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stored to his favour; and under Christ Jesus, the great end of the 26th and the other at the end of the 27th Shepherd, become, with them, one grand everlasting fold. chapter. However the above may have been, all
Verse 46. These are the statutes, and judgments, the ancient versions agree in concluding both the fc.) See on ver. 15. This verse appears to be the chapters in nearly the same way; yet the 26th chap-' proper concluding verse of the whole book; and I ter must be allowed to be by far the most natural conrather think that the 27th chapter originally followed clusion of the book. the 25th. As the law was anciently written upon skins of parchment, sheep or goat skins, pasted or The most important points in this chapter have alstitched together, and all rolled up in one roll, the ready been particularly noticed in the notes ;'and to matter being written in columns, one of those columns those. on the 15th, 34th, and 44th verses, the reader might have been very easily displaced, and thus whole is especially referred. How unwilling is God to cast chapters might have been readily interchanged.- off his people! and yet how sure is their rejection if It is likely that this might have been the case in they refuse to obey and live to him! No nation has the present instance. Others endeavour to solve this ever been so signally elected as the Jews; and yet no difficulty, by supposing that the 27th chapter was nation has ever been so signally and so awfully reproadded after the book had been finished ; and therefore bated. O Britain, be not high-minded, but fear! Bethere is apparently à double conclusion, one at the hold here the goodness and severity of God!
B. C. 1490.
Laws concerning vows, 1,,2. Of males and females from twenty to sixty years of age, and their valuation,
3, 4. Of the same from five to twenty years, 5. Of the same from a month to five years of age, 6. Of males and females from sixty years old and upwards, and their valuation, 7. The priest shall value the poor according to his ability, 8. Concerning beasts that are vowed, and their valuation, 9–13. Concerning the sanctification of a house, 14., 15. Concerning the field that is sanctified or consecrated to the Lord, to the year of 'jubilee, 16–24. Every estimation shall be made in shekels, according to the shekel of the sanctuary, 25. The firstlings of clean beasts, being already the Lord's, cannot be vowed, 26. That of an unclean beast may be redeemed, 27. Every thing devoted to God shall be unalienable and unredeem. able, and continue the Lord's property till death, 28, 29. All the tithe of the land is the Lord's, 30; but it may be redeemed by adding a fifth part, 31. The tithe of the herd and the flock is also his, 32. The tenth that passes under the rod shall not be changed,.33. The conclusion of the book, 34. A. M. 2514. AND the Lord · spake unto 3 And thy estimation shall be A. M. 2514.
B. C. 1490. An. Exod. Isr. 2. Moses, saying,
of the male, from twenty years An. Exod. Isr. 2. Abib or Nisan.
Abib or Nisan. 2 Speak unto the children of old even unto sixty years old, Israel, and say unto them, . When a man even thy estimation shall be fifty shekels of shall make a singular vow, the persons shall silver, after the shekel of the sanctuary. be for the Lord, by thy estimation.
if it be' a , female, then thy a Num. vi. 2; see Judg. xi. 30, 31,39 ; 1 Sam. i. 11,28; Gen. xxviii. 20–22; Deut.xxiii. 21-23.- b Num. xviii. 16. -cExod. xxx. 13. NOTES ON CHAP. XXVII..
