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A. M. 2514.
B. C. 1490.

B. C. 1490.

The amount of

CHAP. I.

the several tribes. 26 Of the children of m Judah, | 36 of the children of s Benja- A. M. 2514. An. Exod. Isr. 2. by their generations, after their min, by their generations, after An Exod. Isr

. 2. Ijar or Zif. families, by the house of their their families, by the house of

Ijar or Zif. fathers, according to the number of the names, their fathers, according to the number of the from twenty years old and upward, all that names, from twenty years old and upward, all were able to go forth to war;

that were able to go forth to war;' . 27. Those that were mmbered of them, even 37 Those that were numbered of them, even of the tribe of Judah, were threescore and of the tribe of Benjamin, were thirty and five fourteen thousand and six hundred.

thousand and four hundred. 28. Of the children of Issachar; by their 38. Of the children of Dan, by their generagenerations, after their families, by the house tions, after their families, by the house of of their fathers, according to the number of their fathers, according to the number of the the names, from twenty years old and upward, names, from twenty years old and upward, all, all that were able to go forth to war; that were able to go forth to war;

29 Those that were numbered of them, even 39 Those that were-numbered of them, even of the tribe of Issachar, were fifty and four of the tribe of Dan, were threescore and two thousand and four hundred.

thousand and seven hundred. 30 Of the children of Zebulun, by their 40 Of the children of Asher, by their genegenerations, after their families, by the house rations, after their families, by the house of of their fathers, according to the number of their fathers, according to the number of the the names, from twenty years old and upward, names, from twenty years old and upward, all all that were able to go forth to war; that were able to go fórth to war;

31 Those that were numbered of them, even 41 Those that were numbered of them, even. of the tribe of Zebulun, were fifty. and seven of the tribe of Asher, were forty and one thouthousand and four hundred.

sand and five hundred. 32 Of the children of Joseph, namely, of: 42. Of the children of Naphtali, throughout the children of Ephraim, by their genera- their generations, after their families, by the tions, after their families, by the house of house of their fathers, according to the numtheir fathers, according to the number of the ber of the names, from twenty years old and "names, from twenty years old and upward, all upward, all that were able to go forth to war; that were able to go forth to war;

- 43 Those that were numbered of them, even 33 Those that were numbered of them, even of the tribe of. Naphtali, were fifty and three of the tribe of Ephraim, were forty thousand thousand and four hundred. and five hundred.

44 These are those that were numbered, 34 of the children of Manasseh, by their which Moses and Aaron mumbered, and the generations, after their families, by the house princes of Israel; being twelve men : each one of their fathers, according to the number of was for the house of his fathers. the names, from twemy years old and upward, 45 So were all those that were numbered of all that were able to go forth to war; ! the children of Israel, by the house of their

35 Those that were numbered of them, éven fathers, from twenty years old and upward, of the tribe of Manasseh, were thirty and two all that were able to go forth to war in Israel ; thousand and two hundred.

46°Even all they that were numbered were Gen. xxx. 18. Gen. xxx. 20.-Gen.

+Gen. xxx. 5, 6.

GO
XXX. 24. -- Gen. xlviii. 5, 6.

Chap. xxvi. 64. Verse 33. The tribe of Ephraim--forty thousand from the beginning ;' his infinite wisdom embraces all and fwe hundred.] Ephraim, as he was blesséd be- occurrences, and it is his province alone to determine yond his eldest brother Manasseh, Gen. xlviji: 20, so what is right, and to predict 'what himself kas purhere he is increased by thousands more than Manas- posed to accomplish. seh, and more than the whole tribe of Benjamin, and Verse 46. All they that were numbered were six his blessing continued above his brother, Deut. xxxii. hundred thousand and three thousand and five hundred 17. And thus the prophecy, Gen. xlviii. 19, was and fifty.) What an astonishing increase from seventy fulfilled : His younger brother (Ephraim) shall be souls that went down into Egypt

, Gen. xlvi

. 27, about greater than he, (Manasseh.) -No word of God can 215 years before, where latterly they had endured the possibly fall to the ground :: he alone sees the end greatest hardships!'. But God's promise eannot fail, VOL. I.

