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* Ver. 6.

Laws concerning the

CHAP. XXI.

marriages of the priest A. M. 2514. put on the garments, m shall not 16 And the LORD spake unto A. M. 2514. B. C. 1490.

B. C. 1490. An. Exod. Isr. 2. uncover his head, nor rend his Moses, saying,

An. Exod. Isr. 2. Abib or Nisan.

Abib or Nisan. clothes;

17 Speak unto Aaron, saying, 11 Neither shall, he go in to any dead Whosoever he be of thy seed in their generabody, nor defile himself for his father, or for tions that hath any blemish, let him not sap-, his mother;

proach to offer the bread of his God. 12 · Neither shall he go out of the sanctuary, 18 For whatsoever man he be that hath a nor profane the sanctuary of his God; for blemish, be shall not approach : a blind man, p the crown of the anointing oil of his God is. or a lame, or he that hath a flat nose, or any upon him: I am the LORD.

thing "superfluous; 13 And a he shall take a wife in her virginity. 19 Or a man that is broken-footed, or broken

14. A widow, or a divorced woman, or pro- handed; fane, or a harlot, these shall he not take : 20 Or crook-backed, or a dwarf, or that hath but he shall take a virgin of his own people a blemish in his eye, or be scurvy, or scabbed, to wife.

w hath his stones broken : 15. Neither shall he profane his seed among 21 No man that hath a blemish, of the seed his people : for " I the Lord do sanctify him. of Aaron the priest, shall come nigh to offer Chap. x. 6. a Num. xix. 14 : see ver. 1, 2. Lo Chap. x.

Chap. x. 3; Num. xvi. 5; Psa. Ixiv. 4. Or, food; chap. 7.-—- Exod. xxviii. 36 ; chap. viii. 9, 12, 30. -9 Ver. 7; i. 11. u Chap. xxii. 23. - Or, too slender.- -w Deut. Ezek. xliv. 22.-- Ver. 8.

xxiii. 1. see the note on Gen. xiv. 18. As the chief or high represents. A deformed person, though consummate priest was a representative of our blessed Lord, there in diplomatic wisdom, would never be employed as an fore he was required to be especially holy; and he is ambassador by any enlightened court, if any fit person, represented as God's king among the people. unblemished, could possibly be procured.

Verse. 12. The crown of the anointing oilis upon Verse 18, A blind man] That is, in one eye ; for him] By his office the priest represented Christ in his he that was utterly blind could not possibly be employed sacrificial character;. by his anointing, the prophetic in such a service. A Nat' nose, like that of an ape; influence; and by the crown, the regal dignity of our so the best versions. Any thing superfluous, such as Lord.

six fingers, six toes, &c. Verse 13. · He shall take a wife in her virginity.] Verse 19: Broken-footed, or broken-handed] Club

bina bethuleyha. This is a full proof that obina footed, bandy.-legged, &c.; or having the ankle, wrist, bethulah is the proper Hebrew term for a virgin; from or fingers dislocated. the emphatic root sa bathal, to separate ; because -Verse 20. Crook-backed] Hunch-backed or gibbous. such a person was in her separate state, and had never A dwarf, p7 dak, a person too short or too thin, so as been in any way united to man.

to be either particularly observable, or ridiculous in his Verse 17. Whosoever hath any blemish, let him appearance. ;not approach to offer the bread of his God.) Never A blemish in his eye) A protuberance on the eye, was a wiser, a more rational, and a more expedient law observable spots or suffusions. enacted relative to sacred matters. The man who Scurvy, or scabbed] A bad habit of body, evidenced ministers in holy things, who professes to be the inter- by scorbutic or scrofulous affections. preter of the will of God, should have nothing in his Slones broken] Is ruptured; an infirmity which person nor in his manner which cannot contribute to would render him incapable of fulfilling the duties of render him respectable in the eyes of those to whom his office, which might be often very fatiguing. he ministers. If, on the contrary, he has any personal In the above list of blemishes we meet with some defect, any thing that may render him contemptible or that might render the priest contemptible in the eyes despicable, his usefulness will be greatly injured, if not of men, and be the means of leading them, not only entirely prevented. If however a man have received to despise the man, but to despise the ministry itself; any damage in the work of God, by persecution or and we meet with others that would be a very great otherwise, his scars are honourable, and will add to his impediment in the discharge of his ministerial duties, respectability. But if he be received into the minis- and therefore any person thus blemished is by this law try with any of the blemishes specified bere, he never precluded from the ministry. will and never can have that respect which is essen- The blemishes here enumerated have been consitially necessary to secure his usefulness. Let no man dered by some in an allegorical point of view, as if say this is a part of the Mosaic law, and we are not only referring to the necessity of moral purity ; but bound by it. It is an eternal law, founded on reason, although holiness of heart and righteousness of life be propriety, common sense, and absolute necessity. The essentially necessary in a minister of God, yet an abpriest, the prophet, the Christian minister, is the represence of the defects mentioned above is, I fully believe, sentative of Jesus Christ ; let nothing in his person, what God intends here, and for the reasons too which carriage, or doctrine, be unworthy of the personage he have been already advanced. It must however be

