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How the different tribes


were disposed in camps. 3 And on the east side toward 13 And his host, and those that An. Exod. Isr. 2. the rising of the sun, shall they were numbered' of them, were An. Exod. 1st: 2. Ijar or Zif. of the standard of the camp of fifty and nine thousand and three

Ijar. or Zif. Judah pitch throughout their armies : and hundred. a Nahshon the son of Amminadab shall be 1 14 Then the tribe of Gad : and the captain captain of the children of Judah,

of the sons of Gad shall be Eliasaph-the son 4. And his host, and those that were núm- of Reuel. bered of them, were threescore and fourteen 15 And his host, and those that were numthousand and six hundred.

bered of them, were forty and five thousand 5 And those that do pitch - next unto him and six hundred and fifty. shall be the tribe of Issachar: and Nethaneel 16 All that were numbered in the camp of the son of Zuar shall be captain of the chil- Reuben were a hundred thousand and fifty dren of Issachar.

and one thousand and four hundred and fifty, 6 And his host; and those that were num- throughout their armies & And they shall set bered thereof, were fifty and four thousand forth in the second rank. and four hundred:

17. Then the tabernacle of the congrega7 Then the tribe of Zebulun : and Eliab the tion shall set forward with the camp of the son of Helon shall be captain of the children Levites in the midst of the camp: as they of Zebulun.

encamp, so shall they set forward; every man 8. And his host, and those that were num- in his place by their standards. bered thereof, were fifty and seven thousand 18 On the west side shall be the standard and four hundred.

of the camp of Ephraim, according to their ar9 All that were numbered in the camp of mies: and the captains of the sons of Ephraim Judah were a hundred thousand and four- shall be Elishama the son of Ammihud. seore thousand and six thousand and four. 19 And his host, and those that were numhundred, throughout their armięs. These bered of them, were forty thousand and five shall first set forth:

hundred, :10 On the south side shall be the standard 20 And by him shall be the tribe of Manasof the camp of Reuben according to their seh; and the captain of the children of armięs; and the captain of the children of Manasseh shall be Gamaliel the son of Reubon shall be Elizar the son of Shedeur. Pedahzur. 11 And his host, and those that were num

21 And his host, and those that were numbered thereof, were forty and six thousand bered of them, were thirty and two thousand and five hundred,

and two hundred. 12 And those which pitch by him shall be 22 Then the tribe of Benjamin : and the the tribe of Simeon : and the captain of the captain of the sons of Benjamin shall be Abichildren of Simeon shall be Shelumiel thé son dan the son of Gideoni. of Zurishaddai.

23 And his host, and those that were num

Chap. x. 14 ; Ruth iv. 20; 1 Chron. ii. 10; Matt. i. 4; Luke Deuel; chapter i: 14; vii. 42, 47; X. 20.iii. 32, 33. Chap. x. 14.

h Chap. x. 17, 21,

5 Chap. x. 18.

in which the several tribes were disposed; and as his which we inhabit, where every thing is formed in order, work is both scarce and dear, the reader will not be number, weight, and measure; and in all bodies, great displeased to meet here with a translation of all that, and small. It is certain that Noah's ark is a perfect refers to the subject.

model of naval architecture. The temple of Solomon, SCHEUCHZER'S DESCRIPTION AND PLAN OF THE

and that of Ezekiel were likewise masterpieces in their ENCAMP


But at present we are to consider the Divine

arrangement of the Israelitish camp, and the manner "If we form a proper idea of God, of his essence in which it was formed. and his attributes, we shall easily perceive that this “ The Israelitish army was divided into three prininfinite and supreme Being wills and executes what cipal divisions. The first, which was the least in his Divine wisdom appoints; in a word, we shall see extent, but the strongest and the most powerful, occuthat he is the God of order. This order displays pied the centre of the-army: this was the throne of itself in the perfection, arrangement, and assemblage God, i. e., the TABERNACLE. The second, which was of all oreated, beings; in the construction of the earth | composed of the 'priests ;and Levites, surrounded the

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How the different tribes


were disposed in camps. A. M. 2514.. bered of them, were thirty and 30 And his host, and those that Au: Exod Isr

. 2. five thousand and four hundred. were numbered of them, were An. Exod. Isr. 2 Tjar or Zif. 24 All that were numbered of fifty and three thousand and four

Ijar or Zif. the camp of Ephraim were a hundred thou- hundred. sand and eight thousand- and a hundred; 31 Al! - they that were numbered in the throughout their armies.

