Imágenes de páginas

B. C. 1490.

A. M. 2514.

B. C. 1490. An. Exod. Isr. 2.


your own

Different abominations

strictly prohibited. A. M. 2514. shalt thou w profane the name of nation, nor any stranger that soAn. Exod. Isr. 2. thy God : I am the Lord. journeth among you: Abib or Nisan. 22 - Thou shalt not lie with man-' 27 (For all these abominations

Abib or Nisan. kind as with womankind : it is abomination. have the men of the land done, which were

23 y Neither shalt thou lie with any beast to before you, and the land is defiled :) defile thyself therewith: neither shall any 28 That the land spue not you out also, woman stand before a beast to lie down when ye defile it, as it spued out the nations thereto: it is a confusion.

that were before you. 24 - Defile not ye yourselves in any of these 29 For whosoever shall commit any of things : b for in all these the nations are de- these abominations, even the souls that comfiled which I cast out before you :

mit them shall be cut off from among their 25 And • the land is defiled: therefore I do people. d visit the iniquity thereof upon it, and the 30 Therefore shall ye keep mine ordinance, land itself e vomiteth out her inhabitants. that

ye commit not any one of these abomi26 Ye shall therefore keep my statutes and nable customs, which were .committed before · my judgments, and shall not commịt. any of you, and that ye i defile not yourselves therein : these abominations : neither any of

k I am the Lord


God. "Chap. xix. 12 ; xx. 3 ; xxi. 6; xxii. 2, 32 ; Ezek. xxxvi. 20, xxxv. 34 ; Jer. ii. 7; xvi. 18; Ezek. xxxvi. 17.- d Psa. Ixxxix. &c.; Mal. i. 12. Chap. xx. 13; Rom. i. 27; 1 Cor. vi. 9; 32 ; Isa. xxvi. 21 ; Jer. v. 9, 29; ix. 9; xiv. 10, xxiii. 2; Hos. 1 Tim. i. 10.—Chap. xx. 15, 16 ; Exod. xxii. 19.—2 Chap. xx. i. 13; viii. 13, ix. 9.- Le Ver. 28. Ver. 5, 30; chap. XX. 22, 12. a Ver. 30 ; Mait. xv. 18, 19, 20; Mark vii. 21, 22, 23; 23.5 Chap. xx. 22 ; Jer. ix. 19; Ezek. xxxvi. 13, 17. --- Ver. 1 Cor. iii. 17. b Chap. xx.. 23 ; Deut. xviii. 12. — Num. 3,26; chap. xx. 23 ; Deut. xviii. 9.-_i Ver. 21.

_Ver.2, 4. ship: There are several opinions concerning the moral good and evil: information concerning the meaning of passing through the fire to Molech. 1. abominations of the people is brought to this personiSome think that the semen humanum was offered on fied land, with which it is so deeply affected that a the fire to this idol. 2. Others think that the children nausea is produced, and it vomits out its abominable were actually made a burnt-offering to him. 3. But and accursed inhabitants. It was natural for the inothers suppose the children were not burnt, but only spired penman to make use of such a figure, as the passed through the fire, or between two fires, by way description he was obliged to give of so many and of consecration to him. That some were actually enormous abominations must have affected him nearly burnt alive to this idol several scriptures, according to in the same way in which he represents the land to be the opinion of commentators, seem strongly to inti- affected. mate; see among others, Psa. cvi. 38; Jer. vii. 31, Verse 30. Shall ye keep mine ordinance) The only and Ezek. xxiii. 37–39. That others were only con- way to be preserved from all false worship is seriously secrated to his service by passing between two fires to consider and devoutly to observe the ordinances of the rabbins strongly assert; and if Ahaz had but one the true religion. He who in the things of God goes son, Hezekiah, (though it is probable he had others, no farther than he can say, Thus it is written, and see 2 Chron. xxviii. 3,) he is said to have passed thus it behoves me to do, is never likely to receive a through the fire to Molech, 2 Kings xvi. 3, yet he suc- false ereed, nor perform a superstitious act of worship. ceeded his father in the kingdom, chapter xviii. 1, therefore this could only be a consecration, his idola- 1. How true is that word, The law of the Lord is trous father intending thereby to initiate him early perfect! In a small compass, and in a most minute into the service of this demon. See the note on detail, it comprises every thing tha is calculated to chapter xx. 2.