( 40 )

in Gen. xxix. 35.

Gen. xlviii. 12-20.

Gen. xxxv. 16-18.

609

B. C. 1490.

49 x

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The Levites are not numbered. : NUMBERS. Their particular work specified.

A: M. 2514. six hundred thousand and three ward; the Levites shall take it A. M. 2514.
An Exod. Isr. 2. thousand and five hundred and down ! and when the tabernacle An. Exod. Isr. 2.
Ijar or Zif.
fifty.

Ijar or Zif.

is to be pitched, the Levites shall 47 But the Levites after the tribe of their set it up : band the stranger that cometh "nigh fathers were not numbered among them. shall be put to death.

48 For the Lord had spoken unto Moses, 52 And the children of Israel shall pitch saying,

their tents, every man by his own camp, and Only thou shalt not number the tribe every man by his own standard, throughout of Levi, neither take the sum of them among their hosts. the children of Israel :

53. d But the Levites shall pitch round about 50 y But thou shalt appoint the Levites over the tabernacle of testimony, that there be no the tabernacle of testimony, and over all the wrath upon the 'congregation of the children vessels thereof, and over all things that belong of Israel : f and the. Levites shall keep the to it: they shall bear the tabernacle, and all the charge of the tabernacle of testimony. vessels thereof; and they shall minister unto it, 54 And the children of Israel did according z and shall encamp round about the tabernacle. to all that the LORD commanded Moses, so

51 · And when the tabernacle setteth for- did they. . Exod. xxxvi. 26 ; see Exod. xi. 37; chap. ii. 32; xxvi. 51. a Chap..x. 17, 21. 5 Chap. iii. 10,38 ; xviii. 22.-0 Chap. " Chap. ii. 33 ; see chap. iii., iv., xxvi. 57; I Chron. yi., xxi. 6. ii. 2, 34.d Ver. 50. Le Lev. x. 6; chap. viii. 19; xvi. 46; * Chap. ii. 33, xvi. 62. y Exod. xxxviii. 21, chap. ifi. 7, 8; vii. 5; 1 Sam. vi. 19. (Cleap. 111.7, 8; viii. 24, 25, 26; xviji iv. 15, 25, 26, 27, 33.- -2 Chap. iii. 23, 29, 35, 38.

3, 4, 5; xxxi, 30, 47; 1 Chron. xxiii. 32; 2 Chron. xiii. 10. (Gen. xvi. 6;) and who cản resist his will, and bring seventh place for number. Seven of the tribes had to naught his counsel? That a comparative view an increase ; five a decrease. Manasseh had an inmay be easily taken of the state of the tribes, I shall crease of 20,500; Judah, 1,900; Issachar, 9,900 ; produce them here from the first census mentioned in Zebulun, 3,100; Benjamin, 10,200 ; Dan, 1,700 ; the first chapter of this book, in-their decreasing pro-Asher, 11,900... portion, beginning with the greatest and proceeding to On the contrary there was a decrease in Reuben of the least ; and in the second census, mentioned chap: 2,770; in Simeon, 37,100; Gad; 5,150'; Ephraim, xxvi., where the incredse of some and the decrease € 8,000; Naphtali, 8,000. Decrease in the whole, of others may be seen in one point of view. It may 61,020 effective men. See on chap: xxvi. ; but babe just remarked, that except in the case of Gad in lanced with the increase, the decrease was upon the this chapter, and Reuben in chap. xxvi., all the quṁ- whole only 1,820.'. bers are what may be called whole or round numbers, On the subject of these enumerations, apd the manbeginning with thousands, and ending with hundreds, ner in which this vast multitude sprang in about four Gad and Reuben. alone ending with tens"; but the generațions from seventy-five persons, Scheuchzer has Scripture generally uses round numbers, units and some valuable calculations, though liable to some ob fractions being almost constantly disregarded. : jections, which I shall take the liberty to "insert, as