And they shall go camp of Dan were a . hundred - thousand forward in the third rank.

and fifty and seven thousand and six hun25. The standard of the camp of Dan shall dred. They shall go hindmost with their be on the north side by their armies : and the standards. captain of the children of Dan shall be Ahi- 32 These are those which were numbered ezer the son of Ammishaddai.

of the children of Israel by the house of their 26 And his host, and those that were mum- fathers : 1 all those that were numbered of the bered of them, were threescore and two thou- camps throughout their hosts were six hunsand and seven hundred.

dred thousand and three thousand and five 27 And those that encamp by him shall be hundred and fifty. the tribe of Asher : and the captain of the chil- 33 But the Levites were not numbered dren of Asher shall be Pagiel the son of Ocran. among the children of Israel; as the LORD

28 And his host, and those that were num- commanded Moses. bered of them, were forty and one thousand 34 And the children of Israel did according and five hundred..

to all that the LORD commanded Moses : so 29 Then the tribe of Naphtali : •and the they pitched by their standards, and so they captain of the children of Naphtali shall be set forward, every one after their families, acAhira the son of Enan.

cording to the house of their fathers. Chap. x. 22. * Chap. x. 25. Exod. xxxvi. 26; chap. i. 46; xi. 21. Chap. i. 47.- Chap. xxiv. 2, 5, 6.



first. The third, and the farthest from the centre, colours; and the figures or arms, of the very ensigns. took in all the other tribes of Israel, who were at They pretend that on that of Judah a lion was painted, least about a mile from the tabernacle. For it ap- with this inscription : "Rise, Lord, let thine enemies pears from Josephus, iii. 4, that the nearest approach be dispersed, and let those that hate thee flee before they dared make to the 'ark, except during the time thee;' and they found this description of Judah’s enof worship, was a distance of 2,000 cubits. The re- sign in Gen. xlix. 9.' They give to ISSACHAR an ass, verence due to the Divine Majesty, the numerous Gen. xlix. 14; to ZeBULUN a ship, Gen. xlix. 13; to army of the Israelites, composed of 600,000 soldiers, REUBEN a river, Gen. xlix. 4, (others give Reuben the with their families, which made about 3,000,000 souls, figure of a man ;) tò Simeon a sword, Gen. xlix. 5; naturally demanded a considerable extent of ground. to GAD a lion, Deut. xxxiii. 20; to EPHRAIM a uniWe are not to imagine that all these families pitched corn, Deut. xxxiii. 17; an ox to MANASSEH, Deut. their tents pellmell, without prder, like beasts, or as xxxü. 17; a wolf to BENJAMIN, Gen. xlix. 27; and the troops of Tartary, and the eastern armies; on the a serpent to Dan, Gen. xlix. 17, though others give contrary, their camp was divided according to the most him an eagle.. In short, they pretend that the ensign exact rules. And we cannot even doubt that their of Asher was a handful of corn, Gen. xlix. 20, and camp was laid out, and the place of every division and that of NAPHTALi a stag, Gen. xlix. 21. tribe exactly assigned by some engineers, or geome- “ To prove that the sums here are correctly added, tricians, before the army stopped to, encamp, in order we have but to join together the detached numbers, that every person might at once find his own quarter, and see if they agree with the total. The text will and the road he ought to take to reach the other tents. furnish us with an example of this : there was in the

“ Four divisions, which faced the four quarters of quarter of the heavens, each with his own ensign, formed the


ver. 9. centre of the army. Juday was placed on the east,

Reuben 151,450

ver. 16. and under him he had Issachar and Zebulun ; on the

Ephraim 108,100

ver. 24. south was REUBEN, and under him Simeon and Gad:


157,600 on the west was EPHRAIM, and under him Manasseh and Benjamin ; finally, DAN was, on the north, “ Among other things we must remark that rule of and he had under him Asher and Naphtali. It has military tactics which requires that the advanced and been pretended by some that these four principal divi- rear guards should be stronger than the centre. sions were not alone distinguished by their ensigns, “In a well-regulated camp, cleanliness is considered but that each particular tribe had likewise its standard indispensably necessary; this is particularly remarkaor ensign. On this subject we might refer to the ble in the Israelitish army, where the most exact orTalmudists, who have gone so far- as to define the der was maintained. Hence every person who had

vér. 31.

Remarks on the


castrametation of the Israelites.


any kind of disease, and those who were reputed un- | trance of the Israelitish camps. See the note on clean, were forbidden to enter it; Num. V., 2, 3; Exod. xxxii. 27. Deut. xxiii. 10.