instruct, direct, convince, correct, and fortify the mind Verse 22. With mankind] This abominable crime, of man. Whatever has a tendency to corrupt or infrequent among the Greeks and Romans as well as the jure man, that it forbids ; whatever is calculated to Canaanites, may be punished with death in this country. comfort him, promote and secure his best interests,

Verse 23. With any beast) This abomination is that it commands. It takes him in all possible states, also punishable with death by the laws of this country. views him in all connections, and provides for his pre

Any woman stand before a beast] That this was sent and eternal happiness. often done in Egypt there can be no doubt ; and we 2: 'As the human soul is polluted and tends to polhave already seen, from the testimony of Herodotus, lution, the great doctrine of the law is holiness to the that a fact of this kind actually took place while he was Lord: this it keeps invariably in view in all its comin Egypt. See the note on chap. xvii.7, and xx. 16. mands, precepts, ordinances, rites, and ceremonies.

Verse 25. The land itself vomileth out her inhabit. And how forcibly in all these does it say, Thou shalt ants.] This is a very nervous prosopopæia or per- love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with sonification ; a figure by which any part of inanimate all thy soul, and with all thy mind, and with all thy nature may be represented as possessing the passions strength; and thy neighbour as thyself! This is the and reason of man. Here the land is represented as prominent doctrine of the preceding chapter; and this an intelligent being, with a deep and refined sense of shall be fulfilled in all them who believe, for Christ is Various ordinances tending


to promote holiness. the end of the law for righteousness to them that be-schoolmaster to bring thee to Christ, that thou mayest lieve. Reader, magnify God for his law, for by it is be justified by faith ; and that the righteousness of the knowledge of sin; and magnify him for his Gospel, the law may be fulfilled in thee, and that thou mayest for by this is the cure of sin. Let the law be thy I walk, not after the flesh, but after the Spirit.


B. C. 1490.


Exhortations to holiness, and a repetition of various laws, 1, 2. Duty to parents, and observance of the

Sabbath, 3. Against idolatry, 4. Concerning peace-offerings, 5-8. The gleanings of the harvest and
vintage to be left for the poor, 9, 10. 'Against stealing and lying, 11; false swearing, 12 ; defrauding the
hireling, 13. Laws in behalf of the deaf and the blind, 14. Against respect of persons in judgment,
15; tale bearing, 16 ; hatred and uncharitableness, 17 ; revenge, 18 ; unlawful mixtures in cattle, seed,
and garments, 19, Laws relative to the bondmaid that is betrothed, 20–22. The fruit of the trees of
the land not to be eaten for the first three years, 23 ; but this is lawful in the fourth and fifth years, 24,
25. Against eating of blood, and using incantations, 26 ; superstitious' cutting of the hair, 27; and
cutting of the flesh in the limes of mourning, 28; prostitution, 29. Sabbaths to be reverenced, 30.
Against consulting those who are wizards, and have familiar spirits, 31, Respect must be shown to the
aged, 32. The stranger shall not be oppressed, 33, 34. They shall keep just measures, weights, and
balances, 35, 36. Conclusion, 37.
A. M. 2514. AND the Lord spake unto 8 Therefore every one that A. M. 2514.

B. C. 1490.
An. Exod. Isr. 2.
Moses, saying,

eateth it shall bear his iniquity, An. Exod. Isr. 2. Abib or Nisan. 2 Speak unto all the congrega- because he

hath profaned the Abib or Nisan. tion of the children of Israel, and say unto hallowed thing of the LORD: and that

• Ye shall be holý: for I the LORD soul shall be cụt off from among his your God am holy.

people. 3 1 Ye shall fear every man his mother, and 9 And s when ye reap the harvest of your his father, and keep my Sabbaths : I am the land, thou shalt not wholly reap the corners LORD your God.

of thy field, neither shalt thou gather the 4 • Turn ye not unto idols, nor make to gleanings of the harvest. yoursolves molten gods: I am the LORD 10 And thou shalt not glean thy vineyard,

neither shalt thou gather every grape of thy 5 And 'if ye offer a sacrifice of peace-offer- vineyard ; thou shalt leave them for the poor ings unto the Lord, ye shall offer it at your and stranger: I am the LORD your God. own will.

