« AnteriorContinuar »
Ordinances relative to
uncleanness, vows, and oaths.
B. C. 1490.
A. M. 2514. ? Or if a soul touch any who shall offer that which is for A. M. 2514.
B. C. 1490.
Abib or Nisan.
n the rest of the blood shall be wrung out at . 3 Or if he touch the uncleanness of man, the bottom of the altar: it is a sin-offering whatsoever uncleanness it be that a man shall 10 And he shall offer the second for a burntbe defiled withal, and it be hid from him; offering, according to the manner : P 4 and the when he knoweth of it, then he shall be guilty. priest shall make an atonement for him for his
4 Or if a soul swear, pronouncing with his sin which he hath sinned, and it shall be for-
5 And it shall be, when he shall be guilty in part of an ephah of fine flour for a sin-offer-
he put any frankincense thereon : for it is a 6. And he shall bring his trespass-offering sin-offering. unto the LORD, for his sin which he hath sin- 12 Then shall he bring it to the priest, and ned, a female from the flock, a lamb or a kid the priest shall take his handful of it, even a of the goats, for a sin-offering; and the priest memorial thereof, and burn it on the altar, acshall make an atonement for him concerning cording to the offerings made by fire unto the his sin.
LORD: it is a sin-offering. 7 And i if he be not able to bring a lamb, 13 « And the priest shall make an atonement then he shall bring for his trespass, which he for him as touching his sin that he hath sinned hath committed, two turtle doves, or two in one of these, and it shall be forgiven him : young pigeons, unto the LORD; one for a sin- and the remnant shall be the priest's, as a offering, and the other for a burnt-offering. meat-offering 8 And he shall bring them unto the priest, 14 And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, < Chap. xi. 24, 28, 31, 39; Num. xix. 11, 13, 16.
* Heb. his hand cannot reach to the sufficiency of a lamb.
See Mark vi. 23.- - Chap. xvi. 21 ; xxvi. 40; Num. v. 7; nance. -P Chap. i. 14. -4 Chap. iv. 26.
• Chap. ii. 2.-i Chap. iv. 35.- :-4 Chap. iv. 26.— Chap. ii. 3.
tendency to humble the soul, and henee it is so freVerse 2. Any unclean thing] Either the dead body quently required in the Holy Scriptures, as without of a clean animal, or the living or dead carcass of any humiliation there can be no salvation. unclean creature. All such persons were to wash their Verse 7. If he be not able to bring a lamb] See the clothes and themselves in clean water, and were con- conclusion of chap. i. sidered as unclean till the evening, chap. xi. 24–31. Verse 8. But shall not divide it] See the note on But if this had been neglected, they were obliged to chap. i. 16. bring a trespass-offering. What this meant, see in Verse 10. He shall offer the second for a burntthe notes on chap. vii.
offering] The pigeon for the burnt-offering was wholly Verse 4. To do evil, or to do good). It is very consumed, it was the Lord's property ; that for the sinlikely that rash promises are here intended; for if a offering was the priest's property, and was to be eaten man-vow to do an act that is evil, though it would be by him after its blood had been partly sprinkled on criminal to keep such an oath or vow, yet he is guilty the side of the altar, and the rest poured out at the because he made it, and therefore must offer the tres- bottom of the altar. See also chap, vi. 26. pass-offering If he neglect to do the good he has Verse 11. Tenth part of an ephah] About three
-d Ver. 17.
- Num. v. 15.
B. C. 1490.
Concerning sins of ignorance
LEVITICUS. in the holy things of the Lord. A. M. 2514. 15 w If a soul commit a tres- 17 And if a soul sin, and A. M. 2514.