sacrifices, Lev. vii. 16, or the value of persons, beasts, Verse 2. When a man shall make a singular vow] houses, or lands, concerning which the law is here The verse is short and obscure, and may be translated given. A man might vow or devote kimself, his chilthus : A man who shall have separated a vow, accord- dren, (ver. 5, 6;) his domestics, his cattle, hiş goods, ing to thy estimation, of souls unto the Lord; which &c. And in this chapter rules are laid down for the may be paraphrased thus : He who shall have vowed redemption of all these things. But if, after conseor consecrated a soul, i. e., a living creature, whether crating these things, he refused to redeem them, then man or beast, if he wish to redeem what he has thus they became the Lord's property for ever. vowed or consecrated, he shall ransom or redeemn it sons continued all their lives devoted to the service according to the priest's estimation; for the priest of the sanctuary ; the goods were sold for the profit shall judge of the properties, qualifications, and age of the temple or the priests; the animals, if clean, of the person or beast, and the circumstances of the were offered in sacrifice; if not proper for sacrifice, person who has vowed it, and shall regulate the value were sold, and the price devoted to sacred uses. This accordingly; and the money shall be put into his is a general view of the different laws relative to hands for the service of the sanctuary. A vow (says vows, mentioned in this chapter. Mr. Ainsworth) is a religious promise made unto the Verse 3. From twenty years old even unto sixtyLord, and for the most part with prayer, and paid with fifty shekels] A man from twenty to sixty years of thanksgiving, Num. xxi. 2, 3 ; Psa. lxvi. 13, 14, age, if consecrated to the Lord by a vow, might be Vows were either of abstinence, such as are spoken redeemed for fifty shekels, which, at 3s. each, amountof Num. Xxx., and the vow of the Nazarite, Num. ed to 7. 10s. sterling. vi. ; or they were to give something to the Lord, as Verse 4. And if it be a female] The woman, at
Things vowed, and
how to be redeemed.
B. C. 1490.
Abib or Nisan.
A. M. 2514. estimation shall be thirty she good for a bad, or a bad for a A. M. 2514.
B. C. 1490. An. Exo). Isr. 2. kels.
good : and if he shall at all An. Exod. Isr. 2. Abib or Nisan.
5 And if it be from five years change beast for beast, then it old even unto twenty years old, then thy esti- and the exchange thereof shall be holy. mation shall be of the male twenty shekels, 11 And if it be any unclean beast, of which and for the female ten shekels.
they do not offer a sacrifice unto the LORD, then 6 And if it be from a month old even unto he shall present the beast before the priest : five years old, then thy estimation shall be of 12 And the priest shall value it, whether it the małe five shekels of silver, and for the be good or bad: • as thou valuest it, who art female thy estimation shall be three shekels the priest, so shall it be. of silver,
13 But if he will at all redeem it, then he 7 And if it be from sixty years old, and above; shall add a fifth part thereof unto thy estimation. if it be a male, then thy estimation shall be 14 And when a man shall sanctify his house fifteen shekels, and for the female ten shekels. to be holy unto the Lord, then the priest shall
8 But if he be poorer than thy estimation, estimate it, whether it be good or bad : as the
9 And if it be a beast, whereof men bring an the money of ihy estimation unto it, and it
16 And if a man shall sanctify unto the 10 He d shall not alter it, nor change it, a LORD some part of a field of bis possession, d James i. 8.— Heb. according to thy estimation, O priest.
I Ver. 15, 19. Ver. 13. the same age, vowed unto the Lord, might be redeem thou feel thyself bound" to keep God's holy will and ed for thirty shekels, 41. 10s. sterling, a little more commandments, and walk in the same all the days of than one half of the value of the man; for this obvious thy life?" was not this thy baptismal covenant ? reason, that a woman, if employed, could not be of so And hast thou renounced it ? Take heed! God is much use in the service of the sanctuary as the man, not mocked: that which thou sowest, thou shalt also and was therefore of much less value.
reap, If thou rob God of thy heart, he will deprive Verse 5. From five years old] The boy that was thee of his heaven. vowed might be redeemed for twenty shekels, 31. ster- Terse 11. Any unclean beast] See on ver. 2. ling; the girl, for ten shekels, just one half, 11. 10s. Verse 13. Shall add a fifth part) This was pro
Verse 6. A month old] The male child, five she- bably intended to prevent rash vows and covetous rekels, 15s., the female, three shekels, 9s. Being both demptions. The priest alone was to value the thing; in comparative infancy, they were nearly of an equal and to whatever his valuation was, a fifth part must value. None were vowed under a month old : the first be added by him who wished to redeem the conseborn being always considered as the Lord's property, crated thing. Thus, if the priest valued it at forly could not be vowed, see ver. 26.
shekels, if the former owner redeemed it he was obliged Verse 7. Sixty years old) The old man and the old to give forty-eight. woman, being nearly past labour, were nearly of an Verse 14. Shall sanctify his house) The yearly equal value ; hence the one was estimated at fifteen rent of which, when thus consecrated, went towards shekels, 21. 5s., the other at ten shekels, 11. 10s. This the repairs of the tabernacle, which was the house of was about the same ratio as that of the children, ver. the Lord. 5, and for the same reason.