B. .

None to be made a priest

LEVITICUS.

that has any blemish. A. M. 2514. the offerings of the LORD madenor come nigh unto the altar, A. M. 2514.

B. C. 1490. An Exod. Isr: 2. by fire : he hath a blemish; he because he hath a blemish; that An. Exod. Isr. 2. Abib-or Nisan. shall not come nigh to offer the a he profane not my sanctuaries :

Abib or Nisan. bread of his Gad.

for I the LORD do sanctify them. 22 He shall eat the bread of his God, both 24 And Moses told it. unto Aaron, and of the most holy, and of the 2 holy.

to his sons, and unto all the children of 23 Only he shall not go in unto the veil, Israel.

- Mal. č. 1 7;

y Chap. ii. 3, 10; vi. 17, 29 ; vii. 1; xxiv. 9; Num. xvjii. 9.

2 Chap. xxii. 10, 11, 12; Num. xviii. 19.

a Ver. 12, chap. xv. 21; Ezek. xliv. 9-14.

Col. iv. 17.; 2 Tim. ii. 2.

granted, that there have been some eminent divines Formerly the Church of England was very cautious who have been deformed; and some with certain blem- in admitting to her ministry those who had gross perishes have been employed in the Christian ministry, sonal defects ; but now we find the 'hump-backed, the and have been useful. The Mosaic rule, however, will jolt-headed, bandy-legged, club-footed, one-eyed, &c., admit of but few exceptions, when even examined ac- priests even of her high places. Why do our prelates cording to the more extended interpretation of the ordain- such? Christian system.

· Verse 23. He shall not go in unto the veil] The “ The Hebrews say there are in all 120 blemishes priest with a blemish was not permitted to enter into which disable the priest-eight in the head, two in the the holy of holies, nor to burn incense, nor to offer the neck, nine in the ears, five in the brows, seven in the shew-bread, nor to light the golden candlestick, &c. eyelids, nineteen in the eyes, nine in the nose, nine in In short, he was not permitted to perform any essenthe mouth, three in the belly, three in the back, seven tial function of the priesthood. in the hands, sixteen in the secrets, eight in any part of the body, eight in the skin, and seven in the strength 1. The great perfection required in the Jewish high and in the breath.”—Ainsworth. In ancient times, priest was intended principally to point out the perfeceven among heathens, persons of the most respectable tion of that priesthood of which the Jewish was only appearance were appointed to the priesthood ; and the the type. And yet, as the apostle assures us, that law emperor, both among the ancient Greeks and Romans, made nothing ,perfeet, but pointed out that most perfect was both king and priest. It is reported of Metellus, priesthood and sacrifice by which we draw near 10 that, having lost an eye in endeavouring to save the God. Palladium from the flames, when the temple of Vesta 2. As none who had a blemish could enter into the was on fire, he was denied the priesthood, though he holy of holies, and this holy of holies was a type of had rendered such an excellent piece of service to the the kingdom of God, so nothing that is defiled can enpublic; yet the public opinion was that a priest who ter into heaven; for he gave himself for his Church was defective in any member was to be avoided as that he might purify it to himself, and present it at last ominous.-See Dodd. “At Elis, in Greece, the judges before the presence of the Divine glory having neither chose the finest looking man to carry the sacred ves- spot nor wrinkle, nor any such thing; Eph. V. 27; a sels of the deity; he that was next to him in beauty passage which evidently refers to the directions in the and elegance led the or; and the third in personal preceding verse. Reader, art thou become a king and beauty, &c., carried the garlands, ribbons, wine, and priest unto God and the Lamb ? and hast thou obtainthe other matters used for the sacrifice."— Athen. ed, or art thou earnestly seeking, that holiness without Deipnosoph., l. xiü., c. 2.

which thou canst not'see the kingdom of heaven?