11 + Ye shall not steal, neither deal falsely, 6 It shall be eaten the same day ye offer it, i neither lie one to another. and on the morrow : and if aught remain until 12. And ye shall not. I swear by my name the third day, it shall be burnt in the fire. falsely, ' neither shalt thou profane the name

7 And if it be eaten at all on the third day, of thy God: I am the LORD. it is abominable ; it shall not be accepted. 13 - Thou shalt not defraud thy neighbour,

a Chap. xi. 44 ; xx. 7, 26; 1 Pet. i. 16.- b Exod. xx. 12. Ruth ii. 15, 16. LÀ Exod. xx. 15: xxii. 1, 7, 10; Deut. v. 19. e Exod. xx. 8; xxxi. 13. - Exod. xx. 4; chap. xxvi. 1; 1 Cor. Chap: vi. 2; Eph. iv. 25 ; Col. iii. 9. * Exod. x. 7; chap. x. 14; 1 John v. 21. Exod. xxxiv. 17; Deut. 'xxvii. 15. vi. 3; Deut. v. 11; Matt. v. 33, James v. 12.— Chap. xvui. 'Chap. vii. 16.—5 Chap. xxii. 22 ; Deut. xxiv, 19, 20, 21; 21. m Ecclus. x. 6; Mark x. 19; 1 Thess. iv. 6. NOTES ON CHAP. XIX.

Verse 9. When ye reap the harvest] Liberty for Verse 3. Ye shall fear every man his mother, &c.] the poor to glean both the corn-fields and vineyards Ye shall have the profoundest reverence and respeet was a Divine institution among the Jews ; for the for them. See the notes on Gen. xlvii. 12, and on whole of the Mosaic dispensation, like the Christian, Exod. xx. 8, 12.

breathed love to God and benevolence to man. The Verse 4. Turn ye not unto idols] osobe elilim, poor in Judea were to live by gleanings from the literally nothings; and to this St. Paul seems to allude corn-fields and vineyards. To the honour of the pobi Cor. viii. 4, where he says, We know that an idol lic and charitable spirit of the English, this merciful is NOTHING in the world.

law is in general as much attended to as if it had been Verse 5. Peace-offerings) . See the notes at the incorporated with the Gospel. conclusion of chap. vii.

Verse 11. Ye shall not steal, fc.) See the notes Verse 7. If it be eatenon the third day] See on Exod. xx. the note on chap. vii. 15.

Verse 13. The wages shall not abide with thee all

your God.

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B. C. 1490.

A. M. 2514.
B. C. 1490.

Abib or Nisan.

Abib or Nisan.

Against respect of persons,


tale-bearing, hatred, fc. neither rob him : n the wages of thou stand against the blood of An. Exod. Isr. 2. him that is hired shall not abide thy neighbour: I am the Lord. An. Exod. Isr. 2.

with thee all night until the 17 Thou shalt not hate thy morning

brother in thine heart : a thou shalt in


wise 14 Thou shalt not curse the deaf, nor put a rebuke thy neighbour, and not suffer sin stumbling-block before the blind, but shalt upon him. ► fear thy God: I am the LORD.