Verse 16. Some part of a field] Though the preVerse 10. He shall not alter it, nor change it, a good ceding words are not in the text, yet it is generally for a bad, dc.) Whatever. was consecrated to God allowed they should be supplied here, as it was not by a vow, or purpose of heart, was considered from lawful for a man to vow his whole estate, and thus that moment as the Lord's property ; to change which make his family beggars, in order to enrich the Lord's was impiety; to withhold it, sacrilege. Reader, hast sanctuary : this God would not permit. The rabbins thou ever dedicated thyself, or any part of thy proper- teach that the land or field, whether good or bad, was ty, to the service of thy Maker? If so, hast thou valued at forty-eight shekels, for all the years of the paid thy vows ? Or hast thou altered thy purpose, or jubilee, provided the field was large enough to sow a changed thy offering? Has he received from thy homer of barley. The 2n chomer was different from hands a bad for a good? Wast thou not vowed and the way omer : the latter held about three quarts, the consecrated to God in thy baptism? Are his vows former, serenty-five gallons three pints ; see the note still upon thee? Hast thou "renounced the devil and on Exod. xvi. 16. Some suppose that the land was all his works, the pomps and vanities of this wicked rated, not at fifty shekels for the whole of the years of world, and all the sinful lusts of the flesh ?" Dost I the jubilee, for this would be but about 3s. per annum;
Things vowed, and
how to be redeemed,
A. M, 2514.
then thy estimation shall be ac- year of the jubilee : and he shall A. M. 2514.
B. C. 1490. An. Exod. Isr. 2. cording to the seed thereof: ba give thine estimation in that day, An. Exod: Isr. 2.
Abib or Nisan. Abib or Nisan. homer of barley seed shall be as a holy thing unto the Lord. valued at fifty shekels of silver.
24 In the year of the jubilee the field shall 17 If he sanctify his field from the year of return unto him of whom it was bought, even jubilee, according to thy estimation it shall to him to whom the possession of the land stand.
did belong 18 But if he sanctify his field after the 25 And all thy estimation shall be accordjubilee, then the priest shall i reckon unto him ing to the shekel of the sanctuary : 'twenty the money according to the years that remain, gerahs shall be the shekel. even unto the year of the jubilee, and it shall- 26 Only the firstling of the beasts, which be abated from thy estimation.
should be the Lord's firstling, no man shall 19 k And if he that sanctified the field will sanctify it; whether it be ox, or sheep: it is in any wise redeem it, then he shall add the the Lord's. fifth part of the money of thy estimation, unto 27 And if it be of an unclean beast, then he it, and it shall be assured to him.
shall redeem it according to thine estimation, 20 And if he will not redeem the field, or if u and shall add-a fifth part of it thereto : or if he have sold the field to another man, it shall it be not redeemed, then it shall be sold acnot be redeemed any more.
cording to thy estimation. 21 But the field, ' when it goeth out in the 28 Notwithstanding no, devoted thing, that jubilee, shall be holy unto the Lord, as a a man shall devote unto the Lord of all that field m devoted ; n the possession' thereof shall he hath, both of man and beast, and of the be the priest's.
field of his possession, shall be sold or re22 And if a man sanctify unto the Lord a deemed : every devoted thing is most holy field which he hath bought, which is not of unto the Lord. the fields of his possession. ;
29 Noné devoted, which shall be devoted 23 Then the priest shall reckon unto him of men, shall be redeemed; but shall surely the worth of thy estimation, even unto the be put to death.
h Or, the land of a homer, &c.- si Chap. xxv. 15, 16. Exod. xxx. 13; Num. iii, 47; xviii. 16; Ezek. xlv. - 12. . k Ver. 13. Chap. xxv. 10, 28, 31, um Ver. 28. — Num. Heb. first-born, &c.- - Exod. xiii. 2, 12; xxii:30; Num. xviii. xviii. 14; Ezek. xliv. 29. Chap. xxv. 10, 25.- -P Ver. 18. 17; Deut. xv. 19. u Ver. 11, 12, 13.- Ver. 21 ; Josh. vi, 9 Chap. xxv. 28.