B. C. 1490. An. Exod. Isr. 2. pass, and sin through ignorance, commit any of these things which An. Exod. Isr: 2. Abib or Nisan. in the holy things of the LORD; are forbidden to be done by
Abib or Nisan. then * he shall bring for his trespass unto the the commandments of the LORD; though he LORD a ram without blemish out of the flocks, wist it not, yet is he guilty, and shall bear his with thy estimation by shekels of silver, after iniquity. y the shekel of the sanctuary, for a trespass- 18 e And he shall bring a ram without bleoffering :
mish out of the flock, with thy estimation, for 16 And he shall make amends for the harm a trespass-offering, unto the priest : f and the that he bath done in the holy thing, and a shall priest shall make an atonement for him conadd the fifth part thereto, and give it unto the cerning his ignorance wherein he erred and priest : ? and the priest shall make an atone- wist it not, and it shall be forgiven him. ment for him with the ram of the trespass- 19. It is a trespass-offering : 8 he hath ceroffering, and it shall be forgiven him. tainly trespassed against the LORD. Chap. xxii, 14. * Ezra x. 19. y Exod. xxx. 13; chap.
Chap. iv. 2. -c Ver. 15; chap. iv. 2, 13, 22, 27; Psa. xix. xxvii. 25. -2 Chap. vi. 5; xxii. 14; xxvii. 13, 15, 27, 31 ; Num. 12; Luke xii. 48. d Ver. 1, 2. e Vet. 15.-ul Ver. 16. y. 7. Chap. iv. 26.
$ Ezra x. 2. quarts. The ephah contained a little more than seven paratively cold performance of sacred duties, no wongallons and a half.
der that there is sinfulness found in our holy things; Verse 15. In the holy things of the Lord] This law and at what a low ebb must the Christian lise be found seems to relate particularly to sacrilege, and defrauds when this is the case! This is a sore and degrading in spiritual matters; such as the neglect to consecrate evil in the Church of God; but there is one even or redeem the first-born, the withholding of the first- worse than this, that is, the strenuous endeavour of fruits, tithes, and such like ; and, according to the rab- many religious people to reconcile their minds to this bins, making any secular gain of Divine things, keep- state of inexcusable imperfection, and defend it zealing back any part of the price of things dedicated to ously, on the supposition that it is at once both unGod, or withholding what man had vowed to pay. See avoidable and useful—unavoidable, for they think they a long list of these things in Ainsworth.
cannot live without it; and useful, because they supWith thy estimation The wrong done or the de- pose it tends to humble them! The more inward sin fraud committed should be estimated at the number of a man has, the more pride he will feel ; the less, the shekels it was worth, or for which it would sell. These more humility. A sense of God's infinite kindness to the defrauder was to pay down, to which he was to and our constant dependence on him, will ever keep add a fifth part more, and bring a ram without blemish the soul in the dust. Sin can never be necessary to for a sin-offering besides. There is an obscurity in the maintenance or extension of the Christian life, it the text, but this seems to be its meaning.
is the thing which Jesus Christ came into the world to Verse 16. Shall make amends] Make restitution for destroy; and his name is called Jesus or Saviour be. the wrong he had done according to what is laid down
cause he saves his people from their sins. But how in the preceding verse.
little of the spirit and influence of his Gospel is known Verse 19. He hath certainly trespassed] And be in the world! He saves, unto the uttermost, 'them cause he hath sinned, therefore he must bring a sacri- who come unto the Father through him, But alas! fice. On no other ground shall he be accepted by the how few are thus saved ! for they will not come unto Lord. Reader, how dost thou stand in the sight of him that they might have lise. Should any Christian thy Maker ?
refuse to offer up the following prayer to God? “Al
mighty God, unto whom all hearts be open, and from On the subject of this chapter it may be proper to whom no secrets are hid, cleanse the thoughts of our make the following reflections. .
hearts by the inspiration of thy Holy Spirit, that we When the infinite purity and strict justice of God may perfectly love thee, and worthily magnify thy are considered, the exceeding breadth of his command- holy name, through Christ our Lord. Amen."--The ment, our slowness of heart to believe, and our com- | Liturgy,
Laws relative to detention of property intrusted to the care of another, to robbery, and deceit, 1, 2; finding
of goods lost, keeping them from their owner, and swearing falsely, 3, Such a person shall not only restore what he has thus unlawfully gotten, but shall add a fifth part of the value of the property besides, 4,5;
and bring a ram without blemish, for a trespass-offering to the Lord, 6, 7. Laws relative to the burnt, offering and the perpetual fire. 8-13. Law of the meat-offering, and who may lawfully eat of it, 14-18.