18 w Thou shalt not avenge, nor bear any 15 · Ye shall do no unrighteousness in grudge against the children of thy people, judgment : thou shalt not respect the person but thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself: of the poor, nor honour the person of the I am the LORD. mighty; but in righteousness shalt thou judge. 19 Ye shall keep my statutes. Thou shalt thy neighbour.

not let thy cattle gender with a diverse kind : 16 - Thou shalt not go up and down as a y thou shalt not sow thy field with mingled tale-bearer among thy people; neither shalt seed : ? neither shall- a garment mingled of

Deut. xxiv. 14, 15; Mal. iii. 5; Tob. iv. 14; James v. 4. u Ecclus. xix. 13; Matt. xviii. 15; Luke. xvii.3; Gal. vi. 1; • Deut. xxvii. 18; Rom. xiv. 13. Ver. 32 ; chap. xxv. 17; Eph. v. 11; 1 Tim. v. 20; 2 Tim. iv. 2; Tit. i. 13; ii. 15. Gen. xlii. 18; Eccles. v. 7; 1 Pet. ii. 17. -9 Exod. xxiii. 2,3; Or, that thou bear not sin for him ; see Rom. i. 32; 1 Cor. v. 2; Deut. i. 17; xvi, 19; xxvii. 19; Psa. Ixxxii. 2; Prov. xxiv. 23; 1 Tim. v. 22; 2 John 11.- -"2 Sam. xii. 22; Prov. xx. James ii. 9. —Exod. xxiii. 1 ; Psa. xv. 3; 1. 20; Prov. xi. 13; 22; Rom. xii. 17, 19; Gal. v. 20; Eph. iv. 31; 1 Pet. ii. 1; xx. 19; Ezek. xxii. 9. Exodi xxiii. 1,7; 1 Kings xxi. 13; James v. 9- * Matt. v. 43; xxii. 39; Rom. xiii. 9; Gal. Matt. xxvi. 60, 61; xxvii. 4.- 1 John ii. 9, 11; iii. 15. v. 14; James ir. 8. — Deut. xxii. 9, 10. - Deut. xxii. ll.

night] For this plain reason, it is the support of the or know him to be addicted to any thing by which the man's life and family, and they need to expend it as safety of his soul is endangered, thou shalt mildly and fast as it is earned.

affectionately reprove him, and by no means permit Verse 14. Thou shalt not curse the deaf] Or speak him to go on without counsel and advice in a way that evil of him, because he cannot hear, and so cannot is leading him to perdition. In a multitude of cases vindicate his own character.

timely reproof has been the means of saving the soul. Nor put a stumbling-block before the blind) He Speak to him privately if possible; if not, write to who is capable of doing this, must have a heart cased him in such a way that himself alone shall see it. with cruelty. The spirit and design of these precepts Verse 19. Gender with a diverse kind] These preare, that no man shall in any case take advantage of cepts taken. literally seem to imply that they should the ignorance, simplicity, or inexperience of his neigh- not permit the horse and the she-ass, nor the he-ass bour, but in all things do to his neighbour as he would, and the cow, (as they do in the East,) to couple toon a change of circunstances, that his neighbour should gether; nor sow different kinds of seeds in the same do to him.

field or garden; nor have garments of silk and woolVerse 16. Thou shalt not go up and down as a tale- len, cotton and silk, linen and wool, &c. And if all bearer] 5237 rachil signifies a trader, a pedlar, and is. these were forbidden, there must have been some moral here applied to the person who' travels about dealing reason for the prohibitions, because domestic economy in scandal and calumny, getting the secrets of every required several of these mixtures, especially those person and family, and retailing them wherever he which relate to seeds and clothing. With respect to goes. A more despicable character exists not: such heterogeneous mixtures among cattle, there is somea person is a pest to society, and should be exiled from thing very unnatural in it, and it was probably forbidthe habitations of men.

den to prevent excitements to such unnatural lusts as Neither shalt thou stand against the blood, &c.] those condemned in the preceding chapter, ver. 22, Thou shalt not be a false witness, because by such tes- 23. As to seeds, in many cases it would be very im-. timony the blood-the life of an innocent man may proper to sow different kinds in the same plot of ground. be endangered.