“ If we examine and compare the camp of Israel « Those who have the health of men, and of a whole with that of our most numerous armies, which in these army confided to them, are not ignorant that diseases days are composed of 100,000 or of 150,000 men, may be easily produced by putrid exhalations from we cannot but consider it of vast extent. The Jews excrementitious matter ; and that such maiter will pro- say it was twelve miles in circumference ;- this is not duce in camps pestilential fevers and dysenteries. For at all improbable, and consequently, the front of each this reason, care should be always taken that offices, wing must be three miles in extent. But taking in at a distance from the camp, be provided for the sol- the tents, the soldiers and their numerous families, the diers, and also that those who are sick should be sepa- beasts of burden, the cattle, and the goods, it certainly rated from the others, and sent to hospitals to be pro- must have formed a very considerable inclosure, much perly treated.

more than twelve miles. See the notes on Exod. “In military tactics 'we find two distinct wings xii

. 37, and xíži. 18. Reyher (Math. Mos., p. 568) spoken of; the right and the left. The Israelitish assigns to the army not only had them on one side, as is customary,

Tribe of JUDANI, but on all their four sides. On the eastern side, the tribe of Issachar formed the right, that of Zebulan the

A space of 298cubits in breadth and 250

in length left, and that of Judah the centre. On the south, Simeon formed the right wing, Gad the left, and

Which makes Reuben the centre. Towards the west, Manasseh

74,600 square cubits. composed the right, Benjamin the left, and Ephraim

“We must observe that we are here merely speakthe centre. And on the north, Asher was on the right ing of the ground which the soldiers of this tribe ocwing, Naphtali on the left wing, and Dan in the centre. cupied 'whilst remaining close to each other in their Notwithstanding this, however, the army was not in ranks, and that in this computation there is but one danger of being easily broken ; for every tribe being cubit square allowed for each man; wherefore, if we numerous, they were supported by several ranks, in take in the arrangement of the soldiers, the tents, the such a manner that the first being broken, the second necessary spaces, the families, the beasts of burden, was eapable of making resistance; and if the second and the movables, a much larger extent of ground is gave way, or shared the same fate as the first, it found requisite. All those circumstances do not come into

He continues thus:itself supported by the third, and so on with the rest. Rejher's calculation. The square form in which the Jewish army was ordi- For the tribe of ISSACHAR; narily placed, was the very best for security and de

217} cubits in breadth fence. The use and importance of the hollow square

250 in length in military tactics is well known. “For so large a multitude of people, and for so nu

Total 54,400 merous an army, it was needful that all the necessary articles of life should be prepared beforehand, or be

For the tribe of Gad, found ready to purchase. In these respects nothing

140 4 cubits in breadth was wapting to the Israelites. Their bread came down

325 in length to them from heaven, and they had besides an abundance of every thing that could contribute to magnifi- Total 45,650

If we may credit Josephus, they had amongst For the tribe of ZeBULUN, them public markets, and a variety of shops.

Ant., l.

229% cubits in breadth iii. c. 12, sec. 5.' The' tabernacle being erected, it

250 in length was placed in the midst of the camp, each of the three tribes stretching themselves on the wings, and leaving

Total between them a sufficient space to pass.

57,400 " It was, says Josephus, like a well appointed mar

For the tribe of EPHRAIM, ket where every thing was ready for sale in due order,

202 cnbits in breadth and all sorts of artificers kept their shops ; so that this

200 in length camp might be considered a movable city.

“ In Exod. xxxi. 27 we likewise find that mention Total 40,500 is made of the gates of the camp : Put every man For the tribe of REUBEN, his sword by his side, and go in and out from gate to

143} cubits in breadth gate throughout the camp.' From whence we may

325 in length certainly conclude that if the camp had gates, the Israelites had also sentinels to guard them. . If this be

Total true, we may also believe that they were surrounded

46,500 with entrenchments, or that at least their gates were

For the tribe of MANASSER, defended by some fortifications. ! Sagittarius (de

161 cubits in breadth Jan. Vet., c. 18. $ 10) pretends that the tabernacle

200 in length was not only guarded by the Levites, but that there were likewise sentinels at the gates, and at the en- Total



Remarks on the .


castrametation of the Israelites. For the tribe of SIMEON,

surpassed every thing of the kind ever seen. I shall 182793. cubits in ,breadth

now mention what I am about to propose as the foun 325 in length

dation upon which I shall proceed.,

In Exod. xvüi. 21, Deut. i. 15, we find the advice Total 59,300

given by Jethro to Moses respecting political governFor the tribe of BĚNJAMIN,

ment and military discipline : Thou shalt provide out

of all the people able men, such as fear God, men of 177 cubits in breadth 200 in length

truth, hating covetousness ; and place such over them,

to be rulers of thousands, and rulers of hundreds, rulers Total 35,400

of fifties, and rulers of tens.' (See the note on Exod.