Laws relative to the offerings of Aaron and his sons and their successors, on the day of their anointing 19-23. Laws relative to the sin-offering, and those who might cat of it, 24-30.
An. Exod. Isr. 2.
Different laws relative to
fraudulent practices. 6. M. 254. AND the Lord spake unto 5 Or all that about which he A. M. 2514.
B. C. 1490. Moses, saying, hath sworn falsely; he shall even an. Exod. Isr. 2.
Abib or Nisan. 2 If a soul sin, and a commit a i restore it in the principal, and trespass against the LORD, and blie unto his shall add the fifth part more thereto, and give neighbour in that which was delivered him it unto him to whom it appertaineth, * in the to keep, or in a fellowship, or in a thing day of his trespass-offering. taken away by violence, or hath î deceived his 6 And he shall bring his trespass-offering neighbour ;
unto the LORD,' ma ram without blemish out 3 Or have found that which was lost, and of the flock, with thy estimation, for a treslieth concerning it, and sweareth falsely; in pass-offering unto the priest : any of all these that a man doeth, -sinning q n And the priest shall make an atonement therein:
for him before the LORD: and it shall be for4 Then it shall be, because he hath sinned, given him for any thing of all that he hath and is guilty, that he shall restore that which done in' trespassing therein. he took violently away, or the thing which he 8 And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, hath deceitfully gotten, or that which was de- 9 Command Aaron and his sons, saying, livered him to keep, or the lost thing which. This is the law of the burnt-offering : It is he found,
the burnt-offering, because of the burning
a Num. v. 6. Chap. xix. 11; Acts v. 4; Col. iii. 9. Chap. v. 16; Num. v. 7; 2 Sam. xii. 6; Luke xix. 8. • Exod. xxii, 7, 10. — Or, in dealing.- Heb. putting of thek Or, in the day of his being found guilty.- JHeb. in the day hand. - Prov. xxiv. 28; xxvi. 19.- -- Deut. xxii. 1, 2, 3. of his trespass.<m Chap. v. 15. - Chap. iv. 26.- Or, for
Exod. xxii. 11; chap. xix. 12 ; Jer. vii. 9 ; Zech. v. 4. the burning.
NOTES ON CHAP. VI.
perty, even on the public road, they never even touched Verse 2. Lie unto his neighbour, &c.] This must it. This was actually the case in this kingdom in the refer to a case in which a person delivered his pro- time of Alfred the Great, about A. D. 888; so that perty to his neighbour to be preserved for him, and golden bracelets hung up on the public roads were untook no witness to attest the delivery of the goods ; touched by the finger of rapine. One of Solon's laws such a person therefore might deny that he had ever was, Take not up what you laid not down. How easy received such goods, for · he who had deposited them to act by this principle in case of finding lost property : with him could bring no proof of the delivery. On " This is not mine, and it would be criminal to convert the other hand, a man might accuse his neighbour of 'it to my use unless the owner be dead and his family detaining property which had never been confided to extinct." . When all due inquiry is made, if no owner him, or, aster having been confided, had been restored can be found, the lost property may be legally conagain ; hence the law, here is very cautious on these sidered to be the property of the finder. points : and because in many cases it was impossible Verse 5. All that about which he hath sworn falsely) to come at the whole truth without a direct revelation This supposes the case of a man who, being convicted by from God, which should in no common case be expect- his own conscience, comes forward and confesses his sin. ed, the penalties are very moderate ; for in such cases, Restore it in the principal] The property itself if even when guilt was discovered, the man might not be still remaining, or the full value of it, to which a fifth so criminal as appearances might intimate. See the part more was to be added. law concerning this laid down and explained on Exod. Verse 6. With thy estimation] See the note on xxii. 7, &c.