It would be improvident to sow oats and wheat together: Verse 17. Thou shalt not hate thy brother] Thou the latter would be injured, the former ruined. The shalt not only not do him any kind of evil, but thou turnip and carrot would not succeed conjointly, where shalt harbour no hatred in thy heart towards him. On either of them separately would prosper and yield a the contrary, thou shall love him as thyself; ver. 18. good crop; so we may say of many other kinds of Many persons suppose, from misunderstanding our seeds; and if this be all that is intended, the counsels Lord's words, John xiiii 34, A new commandment give are prudential agricultural maxims. As to different I unto you, that ye, love one another, &e., that loving kinds of garments, such as the linsey woolsey, the proour neighbour as ourselves was first instituted under hibition here might be intended as much against pride the Gospel. This verse shows the opinion to be un- and vanity as any thing else ; for it is certain that both founded: but to love another as Christ has loved' us, these articles may be so manufactured in conjunction i. e., to lay down our lives for each other, is certainly as to minister to pride, though in general the linsey a new commandment; we have it simply on the au- woolsey or drugget is the clothing of the poor. But thority of Jesus Christ alone.

we really do not know what the original word voyo And not suffer sin upon him.] If thou see him sin, shaatnez, which we translate linen and woollen, means.

A. M. 2514.
B. C. 1490.

A. M. 2514.

B. C. 1490, An. Exod. Iss.

Abib or Nisan.

The fruit of a young


: tree not to be eaten. linen and woollen come upon done ; and the sin which he hath An. Exod. Isr. 2. thee.

done shall be forgiven him. 20 And whosoever lieth carnally 23 And when ye shall come into Abib or Nisan. with a woman that is a bondmaid, a betrothed the land, and shall have planted all manner of to a husband, 5 and not at all redeemed, nor trees for food, then ye shall count the fruit therefreedom given her; - she shall be d scourged : of as uncircumcised : three years shall it be as they shall not be put to death, because she uncircumcised unto you: it shall not be eaten of: was not free.

24 But in the fourth year all the fruit thereof 21 And he shall bring his trespass-offering shall be holy, 5 to praise the Lord withal. unto the Lord, unto the door of the taberna- 25 And in the fifth year shall ye eat of the cle of the congregation, even a ram for a tres- fruit thereof, that it may yield unto you the pass-offering

increase thereof : I am the LORD your God.. 22. And the priest shall make an alonement 26 h Ye shall not eat any thing with the for him with the ram of the trespass-offering blood ; i neither shall ye use enchantment, nor before the LORD, for his sin which he hath observe times.

a Or, abused by any.- - Heb. reproached by or for man. & Deut. xii. 17, 18; Prov. iii. 9. -- Chap: xvii. 10, đc. ; c Or, they.

d Heb. there shall be a scourging. • Chap. v. 15; Deut. xii. 23. Deut. xviii. 10, 11, 14; 1 Sain. xv. 23 ; vi. 6. Heb. holiness of praises to the LORD.

2 Kings xvii. 17; xxi. 6 ; 2 Chron. xxxiii. 6; Mal. iii. 5.

it is true that in Deut. xxii. 11, where it is again used, Something of the same kind seems to have existed it seems to be explained by the words immediately fol. in the patriarchal times ; witness the coat of many lowing, Thou shalt not wear a garment of divers sorts, colours made by Jacob- for his son Joseph. See the as of linen and woollen together ; but this may as well note on Gen. xxxvii. 3. Concerning these different refer to a garment made up of a sort of patch-work mixturės much may be seen in the Mishna, Tract. differently coloured and arranged for pride and for Kilaim, and in Ainsworth, and Calmet on this place. show, A folly of this kind prevailed anciently in this Verse 20. A woman that is a hondmaid) Had she very land, and I shall give a proof of it, taken from a been free, the law required that she should be put to sermon against luxury in dress, composed in the four- death ; (see Deut. xxii. 24;) but as she was a slave, she teenth century.