17, 18, 19.--" Num. xxi. 2, 3. but that it was rated according to its produce, fifty persons devoted to destruction under the Mosaic disshekels for every homer of barley it produced. pensation, is sufficiently evident, for the whole Canaan
Verse 21. As a field devolęd] It is On cherem, a itish nations were thus devoted by the Supreme Being thing so devoted to God-as never more to be capable himself, because the cup of their iniquity was full ; but of being redeemed. See on ver. 29.
that they were not sacrificed to God, the whole history Verse 25. Shekel of the sanctuary] A standard sufficiently declares. Houbigant understands the passhekel ; the standard being kept in the sanctuary to sage as speaking of these alone ; and says, Non alios try and regulate all the weights in the land by. See licebat anathemate voveri, quam Chananæos, quos jusGen. xx. 16; xxiii. 15.
serat Deus ad internecionem deleri. “ It was not Verse 28. No devoted thing-shall be sold or re- lawful to devote any persons to death but the Canaandeemed] This is the On cherem, which always ites, whom God had commanded to be entirely extirmeant an absolute unredeemable grant to God. pated.” This is perfectly correct ; but he might have
Verse 29. Which shall be devoted of men) Every added that it was because they were the most impure man who is devoted shall surely be put to death; or, idolaters, and because the cup of their iniquity was as some understand it,' be the Lord's property, or be full. These God commanded to be put to death ; and employed in his service, till death. The law men- who can doubt his right to do so, who is the Maker tioned in these two verses has been appealed to by (of man, and the Fountain of justice? But what has the enemies of Divine revelation as a proof, that under this to do with human sacrifices ? Just nothing.
No - the Mosaic dispensation human sacrifices were offered more than the execution of an ordinary criminal, or a to God; but this can never be conceded. Had there traitor, in the common course of justice, has to do been such a law, it certainly would have been more with a sacrifice to God. In the destruction of such explicitly revealed, and not left in the compass of a idolaters, no religious formality whatever was observed; few words only, where the meaning is very difficult nor any thing that could give the transaction even the to be ascertained; and the words themselves differently most distant semblance of a sacrifice. translated by most interpreters. That there were Jericho was commanded to be destroyed, Josh. vi. 17;
In this way
A. M. 2514.
A. M. 2514.
B. C. 1490.
Concerning the tithe of the
land, the herd, and the flock. 30 And * all the tithe of the rod, the tenth shall be holy An. Exod. Isr. 2. the land, whether of the seed unto the LORD. Abib or Nisan. of the land, or of the fruit of 33 He shall not search whether Abib or Nisan. the tree, is the Lord's : it is holy unto the it be good or bad, a neither shall he change LORD.
it: and if be change it at all, then both it and 31 And if a man will at all redeem aught the change thereof shall be holy; it shall not of his tithes, he shall add thereto the fifth part be redeemed. thereof.
34 These are ihe commandments which 32 And concerning the tithe of the herd, or the Lord commanded Moses for the children of the flock, even of whatsoever ? passeth under of Israel, in Mount Sinai.
* Gen. xxviii. 22; Num, xviii. 21, 24; 2 Chron. xxxi. 5, 6, 12; y Ver. 13.-i See Jer. xxxiii. 13; Ezek. xx. 37; Mic. vii. 14. Neh. xiii. 12; Mal. ii. 8, 10.
a Ver. 10. - Chap. xxvi. 46.
and the Amalekites, Deut. xxv. 19; 1 Sam. xv. 3 : 1 and when the tenth came, he touched it with the but in all these cases the people commanded to be de- coloured rod, by which it was distinguished to be the stroyed were such sinners as God's justice did not tithe calf, sheep, &c., and whether poor or lean, perthink proper to spare longer. And has not every fect or blemished, that was received as the legitimate system of law the same power? And do we not con- tithe.” It seems to be in reference to this custom that cede such power to the civil magistrate, for the wel- the Prophet Ezekiel, speaking to Israel, says : I will fare of the state ? God, who is the sovereign arbiter cause you to pass under the rod, and will bring you of life and death, acts here in his juridical and legisla- into the bond of the covenant—you shall be once more tive capacity ; but these are victims to justice, not re- claimed as the Lord's property, and be in all things ligious sacrifices.