1st census; ch. ir 20 census, éh. xxvi. they tend to throw considérable light upon the subject. 1. Judah

74,600

76,500 “We find in the writings of Moses three enumera2. Dan

62,700

64,400 tions of the Jewish people, that follow each other 3. Simeon

59,300

22,200 pretty closely :4. Zebulun

57,400

60,500 The first, which was made at their departure 5. Issachar

54,400

64,300 from Egypt, Exod. xii. 37, amounted to 600,000 6. Naphtali

53,400
45,400 One year after, to

603,550 7. Reuben

46,500
43,730 On entering the land of Canaan, to

601,730 8. Gad

45,650
40,500 *If we add to the number

603,550 • 9. Asher

41,500

53,400 that of the Levites given us in chap. üi. 10. Ephraim

40,500
32,500 39, and which amounted to

22,000 11. Benjamin

35,400

45,600 12. Manasseh

32,200
52,700 We shall have for the sum total

625,550
• We find the same number, on adding that of each
Total 603,550 Total 601,730

tribe given us in detail, which is the best proof of the Thus we find Judah the most populous tribe, and exactness of the calculation. Manasseh the least so; the difference between them “I think I shall afford the reader some degree of being so great as 42,400, for which no very satisfac- pleasure by, presenting him, in this place, the number tory reason can be assigned.

of each tribe separately, beginning at their earliest In the second census, mentioned chap. xxvi. 34, ancestors. We shall see, by this means, how faithJudah- still has the pre-eminency; and Simeon, the fully God fulfilled the promise he had made to Abrathird in number before, is become the least. Now we ham, as well as the great utility of the mathematics.. see also that the little tribe of Manássch occupies the for the right understanding of the Holy Scriptures. 610

( 40* )

.

a

$7,500. Num. ii. 22. divided by the most probable number of children, for

}

}6,200. Nuñ. ii. 34. tion by 18, and the other 7 by 19."

If we wish to }74,600. Num. i. 27. bable number of children, we shall have the following

Remarks on the multiplication

CHAP. I.

of the Israelites. 1 shall begin with a Genealogical Table of that family

Jahzeel which God so wonderfully blessed ; and, to it I shall

Guni
NAPHTALI

53,400. Num. i. 43. afterward add each separate tribe, following the cal

Jezer culation of Reyher, (Math. Mos., p. 222.) And we

Shillem shall see that the fourth generation, taken with the

1.-REUBER 46,500. third, produces the very number mentioned in the text.

“Let us now descend to the particular enumeration Children of Jacob by LEAHGen. xlvi. 15.

of each tribe. REUBEN had four sons : now if we Hanoch

suppose that one of these four sons had seven, and Phallu REUBEN

46,500. Num. i. 21, that each of the other three had eight, we shall find Hezron

the number 31 for the first Egyptian generation. If Carmi Jemuel

we afterward suppose that each of these 31 sons had

five sons, the second generation will amount to 155, Jamin,

which, multiplied by 15, will prodųce 2,325 for the Ohad SIMEON

59,300. Num. I. 23. third generationand these, multiplied by 19, will Jachin

make, 44,175 for the fáurth; so that the third, toZohar

gether with the fourth, will make 46,500. We shall Shaul

have the same product if the given sum, 46,500, be Libni LETI Gershon Shimei

example, by the number 19; we shall then have 2,447 Amram

for the third generation; which sum being deducted Izehar Kohath Hebron 8,600. Num. iii. 28. from the sum total, there will remain 44,053 for the

fourth .generation, which is exactly the number that LEVI Uzziel

is produced in multiplying 2,440 of the third generaMerari

Mahli
Mushi

make the same calculation with respect -to the pre-
Shelah
Hezron

ceding generations, i. e., divide them by the most próJUDAR Pharez

Hamul
Zerah

sums -
Tola
Phuvah

Sons of, Reuben

4 IssacHAR,

54,400. Num. i. 29. Job

I. Generation

31 Shimron

II. Ditto

· 215 Sered

III. Ditto

2,583 ZEBULUN Elon

57,400. Num. i. 31.
*. IV. Ditto

43,917 Jahleel DINAH

'Amount of generations III. and IV. 46,500 Children of JACOB by ZILPAH. Gen. xlyi, 18.