xviii. 21.) We may very well compare these tribúnes, For the tribe of Dan,

or rather these chiliarchs, to our colonels, the centu 1563 Cubits in breadth

rions or hecatontarchș to commanders or captains, the 400 in length

quinqudgenaries or pentecontarchs to lieutenants, and

the decurions or decarchs to our sergeants. These Total 62,700

chiefs, whether they were' named magistrales or offiFor the tribe of Asher,

cers, were each drawn from his own particular tribe,

sô that it was not permitted to place over one tribe an 103] cubits in breadth

officer taken from another. Whatever matter the 400 in length

decarchs could not decide upon or terminate, went to

the pentecontarchs, and from thence by degrees to the Total 41,500

hécatontàrchs, to the chiliarchs, to Moses, and at For the tribe of NAPHTALI,

length to God himself, the sovereign head of the 133} cubits in breadth

army. - If we divide the whole army (such as it was 400 · in length

at its departure from Egypt) by the numbers already.

laid down, we, shall find 600 chiliarchs,' 6,000 hecaTotal 53,400

tontarchs, 12,000 pentecontarchs, 60,000 decarchs, “ If we make the ichnography, or even the sceno- lates the number of them still more exactly by say

which in all make 78,600 officers. Josephus regugraphy, of the camp on this plan, in following it we must first, in the centre, form a parallelogram of 100 ing that there were chiefs set over 10,000, 1,000, cubits long and 50 broad for the court of the taberna

500, 50, 30, 20, and 10. We find this regulation in cle with an empty space all round of 50 cubits broad. Ant. Jud., b. iii.,. c. 4:-Take a review of the army, We must then place the camp of the Levites in the and appoint chosen rulers over tens of thousands; and following order :

then over thousands, theo divide - them into five hun

dreds, and again into hundreds, ånd iīto fifties, and To the west, the Gershonites, chap: ji. 22, 23.

set rulers over each of them who may distinguish them Breadth 30 cubits

into thirties, and keep them in order; and at last numLength 250 cubits

-ber them by twenties and by tens, and let there be one

commander over each-number, to be denominated from Total 7500

the number of those over whom they are rulers.'. To the south, the Kohathites, chap. ii. 28, 29.

We ought not to pass over in silence this division Breadth cubits

by tens, for twice 10 make-20, three times 10, 30, Length 100 cubits

five times 10, 50, ten times 10, 100, ten times 50,

500, ten times 1,000, 10,000. It was in this manner, Total 8600

as is pretended, that Cangu, the first of the great To the north, the Merarites, chap. iij. 34, 35.

Khams, (as he is called,) and after him Tamerlane, Breadth 62 cubits

drew out an army, i. e., by 10, 100, 1,000, 10,000, Length 100 cubits

mentioned in Alhazen, c. v. Probably these Tartars

borrowed from the very Hebrews themselves this : Total 6200 manner of laying out a camp.

At all events it is « On the east we must place tents for Moses, Aaron, certain that nothing more ancient of the kind can be and his sons, chap. iii. 38.

found than that mentioned in the books of Moses. To “At the place where the camp of the Levites ends, distinguish it from that of the Greeks and Romans we a space must be left of 2,000 square cubits, after may with justice call it the Hebrew eastrametation, which we must take the dimensions of the camp of or, if we judge it more proper, the Divine castramethe twelve tribes.

tation, and consequently the most perfect of all. For * This plan is in the main well imagined, but it although Moses places the pentecontarchs in the middoes not afford an ichnography of sufficient extent. dle, between the hecatontarchs and the decarchs, i. e., To come more accurately to a proper understanding 50 between 100 and 10; and although Josephus of this subject; I shall examine the rules that are now afterward places 1,000 between 500 and 10,000, in use for encampments, and compare them afterward and 30 and 20 between 10 and 50, this does not at with what is laid down in the Holy Scriptures, in order all derange the progression by tens, which is the founthat we may hereby form to ourselves an idea of the dation of arithmetic. These subaltern officers were camp of God. the grandeur and perfection of which equally useful aud necessary, as we now see that their


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Remarks on the


castrametation of the Israelites.


number, far from creating confusion, helps to main-', eighth chiliad; 7. the chiliarchs or colonels of the setain order, and that the more there are of them the venth rank ; 0.' finally, the general of the whole army. better is order preserved. According to the modern Farther, by the same means the loss or 'misplacing method of carrying on war, the next in rank to the of their arms might be prevented. Again, the solgenerals of the army (who have the supreme com- diers might in a very short time be instructed and mand) are field marshals and brigadiers; who command formed to the exercise of arms, each decad having its 5,000 men.

sergeant for its master; and the chariots or other car“ There are then between the chiliarchs or colonels riages might easily be divided amongst several, 10 and the hecatonlarchs or captains, lieutenant-colonels ; under the decurion, 100 under the hecatontarch; and and between the hecatontarchs and the decarchs, lieu- by thus following the above method, every thing might tenant-captains ; and these have under them lieuten- be kept in good order. ants and ensigns.