chapter v. 15. Verse 3. Have found that which was lost] The Verse 8. And the Lord spake unto Moses) At this Roman lawyers laid it down as a sound maxim of ju- verse the Jews. begin the 25th section of the law; risprudence, “ that he who found any property and and here, undoubtedly, the 6th chapter should comapplied it to his own use, should be considered as a mence, as the writer enters upon a new subject, and thief whether he knew the owner or not ; for in their the preceding verses belong to the fifth chapter. The view the crime was not lessened, supposing the finder best edited Hebrew Bibles begin the 6th chapter at was totally ignorant of the right owner." Qui alienum this verse. quid jaccns lucri faciendi causa sustulit, furti obstrin- . : Verse 9. This is the law of the burnt-offering] This gitur, sive scit, cujus sit, sive ignoravit; nihil enim ad law properly refers to that burnt-offering which was furtum minuendum facit, quod, cujus sit, ignoret.- daily made in what was termed the morning and evenDigestor, lib. xlvii., Tit. ii., de furtis, Leg. xliii., ing sacrifice; and as he had explained the nature of sec. 4.
On this subject every honest man must say, this burnt-offering in general, with its necessary cerethat the man who finds any lost property, and does not monies, as far as the persons who brought them were make all due inquiry to find out the owner, should, in concerned, he now takes up the same in relation to sound policy, be treated as a thief. It is said of the the priests who were to receive them from the hands Dyrbæans, à people who inhabited the tract between of the offerer, and present them to the Lord on the Bactria and India, that if they met with any lost pro- I altar of burnt-offerings.
A. M. 2514.
B. C. 1490.
Concerning the perpetual fire
and the meat-offerings upon the altar all night unto the the meat-offering, and shall burn A. M. 2514. An. Exod. Isr. 2. morning ; and the fire of the altar it upon the altar for a sweet An. Exod. Isr: 2. Abib or Nisan.
Abib or Nisan. shall be burning in it.
savour, even the memorial of 10 P And the priest shall put on his linen gar-it, into the LORD. ment, and his linen breeches shall he put upon 16. And * the remainder thereof shall Aaron his flesh, and take up the ashes which the fire and his sons eat: *with unleavened bread hath consumed with the burnt-offering on the shall it be eaten in the holy place : in the altar, and he shall put them 9 beside the altar. court of the tabernacle of the congregation
11 And." he shall put off his garments, and they shall eat it. pút on other garments, and carry forth the 17. y It shall not be baken with leaven. ashes without the camp unto a clean place. I have given it unto them for their portion of my
12 And the fire upon the altar shall be offerings made by fire.; it is most holy, as is burning in it; it shall not be put out: and the sin-offering, and as the trespass-offering. the priest shall burn wood on it every morn- 18 6 All the males among the children of ing, and lay the burnt-offering in order upon Aaron shall eat of it. It shall be a statute it; and he shall burn thereon the fat of the for ever in your generations, concerning the peace-offerings.
offerings of the Lord made by fire: -d every 13 The fire shall ever be burning upon the one that toucheth them shall be holy. altar; it shall never go out.
19 And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, 14. u And this is the law of the meat-offer- 20 . This is the offering of Aaron and of ing: the sons of Aaron shall offer it before his sons, which they shall offer unto the LORD the LORD, before the altar.
in the day when he is anointed : the tenth 15 And he shall take of it his handful of part of an "ephah of fine four for a meatthe four of the meat-offering, and of the oil offering perpetual, half of it--in the morning, thereof, and all the frankincense which is upon and half thereof at night.
Chap. xvi. 4; Exod. xxviii. 39, 40, 41, 43; Ezek. xiv. 17, 18. Numbers xviii. 10. — Chap. i. 11. — Numbers xviii. 9, 10. 9 Chap. i. 16. -- Ezek, xliv. 19. Chap. iv. 12.-Chap. a Ver. 25; chap. ii. 3; vii. l; Exod. xxix. 37. Ver. 29; ii. 3, 9, 14, Chap. ii. l; Num. tv. 4. - Chap. ii. 2, 9. Num. xviii. 10.
Chap. ij. 17. d Chap. xxii. 3, 4, 5, 6,7; Chap. ii. 3; Ezek. xliv. 29. - Ver. 26; chap. X. 12, 13; Exod. xxix. 37.- - Exod. xxix. 2. Exod. xvi. 36.