CHAPTER XXII.

of the uncleanness of the priests; by which they were prevented from ministering in holy things, 1-5. How

they should be cleansed, 6, 7. The priest must not eat of any animal that had died of itself, or was torn by wild beasts, but must keep God's ordinances, 8, 9. No stranger, sojourner, nor hired servant shall eat of the ho'y things, 10. A servant bought with money may eat of them, 11. Who of the priest's family may not eat of them, 12, 13.. Of improper persons who partake of the holy things unknowingly, 14-16. Freewill-offerings, and sacrifices in general, must be without blemish, 17-25. The age at which different animals were to be offered to God, 26, 27. No animal and its young shall be offered on the same day, 28. How the sacrifice of thanksgiving was to be offered, 29, 30. All God's testimonies to be observed, and the reason, 31-33.

580

a

An. Exoil. Isr. 2.
Abib or Nisan.

A. M. 2514.

B. C. 1490. An. Exod. Isr. 2. Abib or Nisan.

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Laws relating to the

CHAP. XXII.

uncleanness of the priests. 8. M. 125.463 " AND the Lord spake unto of the holy things, unless he Moses, saying,

wash his flesh with water.
2 Speak unto Aaron and to his ng And when the sun is down,
sons, that they separate themselves from the he shall be clean, and shall afterward eat of
holy things of the children of Israel, and that the holy things; because it is his food.
they profane not my holy name in those things 8 • That which dieth of itself, or is torn with
which they hallow unto me: I am the LORD. beasts, he shall not eat to defile himself there-

3 Say unto them, Whosoever he be of all your with : I am the Lord.
seed, among your generations, that goeth unto 9 They shall therefore keep mine ordinance,
the holy things which the children of Israel P lest they bear sin for it, and die therefore, if
hallow unto the LORD, d having his unclean- they profane it: I the LORD do sanctify them.
ness upon him, that soul shall be cut off from 10 4 There shall no stranger eat of the holy
my presence: I am the LORD.

thing : á sojourner of the priest, or a hired
4 What man soever of the seed of Aaron is servant, shall not eat of the holy thing.
a leper, or hath • a running issue ; he shall 11 But if the priest buy any soul' with his
not eat of the holy things 5 until he be clean. money, he shall eat of it, and he that is born
And whoso toucheth-any thing that is unclean in his house ; they shall eat of his meat.
by the dead, or ia man whose seed goeth 12 If the priest's daughter also be married
from him ;

unto ' a stranger, she may not eat of an offer5 Or whosoever toucheth any creeping ing of the holy things. thing, whereby he may be made unclean, or 13 But if the priest's: daughter be a widow, la man of whom he may take uncleanness, or divorced, and have no child, and is a whatsoever uncleanness he hath;

turned unto her father's house, as in her 6 The soul which hath touched any such youth, she shall eat of her father's meat: but shall be unclean until even, and shall not eat there shall no stranger eat thereof.

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a Num. vi. 3.- - Chap. xviii. 21. - Exod. xxviii. 38; 22; Num. xviii. 11, 13. LO Exod. xxii. 31 chap. xvii. 15; Num. xviii. 32; Deut. xv. 19.- Chap. vii. 20.- Chap. xv. Ezek. xliv. 31.-p Exod. xxviii. 43; Num. xviii. 22, 32. 2.-Heb. running of the reins.- -5 Chap. xiv. 2; xv. 13. 4 See 1 Sam. xxi. 6. -- Heb. with the purchase of his money. - Num. xix. 11, 22. — Chap. xv. 16:—* Chap. xi. 24, 43, 44. Num. xviii. 11, 13. —Heb. a man a stranger.- u Gen. 1 Chap. xv. 7, 19.- · Chap. xv. 5; Heb. x. 22. -< Chap. xxi. xxxvüi. 11.-Chap. x. 14; Num. xviii. 11, 19.