devoted to his service, being marked or ascertained, by It may be necessary just farther to note that two especial providences and manifestations of his kindness, kinds of vows are mentioned in this chapter :- 1. The to be his peculiar people. 773 neder, (see on chap. vii.,) which comprehends all Verse 34. These are the commandments) This those things which, when once devoted, might be re- conclusion is very similar to that at the end of the predeemed at a certain price, according to the valuation ceding chapter. I have already supposed that this of the priest. 2. The on cherem, those things chapter should have followed the 25th, and that the vowed to God of which there remained no power of 26th originally terminated the book. redemption ; they were most holy, i. e., so absolutely Mr. Ainsworth, the whole of whose writings are devoted to God that they could neither be changed, animated with the spirit of piety, concludes this book alienated, nor redeemed : probably because no mental with the following excellent remarks :reservation had been made, as in the above case may “ The tithes in Israel being thus sanctified by the be supposed On this ground the word was after commandment of God to his honour, the maintenance ward applied to the most solemn and awful kind of of his ministers, and the relief of the poor, it taught excommunication, meaning a person so entirely devoted them and teaches us to honour the Lord wilh our subto the stroke of vindictive justice, as never to be ca- stance, (Prov. iii. 9,) acknowledging him to be the pable of receiving pardon; and hence the word may author of all our increase and store; (Deut. viii. 13–18; be well applied in this sense to the Canaanites, the cup Hos. ii. 8 ;) to honour his MINISTERS, and to communiof whose iniquity was full, and who were consigned, cate unto them in all good things, (1 Tim. v. 17, 18; without reprieve, to final extermination.
Gal. vi. 6,) that they who sow unto us spiritual things Verse 30. All the tithe of the land] This God should reap our carnal things, (1 Cor. ix. 11,) and to claims as his .own; and it is spoken of here as being give ALMS of such things as we have, that all things a point perfectly settled, and concerning which there may be clear unto us, (Luke xi. 41,) yea, even to sell was neither doubt nor difficulty. See my view of this that we have, and give alms ; to provide ourselves subject Gen. xxviii., after ver. 22, to which I do not bags that war not old, a treasure in the heavens that see the necessity of adding any thing,
faileth not, Luke xii. 33.” They who forget their Verse 32. Whatsoever passeth under the rod] The Maker, his ministers, and the poor, are never' likely signification of this verse is well given by the rabbins : to hear that blessed word in the great day : “ Come, “When a man was to give the tithe of his sheep or ye blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared calves to God, he was to shut up the whole flock in for you ; for I was hungry, and ye gave me meat ; one fold, in which there was one narrow door capable thirsty, and ye gave me drink ; naked, and ye clothed of letting out one at a time. The owner, about to me ; sick and in prison, and ye came unto me." give the tenth to the Lord, stood by the door with a rod in his hand, the end of which was dipped in ver- Reader, thou hast now gone through the whole of milion or red ochre. The mothers of those lambs or this most interesting book ; a book whose subject is calves stood without : the door being opened, the too little regarded by Christians in general. Here young ones ran out to join themselves to their dams; thou mayest discover the rigid, requisitions of Divine and as they passed out the owner stood with his rod justice, the sinfulness of sin, the exceeding breadth of over them, and counted one, two, three, four, five, &c., the commandment, and the end of all human perfec