Because of the burning upon the altar all, night] If other garments, the holy garments being only used in the burnt-offering were, put all upon the fire at once, the holy place. it could not be burning all night. We may therefore . Clean place.) A place where no dead carcasses, reasonably conclude that the priests sat up by turns dung, or filth of any kind was laid; for the ashes were the whole night, and fed the fire with portions of this holy, as being the remains of the offerings made by fire offering till the whole was consumed, which they unto the Lord. would take care to lengthen out till the time of the Verse 13. The fire shall ever be burning] See on morning sacrifice: The same we may suppose was ver. 9 and ver. 20. In imitation of this perpetual done with the morning sacrifice; it was also consumed fire, the ancient Persian Magi, and their descendants by piecemeal through the whole day, till the time of the Parsees, kept up a perpetual fire; the latter conoffering the evening sacrifice. Thus there was a con- tinye it to the present day. This is strictly enjoined tinual offering by fire unto the Lord; and hence in in the Zend Avesta, which is a code of law's ąs sacred ver. 13 it is said : The fire shall ever be burning upon among them as the Pentateuch-is among the Jews. A the altar, it shall never go out. If at any time any Sagnika Brahmin preserves the fire that was kindled extraordinary offerings were to be made, the daily șa- 1. at his investiture with the poita, and never suffers it crifice was consumed more speedily, in order to make to go out, using the same fire at his wedding and in room for such extra offerings. See more on this sub- all his burnt-offerings, till at length his body is burnt ject in the note on ver. 23. ·
with it.-WARD's Customs. The Hebrew doctors teach that no sacrifice was Verse 14. The meat-offering] See on chap. ii. 1, &c. ever offered in the morning before the morning sacri- Verse 15. His handful of the flour) An omer of fice; and none, the passover excepted, ever offered in four, which was the tenih part of an ephah, and equal the evening after the evening sacrifice; for all sacri- to about three quarts of our measure, was the least fices were made by day-light. The fat seems to have quantity that could be offered even by the poorest sort, been chiefly burned in the night season, for the greater. and this was generally accompanied with a log of oil, light and conveniency of keeping the fire alive, which which was a little more than half a pint. This quancould not be so easily done in the night as in the day time. tity both of flour and oil might be increased at plea
Verse 11. And put on other garments] The priests sure, but no less could be offered. approached the altar in their holiest garments ; when Verse 20. In the day when he is anointed] Not carrying the ashes, &c., from the altar, they put on only in that day, but from that day forward, for this
A. M. 2514.
h Exod. xxix. 25.
Of the sin-offering,
and who may eat of it. A. M. 2514. 21 In a pan it shall be made eat it: "in the holy place shall it
B. C. 1490. An. Exod. Isr. 2. with oil; and when it is baken, be eaten, in the court of the ta- An. Exod. 1er. 2 Abib or Nisan. thou shalt bring it in: and the bernacle of the congregation,
Abib or Nisan. baken pieces of the meat-offering shalt thou 27 Whatsoever shall touch the flesh thereoffer for a sweet savour unto the LORD. of shall be holy: and when there is sprinkled of
22 And the priest of his sons 8 that is the blood thereof upon any garment, thou shalt anointed in his stead shall offer it: it is a wash that whereon it was sprinkled in the slatute for ever unto the LORD; bit shall be holy place. wholly burnt.
28 But the earthen vessel wherein it is 23 For every meat-offering for the priest sodden P shall be broken : and if it be sodden shall be wholly burnt : it shall not be eaten. in a brazen pot, it shall be both scoured, and
24 And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, rinsed in water.
25 Speak unto Aaron and to his sons, saying, 29 4 All the males, among the priests shall i This is--the law of the sin-offering : * In eat thereof: it is most holy. the place where the burnt-offering is killed -30 And no sin-offering, whereof
. any of the shall the sin-offering be killed before the blood is brought into the tabernacle of the LORD: 1 it is most holy.
congregation, to reconcile withal in the holy 26 m The priest that offereth it for sin shall place, shall be caten: it shall be burnt in the fire. 6 Chap. iv.-3.
Li Chap. iv. 2.