NOTES ON CHAP. XXII.

selves' even with the abominations of the heathen; but Verse 2. Speak unto Aaron and to his sons, that they the servant of slave that was bought with money, ver. separate themselves] The same subject is continued 10, might eat of these things, because he was the proin this chapter as in the preceding, with this addition, perty of the master for ever. that besides the perfection of the priests, it was indis- We see that it was lawful, under the Mosaic ecopensably necessary that the sacrifices also should be nomy, to have slaves under certain restrictions ; but perfect. In the service of God, according to the these were taken from among the heathen, and inlaw, neither an imperfect offering nor an imperfect structed in the true religion : hence we find, as in the offerer could be admitted. What need then of. a above case, that they were reckoned as a part of the mediator between a holy God and sinful men ! priest's own family, and treated as such. They cerAnd can we expect that any of our services, how- tainly had privileges which did not extend either to ever sincere and well-intentioned, can be accepted, sojourners or to hired servants ; therefore their situaunless offered on that living Altar that sanctifies the tion was incomparably better than the situation of the gift?

slaves under different European governments, of whose Verse 4. Is a leper, or hath a running issue). See souls their pitiless possessors in general take no care, the case of the leper treated at large in the notes on while they themselves venture to profess the Christian chapters xiii. and xiv. ; and for other uncleannesses, religion, and quote the Mosaic law in vindication of see the notes on chap. xv.

their system of slavery. How preposterous is such Verse 10. There shall no stranger eat of the holy conduct! and how intolerable ! thing) For the meaning of the word stranger, see Verse 13. But if the priest's daughter be a widow the note on Exod. xii. 43. The Jews suppose that and is returned unto her father's house] A widow in stranger here means one who has had his ear pierced, Bengal not unfrequently returns to her father's house (see the note on Exod. xxi. 6,) and that sojourner on the death of her husband : the union betwixt her and means a servant who is to go free on the Sabbatical her own family is never so dissolved as among Euroyear. Neither of these was permitted to eat of the pean nations. Thousands of widows in Bengal, whose holy things, because they were not properly members husbands die before the consummation of marriage, of the priest's family, and might go out and defile them- never leave their parents.—WARD.

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A. M. 2514.
B. C. 1490.

B. C. 1490.

f

Abib or Nisan.

All offerings and sacrifices

LEVITICUS.

must be without blemish. 14 * And if a man eat of the his vow, or a freewill-offering in A. M. 2514. An. Exod. Isr. 2, holy thing unwittingly, then he beeves or sheep, it shall be An. Exod. ist. 2.

shall put the fifth part thereof perfect to be accepted; there abit or Nisan unto it, and shall give it unto the priest with shall be no blemish therein. the holy thing.

22 6 Blind, or broken, or maimed, or having 15 And they shall not profane the holy a wen, or scurvy, or scabbed, ye shall not offer things of the children of Israel, which they these unto the LORD, nor make an offering offer unto the LORD;

by fire of them upon the altar unto the LORD. 16 Or y suffer them ? to bear the iniquity of 23 Either a bullock or a'i lamb that hath trespass, when they eat their holy things : for any thing * superfluous or lacking in his parts, I the Lord do sanctify them.

that mayest thou offer for a freewill-offering; 17 And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, but for a yow it shall not be accepted.

18 Speak unto Aaron, and to his sons, and 24 Ye shall not offer unto the Lord that unto all the children of Israel, and say unto which is bruised, or crushed, or broken, or them, “Whatsgever he be of the house of cut; neither shall ye make any offering thereof Israel, or of the strangers in Israel, that will in your land. offer his oblation for all his vows, and for all 25 Neither from a stranger's hand shall ye his freewill-offerings, which they: 'will offer offer m the bread of your God of any of these ; unto the Lord for a burnt-offering;

because their corruption is in them, and 19 • Ye shall offer, at your own will, a male blemishes be in them; they shall not be acwithout blemish of the beeves, of the sheep, cepted for you. or of the goals.

