Ver. 5; Heb. ix. 12, 13, 14, - Ver. 3. v Ver. 14.- - Ver. 4, &c.- - Ver. 30. — Chap. ii. 5. Num. xv. 25; Dan. ix. 24; Rom. v. 11; Heb. ii. 17; X. 10, - Ver. 20;- Num. xv. 28.- Ver. 2 ; Num. xv. 27.- - Heb. 11, 12; 1 John i. 7; ii. 2.- - Ver. 2, 13.

- Heb. people of the land.

any soul.

ligious worship, or to some transgression of the letter only the fal was burnt as that of the peace-offering. of the law, which arose out of the peculiar circum- See ver. 26, and chap. iii. 5. stances in which they were then found, such as the Verse 27. The common people) run by am haarets, case mentioned i Sam. xiv. 32, &c., where the peo- the people of the land, that is, any individual who was ple, through their long and excessive fatigue in their not a priest, king, or ruler among the people; any of combat with the Philistines, being faint, flew on the the poor or ordinary sort. Any of these, having transspoil, and look sheep, oxen, and calves, and slew them gressed through ignorance, was obliged to bring a lamb on the ground, and did eat with the blood ; and this or a kid, the ceremonies being nearly the same as in the was partly occasioned by the rash adjuration of Saul, preceding cases. The original may denote the very mentioned ver. 24: Cursed be the man that eateth any lowest of the people, the labouring or agricultural classes. food until evening.

The law relative to the general cases of sins comThe sacrifices and rites in this case were the same mitted through ignorance, and the sacrifices to be as those prescribed in the preceding, only here the offered on such occasions, so amply detailed in this elders of the congregation, i. e., three of the sanhedrim, chapter, may be thus recapitulated. For all sins and according to Maimonides, laid their hands on the head transgressions of this kind committed by the people, of the victim in the name of all the congregation. the prince, and the priest, they must offer expiatory

Verse 22. When a ruler hath sinned) Under the offerings. The person so sinning must bring the saterm X'vi nasi, it is probable that any person is meant crifice to the door of the tabernacle, and lay his hands who held any kind of political dignity among the peo- upon its head, as in a case already referred to, acknow. ple, though the rabbins generally understand it of the ledging the sacrifice to be his, that he needed it for king.

his - transgression; and thus he was considered as A kid of the goats was the sacrifice in this case, confessing his sin, and the sin was considered as the rites nearly the same as in the preceding cases, transferred to the animal, whose blood was then spilt Concerning a witness who

LEVITICUS.

refuses to tell the truth. A. M. 2514. Lord, concerning things which| 32 And if he bring a lamb for A. M. 2514. B. C. 1490.

B. C. 1490. An. Exod. Isr. 2. ought not to be done, and be guilty; a sin-offering, he shall bring it An Exod. Ist. 2 Abib or Nisan.

Abib or Nisan. 28 Or d if his sin, which he hath a female without blemish.' sinned, come to his knowledge; then he shall 33 And he shall lay his hand upon the head of bring his offering, a kid of the goats, a female the sin-offering, and slay it for a sin-offering, without blemish, for bis sin which he hath sinned. in the place where they kill the burnt-offering.

29 • And he shall lay his hand upon the head 34 And the priest shall take of the blood of of the sin-offering, and slay the sin-offering in the sin-offering with his finger, and put it upon the place of the burnt-offering.

the horns of the altar of burnt-offering, and 30 And the priest shall take of the blood shall pour out all the blood thereof at the bot thereof with his finger, and put it upon the horns tom of the altar : of the altar of burnt-offering, and shall pour out 35 And he shall take away all the fat thereof all the blood thereof at the bottom of the altar. as the fat of the lamb is taken away from the

31 And he shall take away all ihe fat thereof, sacrifice of the peace-offerings ; and the priest & as the fat is taken away from off the sacri- shall burn them upon the altar, 'according to fice of peace-offering; and the priest shall the offerings make by fire unto the LORD: burn it upon the altar for a sweet savour m and the priest shall make an åtonement for unto the LORD; i and the priest shall make an his sin that he hath committed, and it shall be atonement for him, and it shall be forgiven him. forgiven him. Le Ver. 4, 24. - Chap. iii. 14.--- Chap. iii. 3.

i Verse 26. Verse 28. Chapter i. 3. um Verse } Exod. xxix. 18; chap, i, 9. to make an atonement. See on chap. i. 4. Such in- be unnoticed by a strict and holy law; these also need stitutions as these could not be coosidered as termi- the great atonement : on which account we should nating in themselves, they necessarily had reference often pray with David, Cleanse thou, me from secret to something of infinitely higher moment ; in a word, faults! Psa. xix. 12. How little attention is paid to they typified Him whose soul was made an offering this solemn subject !

Sins of this kind-sins commitfor sin, Isa. liii. 10. And taken out of this reference ted sometimes ignorantly, and more frequently heedthey seem both absurd and irrational. It is obviously lessly, are permitted to accumulate in their number, in reference to these innocent creatures being brought and consequently in their guilt ; and from this very as sin-offerings to God for the guilty that St. Paul circumstance we may often account for those painful alludes 2 Cor. v. 21, where he says, He (God) made desertions, as they are called, under which many comhim to be sin (upaprlav, a sin-offering) for us who paratively good people labour. They have committed KNEW NO SIN, that we might be made the righteousness sins of ignorance or heedlessness, and have not offered of God --holy and pure by the power and grace of the sacrifice which can alone avail in their behalf. God, in or through him. · And it is worthy of remark, How' necessary in ten thousand cases is the following that the Greek word used by the apostle is the same excellent prayer ! “ That it may please thee to give by which the Septuagint, in more than fourscore places us true repentance ; to forgive us all our sins, negliin the Pentateuch, translate the Hebrew word nxon gences, and ignorances ; and to endue us with the chattaah, sin, which in all those places our translation grace of thy Holy Spirit, to amend our lives according renders sin-offering. Even sins of ignorance cannot I to thy Hory WORD."-Litany.

d Verse 23.

26, 31.

CHAPTER V. Concerning witnesses who, being adjured, refuse to tell the truth, 1. Of those who contract defilement by

touching unclean things or persons, 2, 3. Of those who bind themselves by vows or oaths, and do not fulfil them, 4, 5. The trespass-offering prescribed in such cases, a lamb or a kid, 6; a turtle-dove or two young pigeons, 7–10 ; or an ephah of fine flour with oil and frankincense, 11-13. Other laws relative to trespasses, through ignorance in holy things, 14-16, Of trespasses in things unknown, 17-19. , A. M. 2514, AND if a soul sin, a and hear for known of it; if he do not A. M. 2514. B. C. 1490.

· B. C. 1490. An. Exod. Iss. 2. the voice of swearing, and is utter it, then he shall b bear his An. Exod. Isr: 2. Abįb or Nisan.

Abib or Nisan. a witness, whether he hath seen iniquity. A 1 Kings viii, 31 ; Matt. xxvi. 63,

Ver. 17; chap. vii. 18 ; xvii. 16 : xix. 8; xx. 17; Num. ix. 13. NOTES ON CHAP. V.

being demanded by the civil magistrate to answer Verse 1. If a soul sin] It is generally supposed upon oath, refuses to tell what he knows concerning that the case referred to here is that of a person who, I the subject ; such a one shall bear his iniquity-shall

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