is supposed to have less self-command, and therefore “As to the first sinne in superfluitie of clothing, soche less guilt: but as it is taken for granted she did that maketh it so dere, to the harme of the peple, nat not make resistance, or did consent, she is to be only the cost of enbraudering, the disguised endenting, scourged, and the man is to bring a-ram for a tresor barring, ounding paling, winding or bending and sem- pass-offering. blable wast of clothe 'in vanite. But there is also the Verse 23. Three years shall it be as uncircumcised] costlewe furring in their gounes, so moche pounsing of I see no great reason to seek for mystical meanings chesel, to make holes ; so moche dagging with sheres in this prohibition. The fruit of a young tree cannot foorth ; with the superfluitie in length of the forsaied. be good ; for not having arrived at a state of maturity, gounes,—to grete dammage of pore folke. And more the juices cannot be sufficiently elaborated to produce ouer—they shewe throughe disguising, in departing fruit 'excellent in its kind. The Israelites are comof ther hosen in white and red, semeth that halfe ther manded not to eat of the fruit of a tree till the fifth members were slain.—They departé -ther hosen into year after its planting : in the three first years the fruit other colours, as is white and blewe, or white and blacke, is unwholesome ; in the fourth year the fruit is holy, or blacke and red, and so forth ; than semeth it as by it belongs to God, and should be consecrated to him, variaunce of colour, that the halfe part of ther mem- ver. 24 ; and in the fifth year and afterward the fruit bers ben corrupt by the fire of Saint Anthony, or by may be employed for common use, ver. 25. canker, or other suche mischaunce." The Person's Verse 26. Neither shall ye use enchantment) XS Tale, in Chaucer, p. 198. · Urry's edit. The reader Unin lo thenachashu. Conjecture itself can do little will pardon the antiquated spelling.

towards a proper-explanation of the terms used in this " What could exhibit,” says Dr, Henry,

und nachash in Gen. iii. I we translate serfantastical appearance than an English beau of the pent, and with very little propriety ;- but though the 14th century? He wore long pointed shoes, fastened word may not signify à serpent in that place, it has to his knees by gold or silver chains; hose of one that signification in others. Possibly, therefore, the colour on the one leg, and of another colour on the superstition here prohibited may be what the Greeks other ; short breeches which did reach to the middle called Ophiomanteia, or divination by serpents. of his thighs ; a coat the one half white, the other Nor observe times.] wynx 1 velo teonenu, ye shall half black or blue; a long beard ; a silk hood buttoned not divine by clouds, which was also a superstition under his chin, embroidered with grotesque figures of much in practice among the heathens, as well as divianimals, dancing men, &c., and sometimes ornamented nation by the flight of birds.. What these prohibitions with gold and precious stones.” This dress was the may particularly refer to, we know not. See the notes height of the mode in the reign of King Edward III. on Gen, xli. 8.

"a more


I make any

Superstitious usages

to be avoided. 27 * Ye shall not round the 28 Ye shall not An. Exod. Isr. 2. corners of your heads, neither cuttings in your flesh for the An. Exod. Isr. 2.

shalt thou mar the corners of dead, nor print any marks upon thy beard.

you: I am the LORD.

A. M. 2514.
B. C. 1490.

A.M. 2514.
B. C. 1490.

Abib or Nisan.

Abib or Nisan.

* Chap. xxi. 5; Jer. ix. 26 ; xlviii. 37 ; Isa, xv. 2.

Chap. xxi. 5; Deut. xiv. 1; Jer. xvi. 6; xlviii. 37.


Verse 27. Ye shall not round the corners of your

Nor made her sacred to the shades below heads) This and the following verse evidently refer This offering to the infernal gods I bear; to customs which must have existed among the Egyp- Thus while she spoke, she cut the fatal hair. tians when the Israelites sojourned in Egypt; and

DRYDEN. what they were it is now difficult, even with any pro

If the hair was rounded, and dedicated for purposes bability, to conjecture. Herodotus observes that the of this kind, it will at once account for the prohibition Arabs shave or cut their hair round, in honour of Bac- in this verse. chus, who, they say, had his hair cut in this way, lib.