26 And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, 20 - But whatsoever hath a blemish, that 27 . When a bullock, or a sheep, or a goat, shall ye not offer : for'it shall not be accepta- is brought forth, then it shall be seven days

under the dam ; and from the eighth day and 21 And whosoever offereth a sacrifice of thenceforth it shall be accepted for an offering peace-offerings unto the LORD to accomplish made by fire unto the LORD.

ble for you.

Chap. v. 15, 16. Num. xviii. 32. -- Or, lade themselves e Chap. vii. 16; Num. xv. 3, 8; Deut. xxii. 21, 23; Psa lui. with the iniquity of trespass in their eating. Ver. 9. - Chap. 8; Ixv. 1 ; Eccles. v, 4, 5. — Or, goals.- -5 Ver. 20; Mal. i. i. 2, 3, 10; Num. xv. 14.-6 Chap. i. 3. - Deut. xv. 21; 8. - Chap. i. 9, 13; iii. 3, 5.- Or, kid. Chap. xxi. 18 xvii. 1; Mal. in 8, 14; Eph. v. 27; Heb. ix. 14; 1 Pet. i. 19. Num. xv. 15, 16.- Chap. xxi. 6, 17.—a Mal. i 14. Chap. iii. 1, 6,

• Exod. xxii. 30.

Verse 14. Then he shall put the fifth part thereof opinion of the Jews, and it appears to be correct, that unto it] The holy thing of which he has unknowingly none of these imperfect animals were ever offered on eaten shall be fairly valued, and to this value he the altar ; but the person who made the freewill-offershall add one fifth more, and give the whole to the ing of such things as he had, sold the animal, and gare priest.

its price for the support of the sanctuary. Verse 20. Whatsoever hath a blemish] The same Verse 24. Bruised, or crushed, or broken, or cut) perfection is required in the sacrifice that was required That is, no bullock or lamb that is injured in any of in the priest; see on ver. 2, and the notes on the pre- the above ways, shall be offered unto the Lord. ceding chapter.

Verse 25. Their corruption is in them] Viz., they Verse 23. That hath any thing superfluous or lack- are bruised, crushed, broken, &c. ing] The term yine sarua signifies any thing er, Verse 27. When a bullock-is brought forth] This lended beyond the usual size, and the term viap kalut is a most unfortunate as well as absurd translation. signifies any thing unusually contracted; and both The creature called an or is a bull castrated ; surely mean any monstrosity, whether in redundance or de- then a bullock. was never yet brought forth! The fect. Such things, it seems, might be offered for a original word niv shor signifies a bull, a bullock, or freewill-offering, because that was not prescribed by indeed any thing of the neat kind : here, even common the law; God left it to a man's piety and gratitude to sense required that it should be translated calf ; and offer such additional gifts as he could: what the law did I not hold myself sacredly bound to print the text required was indispensably necessary, because it pointed of the common version with scrupulous exactress, I out the Gospel economy ; but he that made a vow to should translate the former clause of this verse thus, offer such à sacrifice as the law had not required, and so enter it into the text : When a calf, or e could of course bring an imperfect offering. Some LAMB, or a kid is brought forth, instead of, When a contend that the last clause of this verse should be bullock, a sheep, or a goat is brought forth, the ab thus read: If thou offer it either for a freewill-offer-surdity of which is glaring. ing, or for a vow, it shall not be accepted. It was the Seven days under the dam] In vindication of the

A. M. 2514.
B. C. 1490.

Concerning the

CHAP. XXIIJ.

feasts of the Lord. A. M. 2514 28 And whether it be cow or 31 Therefore shall ye keep

B. C. 1490.
An. Exod. Isr. 2. Pewe, ye shall not kill it I and my commandments, and do them: An. Exod. Isr. 2.
Abib or Nisan.

her both in one day.
young
I am the LORD.

Abib or Nisan. 29 And when ye will offer a sacrifice of 32 u Neither shall ye profane my holy name; thanksgiving unto the LORD, offer it at your but I will be hallowed among the children own.will.

of Israel : I am the LORD which

w hal30 On the same day it shall be eaten up; low you, ye shall leave s none of it until the morrow : I 33 * That brought you out of the land of am the LORD.