Ver. 16. Exod. xxix. 37 ; xxx. 29.- Chap. xi. 33 ; i. 3, 5, 11 ; iv. 24, 29, 33. Ver. 17; chap. xxi. 22. _m Chap. xv. 12.— Ver. 18; Num. xviii. 10.- Ver. 25.
- Chap. x. 17, 18; Num. xviii, 9, 10; Ezek. xliv. 28, 29.
iv. 7, 11, 12, 18, 21 ; x. 18; xvi. 27; Heb. xiii. 11. was to them and their successors a statute for ever. fanity in the sight of God. See 1 Sam. ii. 36 ; Jer. See verse 22.
xxiii. 1, 2; Ezek. xxxiv. 2-4 ; and Hos. iv. 8. Verse 23. For every meat-offering for thę priest Verse 27. Whatsoever shall touch the flesh thereof shall be wholly burnt] Whatever the priest offered shall be holy] The following note of Mr. Ainsworth was wholly the Lord's, and therefore must be entirely' is not less-judicious than it is pious consumed: the sacrifices of the common people were “All this pife. was peculiar to the sin-offering, offered to the Lord, but the - priests partook of them; | (whether it were that which was to be caten, or that and thus they who ministered at the altar'were fed by which was to be burnt,) above all the other most holy the altar. Had the priests been permitted to live on things. As the sin-offering in special sort figured their own offerings as they did on those of the people, Christ, who was made sin for us, (2 Cor. v. 21,) so it would have been as if they had. offered nothing, as this ordinance-for all that touched the flesh of the they would have taken again to themselves what they sin-offering to be holy, the garments sprinkled with appeared to give unto the Lord. Theodoret says that the blood to be washed, the vessels wherein the flesh this marked " the high perfection which God required was boiled to be broken, or scoured and rinsed-taught in the ministers of his sanctuary," as his not eating of a holy use of this mystery of our redemption, whereof his own sin-offering supposes him to stand free from they, that are made partakers ought to be washed, all sin; but a better reason is given by Mr. Ainsworth : cleansed, and sanctified by the Spirit of God; that we “ The people's meat-offering was eaten by the priests possess our vessels in holiness and honour, and yield that made atonement for them, ver. 15, 16, chap. vii. 7; not dur members as instruments of unrighteousness but because no priest, being a sinner, could make anto-sin," i Thess. iv. 4 ; Rom. vi. 13. atonement for himself, therefore his meat-offering Verse 28. The earthen vessel-- shall be broken) might not be eaten, but all burnt on the altar, to teach Calmet states that this should be considered as implyhim to expect salvation, not by his legal service or works, ing the vessels brought by individuals to the court of but by Christ; for the eating of the sin-offering figured the temple or tabernacle, and not of the vessels that the bearing of the sinner's iniquity;" chap. x. 17. belonged to the priests for the ordinary service. That
Verse 25. In the place where the burnt-offering is the people dressed their sacrifices sometimes in the killed, &c.] The place here referred to was the north court of the tabernacle, he gathers from 1 Sam. ii. 13, side of the altar. See chap. i. 11.
14, to which the reader is desired to refer. Verse 26. The priest shall eat it] From the In addition to what has been already said on the expostulation of Moses with Aaron, chap. x. 17, we different subjects in this chapter, it may be necessary learn thai the priest, by eating the sin-offering of the to notiee a few more particulars. The perpetual meaipeople, was considered as bearing their and typi- offering, 7'on nnja minchah tamid, ver. 20, the percally removing it from them : and besides, this was a petual fire, 7'09 Os esh tamid, ver. 13, and the perpepart of their maintenance, or what the Scripture calls | tual burnt-offering, 7'on n Sy oląth tamid, Exod. xxix. their inheritance ; see Ezek. xliv, 27–30. This was 42, translated by the Septuagint Ovoia diaTavtos, Trup afterwards greatly abused; for improper persons endea- διαπαντος, and ολοκαυτωσις and ολοκαυτωμα διαπαντος, voured to get into the priest's office merely that they all cast much light on Heb. vii. 25, where it is said, might get a secular provision, which is a horrible pro- Christ is - able to save them to the ultermost (els to