II. - SIMEON 59,300.
Ziphion

Siseon had 'six, sons.

Let us suppose that each Haggai

of the three first had six children, and each of the three Shuni GAD

45,650. Num. i. 25. others seven, we shall have thirty-nine for the first Ezbon

generation. If we multiply 31 of this number by 9, Eri

and 8 by 10, we shall have for the second generation Arodi

359 ; of which humber, if we multiply 355 by 11, Areli

and 4 by 12, the third generation will give us 3,953. Jimnah

Let us then multiply 3,948 of these by 14, and 5 of Ishuah

them by 15, and we shall have for the fourth 55,347. ASHER Isui

41,500. Num. i. 41. The third and fourth, added together, will make 59,300, Heber

III.-LEVI 22,300. Children of Jacob by RACHEL. Gen. xlvi. 22. “ Gershon, Levi's eldest son, had two children; let JOSEPH

32,200.

us give to one of these 16 children, and to the other Ephraim 40,500.

17, and we shall have 33 for the second generation; Belah

28 of which, multiplied by 15, and 5 by 16, will proBecher

duce 500 for the third. Multiply each by 14, and Ashbel

these will produce 7,000; and the third and fourth Gerah

together, 7,500. Naaman

« Kohath, Levi's second son, had four sons, which BENJAMIN

35,400. Num. i. 37. Ehi

form the first line. Give to one of them 10 sons, and Rosh

11 'to each of the other three, for the second generation Muppim

there will be 43. Multiply them by 10, there will be Huppim

430 for the third ; these, multiplied by 19 for the (Ard

fourth, will produce ihe number of 8,170. The third Childfen of Jacob by Bilhał. Gen. xlvi. 25. and fourth added together make 8,600. DAN - Hushim 62,700. Num. i. 39. “Merari, the third son of Levi, had two sons. Give

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Beriah Malchiet

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Remarks on the multiplication

NUMBERS.

of the Israelites. 10 children to each of them, there will then be 20 for generation will be 51,378; the third and fourth genethe second generation. Now if we say that 10 of rations, then, will produce a number of 54,400. these 20 had each 15 sons, and each of the others 16,

VI. - ZEBULUN 57,400. we shall have 310, which, multiplied by 19, will give

"Zebulun had three sons. us 5,890 for the fourth ; and the two last together,

If we suppose that treo 6,200. This may be seen by the following example :

of them had in all fourteen children, and the third, six,

here will be 20 for the first generation. The second Gershonites. Kohathites. Merarites.

will produce 143, on multiplying 17 by 7, and 3 by 8. I. Generation

4)

If we multiply 135 by 16, and 8 by 17, the third 11: Ditto

33
43

20

will amount to 2,296. By multiplying the third by III. Ditto -500

430

310

24, the fourth will give us 55,104. The two last IV. Ditto 7000

817,0

5890

will produce, together, 57,400.
“Amount of generations III: and IV.: Gershonites,

VII.-GAD 45,650.
7,500; Kohathites, 8,600; and Merarites, 6,200-
total number of Levites, 22,300.

« Gad had seven sons.