Egypt, to be your God: I am the Lord.

u

pOr, she-goat.

-9 Deut. xxü. 6. cvii. 22 ; cxvi, 17.; Ainos iv. 5.xix. 37; Nuin. xv. 40; Deut. iv. 40.

Chap. vii. 12; Psalm Chap. xviii. 21. Chap. x. 3; Matt. vi. 9; Luke xi. 2. Chap. vii. 15. Chapter w Chap. xx. 8. - Exod. vi. 7; chap. xi. 45; xix. 36 ; xxv. 38;

Num. xv. 41.

propriety of this precept it may be justly asserted, treat his commands as we often do those of our fellows, that the flesh of very young animals is comparatively when they do not appear to have self-interest to reinnutritive, and, that animal food is not sufficiently commend them. He therefore profanes God's holy nourishing and wholesome till the animal has arrived name who does not both implicitly believe and consciat a certain growth, or acquired the perfection of its l'entiously obey all his words and all his precepts. nature. There is something brutish in eating the I will be hallowed among the children of Israel] The young of beast or fowl before the hair and' hoofs are words children of Israel, 5870* 'yo beney Yishrael, perfect in the one, and the feathers and claws in the which so frequently occur, should be translated either other. Before this period their flesh is not good for the descendants or posterity of Israel, or the people of food. See the note on chap. ix. 1.

Israel. The word children has a tendency to beget a Verse 28. Ye shall not kill it and her young-in one false. notion, especially in the minds of young people, day.) This precept was certainly intended to incul- and lead them to think that children, in the proper cate mercy and tenderness of heart; and so the Jews sense of the word, i. e., little ones, are meant. understood it. When it is necessary to take away Verse 33. Brought you out of the-land of Egypt] the lives of innocent animals for the support of our By such a series of miraculous interferences, to be your own, we should do it in such a way.as not to bluni our God-to save you from all idolatry, false and supermoral feelings; and deplore the necessity, while we feel stitious worship, teach you the right way, lead and supan express gratitude to God for permission, to do it. port you in it, and preserve you to my eternal kingdom

Verse 30. Leave none of it until the morrow) See and glorý: God, infinite in his own perfections, has the note on chap. vii. 18.

no need of his creatures ; but they need him; and, as ' ::. Verse 32. Neither shall ye profane my holy name) a source of endless felicity, he opens himself to all his God's name is profaned or rendered common when we l intelligent offspring,

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B. C. 1490.

· An. Exod. Isr. 2.

The feasts of the Lord, 1, 2. The Sabbath, 3. The passover and unleàvened bread, 4-8. The feast of

first-fruits, 9-14. The feast of pentecost, 15-21. . Gleanings to be left for the poor, 22. The feast of trumpets, 23–25. The great day of atonement, 26–32. The feast of tabernacles, 33–44. B. M: 12800 AND the Lond spake unto to be holy convocations, even

A. M. 2514. Moses, saying, these are my feasts.

An. Exod. Isr. 2. Abib or Nisan. 2 Speaķ unto the children of :3 · Six days

shall work be. Abib or Nisan. Israel, and say unto them, Concerning the done : but the seventh day is the Sabbath feasts of the Lord, which ye shall proclaim of rest, a holy convocation ; ye shall do no - Verse 4, 37.- Exodus xxxii. 5; 2 Kings x. 20; Exod. xi. 9; xxiii. 12 ; xxxi. 15; Xxxiv. 21; chap. xix. 3; Psa. Ixxxi. 3.

Deut. v. 13; Luke xiii. 14.
NOTES ON CHAP. XXIII.

epochs of the greatest importance in history: the OlymVerse 2. These are my feasts.] The original word piads, for example. nyia moad is properly applied to any solemn anniver. Verse 3. The seventh day is the Sabbath) This, sary, by which great and important ecclesiastical, poli- because the first and greatest solemnity, is first mentical, or providential facts were recorded ; see on Gen. tioned. He who kept not this, in the most religious i. 14. Anniversaries of this kind were observed in manner, was not capable of keeping any of the others. all nations; and some of them, in consequence of scru. The religious observance of the Sabbath stands at the pulously regular observation, became-chronological l very threshold of all religion. See the note on Gen. ii. 3,

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