tion. And now what thinkest thou of that word, The TWENTY-FOURTH, called vaiyikra, begins “Whatsoever the law saith, it saith to them who are chap. i. 6, and ends chap. vi. 7. under the law ?" Rom. iii. 19. But who are under The TWENTY-FIFTH, called 18 tsav, begins chap. vi. the law—the condemning power of the pure, rigid, 8, and ends chap. viii. 36. moral law of God? Not the Jews only, but every The TWENTY-SIXTH, called 'J'p shemini, begins soul of man : all to whom it is sent, and who acknow- chap. ix. 1, and ends chap. xi. 47. ledge it as a Divine revelation, and have not been The TWENTY-SEVENTH, called yinin tazria, begins redeemed from the guilt of sin by the grace of our chap. xii. 1, and ends chap. xiii. 59. Lord Jesus Christ ; for “cursed is every one that The TWENTY-EIGHTH, called yoga metsora, begins continueth not in all things that are written in the book chap. xiv. 1, and ends chap. xv. 33. of the law to do them.” By this law then is the The TWENTY-NINTH, called na 'ins acharey moth, knowledge, but not the cure, of sin. Hear then what begins chap. xvi. 1, and ends chap. xviii. 30. God saith unto thee : “If therefore perfection were The THIRTIETH,
called kedoshim, begins chap. by the Levitical priesthood, (for under it the people xix. 1, and ends chap. xx. 27. received the law,) what farther need was there that The thiRTY-FIRST, called 1px emor, begins chap. another priest should rise after the order of Melchise- xxi. 1, and ends chap. xxiv. 23. dec, and not be called after the order of Aaron? For The thirTY-SECOND, called 'J'o 773 behar Sinai, the priesthood being changed, there is made of neces- begins chap. xxv. 1, and ends chap. xxvi. 2. sity a change also of the law; Heb. vii. 11, 12. The ThirTY-THIRD, called 'npna bechukkothai, beNow of the things which we have spoken, this is the gins chap. xxvi. 3, and ends chap. xxvii. 34. sum: We have such a high priest, who is set on the These sections, as was observed on Exodus, have right hand of the throne of the Majesty in the hea- their technical names from some remarkable word, vens; a minister of the sanctuary, and of the true either' in the first or second verse of their commencetabernacle, which the Lord pitched, and not man; ibid. ment. viii. 1, 2. For it is not possible that the blood of
MASORETIC Notes on LEVITICUS. bulls and of goats should take away sins ; ibid. x. 4.
The number of verses in vaiyikra, i. e., Leviticus, is But Christ being come a high priest of good things to 859. The symbol of which is 90s. A pe final stands come,-neither by the blood of goats and calves, but for 800, 3 nun for 50, and y teth for 9. by his own blood, he entered in once into the holy
The middle verse is the 11th of chap. xv. : And he place, having obtained eternal redemption for us. And that toucheth the flesh, gc. for this cause he is the Mediator of the New Testa
Its pareshioth, or larger sections, are 10, the memoment, that, by means of death, they which are called rial symbol of which is taken from Gen. xxx. 11 : might receive the promise of eternal inheritance. And 72 ba gad, a troop cometh: in which beth stands without shedding of blood is no remission. So Christ
for 2, X aleph for 1, a gimel for 3, and 7 dalelh for 4. was once offered to bear the sins of many, and unto
Its sedarim, or Masoretic sections, are 23. The them that look for him shall he appear the second symbol of which is taken from Psa. 1, 2, 0717 yehgeh: time, without sin, unto salvation;" Heb. ix. 11, 12, 15, in thy law shall he meditate day and night. 22, 28. We see then that Christ was the end of the
Its perakim, or modern chapters, are 27. The melaw for righteousness (for justification) to every one morial sign of which is of oixi vecyeheh, Gen. xxvi. 3: that believeth. “ Unto him, therefore, who hath loved and I will be with thee, and will bless thee. us, and washed us from our sins in his own blood,
The number of its open divisions is 52 ; of its close and hath made us kings and priests unto God and his divisions, 46 : total 98. The memorial sign of which Father ; to him be glory and dominion for ever and is ng Isach, Cant. v. 10; My beloved is White and ever. Amen." Rev. i. 5, 6.
ruddy. In this word s isaddi stands for 90, and a
cheth for 8. SECTIONS in the Book of Leviticus, carried Verses 859. WORDS 11,902. LETTERS Computed on from Exodus, which ends with the TWENTY- to be 44,989. THIRD.
See the concluding note on GENESIS.
Finished the correction of Ecodus and Leviticus, April 2, 1827.-A. CLARKE.