The corners of thy' beard.) Probably meaning the i., cap. 8. He says also that the Macians, a people hair of the cheek that connects the hair of the head of Libya, cut their hair round, so as to leave a tuft with the beard. This was no doubt cut in some pecuon the top of the head, lib. iv., cap. 175. In this man liar manner for the superstitious purposes mentioned ner the Chinese cut their hair to the present day. above. Several of our own countrymen wear this This might have been in honour of some idol, and said hair in a curious form; for what purposes they therefore forbidden to the Israelites.

know best : we cannot say precisely that it is the anThe hair was much used in divination among the cient Egyptian custom revived. From the images ancients, and for purposes of religious superstition and paintings which remain of the ancient Egyptians, among the Greeks; and particularly about the time, of

we find that they were accustomed to shave the whole the giving of this law, as this is supposed to have been hair off their face, except merely that upon the chin, the era of the Trojan war. We learn from Homer which last they cut off only in times of mourning. that it was customary for parents to dedicate the hair

Verse 28. Any cullings in your flesh for the dead] of their children to some god; which, when they came That the ancients were very violent in their grief, to manhood, they cut off and consecrated to the deity: tearing the hair and face, beating the breast, &c., is Achilles, at the funeral of Patroclus, cut off his golden well known. Virgil represents the sister of Dido locks which his father had dedicated to the river god is tearing her face with her nails, and beating her Sperchius, and threw them into the flood :

breast with her fists." Στας απανευθε πυρης ξανθην απεκειρατο χαιτην,


Unguibus ora soror fædans, et pectora pugnis.” Την ρα Σπερχειω ποταμω τρεφε τηλεθοωσαν

Æn., 1. iv., ver. 672. Οχθησας δ' αρα ειπεν, ιδων επι οινοπα ποντον». Σπερχει, αλλως σοι γε πατηρ ηρησατο Πηλευς. κ. τ. λ. Nor print any marks upon you] It was a very an

Iliad, l. xxiii., ver. 142, &c. cient and a very general custom to carry marks on the But great Achilles stands apárt in prayer,

body in honour of the object of their worship.' All

the castes of the Hindoos bear on their foreheads or And from his head divides the yellow hair,

elsewhere'what are called the sectarian marks, which "Those curling locks which from his youth he vowed, And sacred threw to Sperchius' honoured flood.

distinguish them, not only in a civil but also in a reliThen sighing, to the deep his looks he cast,

gious point of view, from each other. And rolled his eyes around the watery waste.

Most of the barbarous nations lately discovered Sperchius! whose waves, in mazy errors lost,

have their faces, arms, breasts, &c., curiously carved

or tatooed, probably for superstitious purposes. AnDelightful roll along my native.coast !

cient writers abound with accounts of marks made on To whom we vainly vowed, at our return,

the face, arms, &c., in honour of different idols; and These locks to fall, and hecatombs to burn

to this the inspired penman alludes, Rev. xiii. 16, 17; So vowed my father, but he vowed in vain,

xiv. 9, 11 ; xv. 2 ; xvi. 2 ; xix. 20 ; xx. 4, where false No more Achilles sees bis native plain ; In that vain hope these hairs no longer grow ;

worshippers are represented as receiving in their hands

and in their forehead the marks of the beast. These Patroclus bears them to the shades below. Pope.

were called oriyara stigmata among the Greeks, From Virgil we learn that the topmost lock of hair and to these St. Paul refers when he says, I bear about was dedicated to the infernal gods; see his account in my body ihe marks (stigmata) of the Lord Jesus ; of the death of Dido :

Gal vi. 17. I have seen several cases where per. “Nondum illi flavum Proserpina vertice crinem

sons have got the figure of the cross, the Virgin Mary,

&c., made on their arms, breasts, &c., the skin being Abstulerat, Stygioque caput damnaverat orco-Hunc ego Diti

first punctured, and then a blue colouring matter rub

bed in, which is never afterward effaced. All these Sacrum jussa fero; teque isto corpore solvo.

were done for superstitious-purposes, and to such things Sic ait, et dextra crinem secal.Æn., 1. iv., ver. 698.

probably the prohibition in this verse refers. Calmet The sisters had not cut the topmost hair,

on this verse, gives several examples. See also MariWhich Proserpine and they can only know, ner's Tonga Islands, vol. i., p. 311-313.

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