1. Generation : multiply 3 by 9, and 4 by 10, IV.-JUDAH 74,600..

there will be

67
"The sons of Judah were Shelah, Pharez, and Zerah. II. Ditto multiply 61 by 7, and 6 by 8 475
His grandsons by Pharez were Hezron and Hamul. III. Ditto multiply 471 by 8, and 4 by 9 3,804
Hezron had two sons. Sappose each of them had sir W. Ditto multiply 3,802 by 11, and 2 by 12 41,846
children, which will make 12 for the first generation ;
to eight of whom allow eight children, and, nine to Amount of generations III. and IV. 45,650
each of the others, and there will be 100 for the second

VIII.ASHER 41,500.
generation. To 92 of these then give 18 children,
and 19 to the eight others; this will produce for the

The sons of Asher, Jimnah, Ishua, and Isui, mul-
third generation 1,808. If we then suppose that 1,800 tiplied by 8, produce for the
of these had each 18 children, and that each of the

1. Generation
other eight had 19, the fourth generation will be II. •Ditto multiply 24 by 8

.192 32,552, which, added to the product of the third, will III. Ditto multiply 182 by 11, and 10 by. 12 2,122 make the descendants of Hezron amount to 34,360., IV. Ditto multiply 2,118 by 12, and 4 by 13 25,468

* Hamul had two sons, who, multiplied by 10, produce the number of 20 for the second generation :

Amount of generations III. and IV. 27,590 these, multiplied by 20, will make 400 for the third,

Heber and Malchiel were sons of Beriak. Now and these again by 25 will produce 10,000 for the these two sons multiplied by 5, give us for fourth. And thus the two last generations will 1, Generation

10 amount together to the number of 10,400.

II. Ditto multiply 10 by 11

110 “If we allow fie sons to Shelah, and six to Zerah, III. Ditto multiply by 9

'990 we shall have '11 for the first generation. . To three IV. Ditto multiply by 12

- 11,880 of whom allow 10 children and 11 to the other eight, this will give us 118 for the second, To 113 of these 'Amount of generations III. and IV. 12,870 give 14, and 16 to the other five, and 1657 will be

" Another son of Beriah had in the produced for the third. · Give 17 to 1643, and 18 to

I. Generation

1

8 the 14 remaining, and for the fourth there will be II. Ditto multiply by :

80 28,183. The third and fourth added together will Hl. Ditto multiply by 10 produce the number of 29,840.

IV. Ditto multiply by 12

960 According to this calculation, all these generations will amount to the following numbers :

Amount of generations III. and IV. 1,040 Hezronites

All these generation's added together, amount to 41,500 ,

34,360 Hamulites :

10,400

IX.-JOSEPH.
Shelanites and Zarhites

29,840

MANASSEH 32,200,
"1. Generation
74,600

II. Ditto multiply 6 by 13, and 4 by 14 134
V. - ISSACHAR 54,400.

III. Ditto multiply 132 by 12, and 2 by 13 1,610 ISSACHAR had five sons. Suppose that three of

IV. Ditto multiply by 19

- 30,590 them had each five children, and the other two, six, 'we shall have 27 for the first generation. If we then

Amount of generations III. and IV. 32,200 imagine that of these 19 had each nine sons, and each

EPHRAIM 40,500. of the other eight 10, the-second generation will be “I. Generation

16 251. Now 241 of these, multiplied by 12, will pro- II. Ditto multiply, by 10

160 duce 2,892, and the 10 others, multiplied by 13, will III. Ditto multiply 152 by 12, and 8 by 13 1,928 make 130; consequently the third generation will IV. Ditto multiply 1,916 by 20, and 12 by 21 38,572 amount to 3,022. If 3,018 of these had each 17 solis, and each of the other four had 18, the fourth Amount of generations FlI. and IV. 40,500

1

*

10

98

The Israelites are taught

CHAP. II.

how to pitch their tents. X.-BENJAMIN 35,400.

X. Benjamin

35,400 “ He had 10 sons ; two of whom, maltiplied by 9,

XI. Dan

62,700

XII. Naphtali and the other 8 by 1.0, will give for the

53,400 I. Generation

Total 625,850 IT. Ditto multiply 95 by 9, and 3 by 10 885 HI: Ditto multiply by 5

4,425 “And indeed, without counting the IV. Ditto multiply by 7

- 30,975 Levites, the number of the Israelites
(chap. i. 46) amounts to

603,550 Amount of generations III. and IV. -35,400 The.Levites (chap. iii. 39) amount to 22,300 XI.-DAN 62,700.