A PLAN OF THE WHOLE ISRAELITISH CAMP. “ It is certain that this method of distributing an

“ We shall finally, in one plate, represent the whole army by tens, and of encamping, which is very concise, has far greater advantages even with respect to camp of the Israelites, in that order which appears the

most proper. expense than the very best plans of the Greeks, Ro

For this purpose we must extract the mans, or any other ancient nation. On this subject we square roots of the preceding spaces, in order that we have the testimony of Simon Steven, Castrametat. c. 1, may be able to assign to each tribe square areas, or art. 1, and c. 4, art. 3, Oper. Math., p. 574 and 596, rectangular parallelograms. I therefore find for &c. According to this arrangement each soldier, or


3049, square cubits. if more, proper, each father of a family, being thus


3443 placed by ten and ten in a straight line one after the

The Gershonites . 1224 other, might very easily name themselves first, second,

The Kohathites 1311 &c. Each troop in like manner might be distinguished

The Merarites 1113 by its ensigns, that of 100 might have them small,


3862 that of 1,000 larger, and that of 10,000 still larger.

Issachar Every officer, from the lowest subaltern to the general

Zebulun ! 3388 officers of the camp, and even to the generalissimos


3019 themselves, had only an easy inspection of ten men


2880 each; the decarch had the inspection of 10 soldiers,

Manasseh 2537 the hecatontarch of 10 decarchs, and the chiliarch of 10

Ephraim 2846 hecatontarchs, After the chiliarchs, which in no troop

Benjamin 2660 can amount to ten, there is the chief or head of each


3541 tribe. Each then exactly fulfilling the duty assigned

Naphtali 3268 him, we may suppose every thing to be in good order, “ The tabernaele, which was 100 cubits long and 50 even were the camp larger and more numerous. The broad, I place in the centre of the camp, at the dissame may be said respecting the contentions that might tance of 840 feet from the camp.of the Levites, which arise among the soldiers, as well as every thing rela- is placed exactly in the same manner as described in live to the general duty of the officers, as to the labours the sacred writings. I find therefore that the whole they were to undertake, whether for striking their space of the camp is 259,600,000 feet. Now, accordtents for works of fortification or for making entrench- ing to the manner we have just divided the camp for ments. This arrangement might be easily retained in each tribe, the sum total being 125,210,000, it follows the memory, or a general list be kept of the names of that the space between the tents contained 134,390,000. both officers and soldiers to distribute to them their If, with Eisenschmid, we estimate the Roman mile pay, and to keep exact accounts.

at 766 French fathoms and two feet, (consequently “ It was possible in one moment to know the num-21,141,604 square feet to a Roman square mile) the ber of those who were either wanting or were out of Israelitish camp will contain a little more than 12 such

to obliging each man to attend to his duty and keep in. The reader will have the goodness to observe that his rank. - If by chance it happened that anyone man the preceding observations, as well as the following wished to desert or had escaped, it was easy to notice plate or diagram, which was made by Scheuchzer' on him and inflict on him the punishment he merited. the exactest proportions, could not be accurately coThe ensigns being distinguished by their marks, and pied here without an engraved plate; and after all, the company being known, it was easy to find any the common reader could have profited no more by soldier whatever,

the plate than he can by the diagram. It is not even “ The armies themselves might have certain marks hoped that disquisitions of this kind. can give any to distinguish them, and by that means they might at thing more than a general idea how the thing proonce ascertain the person in question ; for example: bably was ; for to pretend to minute exactness, in such 8. 2. 7. 3. might signify the eighth soldier or father cases, would be absurd.' The sacred text informs us of a family, of the second rank, of the seventh company, that such and such tribes occupied the east, such the in the third chiliad ; 7. 3. 5. the halberdier of the west, &c., &c.; but how they were arranged individecurion or sergeant of the seventh line, in the third dually we cannot pretend absolutely to say. Scheuchcompany, of the fifth chiliad or thousand ; 5. 8. the zer's plan is such as we may suppose judgment and hecatontarchs or captains of the fifth company, in the l.skill would lay down; but is very probable that

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