The whole number together, as above 625,850" "1. Generation

11 In the above calculations, Scheuchzer and Reyher II. Ditto multiply by 12.

132 take for granted, 1. That from the going down to III. Ditto multiply by 19

2,508 Egypt to the exodus there were four generations. IV: Ditto multiply by 24

:60,192 2. That the first two generations had died in Egypt.

3. That the promise of God in multiplying them as the Amount of generations III. and IV. 62,700 stars of heaven, had taken place particularly in the two XH.-Naphtalı 53,400..

last generations. 4. That these two last generations i He had 4 sons, the half of whom, multiplied by text. 5. That their method of accounting for this

alone form the aggregate sums given in the sacred 7, and the other half by 6, give us for the

aggregate ihrough the four generations, is not only I. Generation

26

perfectly natural and mathematical, but strictly accordII. Ditto multiply 16 by .11, and 10 by 12 296

ant with the promises made by God to them, as the III. Ditio multiply 288.by 12, and 8 by 13 3,560

- sum of each tribe sufficiently proves. 6. That the IV. Ditto multiply by 14

49,840 wliole account shows the truth of the Divine promise,

the great accuracy of the Jewish lawgiver, and a proof Amount of generations III. and IV. 53,490

of the inspiration of the sacred writings. But even to Total number of all the tribes. these calculations and deductions there may

be objecI. Reuben

46,500
tions, e. g.,

“ Scheuchzer gives to 2,508 families of II. Simeon

59,300 Dan, 24 male children, each above the age of 20 : we III. Levi

22,300 may fairly allow an equal number of females, and add IV. Judah

.74,600 5 more under 20, as in the note under Exod. xii. 37, V. Issachar

54,400 and we have 53 children on the average through all VI. Zebulun.

57,400 the families of a tribe ; whilst to 4,425 families of VIL. Gad

45,650 Benjamin are állotted 7 males aged 20, and adding 7 VIII.' Asher

41,500 females at 5 children, we have 19 children in each IX. Manasseh

32,200 family';, a tolerablệ number; but apparently more, reaEphraim

40,500 sonable than the other.'_ANON.

A. M. 2514.
B. C. 1490.

CHAPTER II. Moses commanded . to teach the Israelites how they are to pitch their tents, and erect the ensigns of their

fathers' houses, 1, 2. Judah, Issachar, and Zebulun, on the East, amounting to 186,400 men, 3-9. Reuben, Simeon, and Gad, on the south, with 151,450 men, 10-16. The Levites to be in the midst of the camp, *17. Ephraim, Manasseh, and Benjamin, on the WEST, .with 108,100 men; 18–24. Dan, Asher, and Naphtali, on the NORTH, with 157,600 men, 25–31. The sum total of the whole, 603,550 men, 32. But the Levites are not included, 33. The people do as the Lord commands them, 34. A. M. 2534 AND the Lord "spake untopitch by his own standard, with An. Exod. Isr. 2. Moses and unto Aaron, the ensign of their father's house : An. Exod. Isr. 2. Ijar or Zif. saying, Þfar off about the tabernacle of

Ijar or Zif. 2 • Every man of the children of Israel shall the congregation shall they pitch. Chap. i. 52. _b Heb. over against.

c Josh. iii. 4. NOTES ON CHAP. II.

their camp in the wilderness. As God gave them the Verse 2. Every man--shall pitch by his own stand- plan, it was doubtless in every respect perfect; and ard] Commentators, critics, philosophers, and profes- | fully answered the double purpose of convenience and sional men, have taken a.great deal of pains to illus- security. Scheuchzer has entered into this subject trate this chapter by showing the best method of with his usual ability, and in very considerable detail. encampment for such a vast number of men, and the Following the plan of Reyher, as in the preceding manner in which they conceive the Israelites formed chapter, he endeavours to ascertain the precise order

2

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