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Remarks on the
castrametation of the Israelites.
the plan of the Israelites' castrametation was more per- | 5. Captains who command companies : these comfect than any thing we can well imagine; for as it was panies (on the war establishment) consist of 100 the plan whích probably God, himself laid down, it men each, and there are 10 companies in every must be in every respect what it ought to be, for the regiment, consequently a colonel, or lieutenantcomfort and safety of this numerous multitude.
colonel, commands 1,000 men. As there are some differences between the mode of 6. Lieutenants, of which there ) Subaltern officers, hadistributing the command of a large army among the are 2 to every company. Sving no cominand, but British, and that used on the continent, which is fol- 17. Ensign; 1 to each company. J assisting the captain. lowed by Scheuchzer, I shall lay down the descending 1. Commander-in-chief. scale of British commanders, which some may think 2. Lieutenant-generals command. These are called applies better to the preceding arrangement of the ing divisionis 5,000 each. general officers. Israelitish army than the other.
3. Major-generals, brigades 2,500. The command of a large army in the British service 4. Colonels, lieutenant-colonels, and majors; 3 officers is thus divided :
belonging to each regiment in the service, and I. The commander-in-chief.
are solely employed in the diseiplining and com2. Lieutenant-generals, who command divisions of the manding the men; these are mounted on horse
-army : (these divisions consist of 2 or 3 brigades back, and termed field-officers.
each, which, on an average, amount to 5,000 men.) 5. 1: Captain 3. Major-generals, who command brigades: (these bri- | 6.- 2 Lieutenants
each company. gades consist of from 2 to 3,000 men (2,500 is 7. 1 Ensign perhaps the average) according to the strength Ascending scale of ranks which every officer of the respective regiments of which the brigade
must pass through. . is composed.)
Ensign, 4. Colonels in the army, or lieutenant-colonels, who | Lieutenant,
command single regiments; they are assisted in Captain, the command of these regiments by the majors Major,
to every regiment. of the regiments. [I mention the major, that Lieutenant-colonel
, there may be no break in the descending scale. Colonel, of gradation of ranks, as in the event of the ab- Major-general, brigade-commander. sence of the above two officers, he is the next in Lieutenant-general, division-commander. command.)
General-in-chief, who commands the whole army.
Though I particularly refer the reader to the lutely certain ; as comprising a general view of what above diagram of the Israelitish camp, taken from may be supposed probable, likely, and practicable. Scheuchzer's plate, which I have thought necessary to The whole may be said to consist of three camps, -be subjoined to his description, yet I think it also proper viz., 1. The camp of the Lord; 2. The camp of the to introduce that on the following page, as it gives Levites; and, 3. The camp of the people. These a general and tolerably correct idea of this immense in the grand camp' in the wilderness, corresponded camp, in the description of which the inspired writer with the holy of holies, the holy place, and the has been so very particular; but still I must say these outward court of the Temple at Jerusalem. · See, things are to be considered as PROBABLE, not as abso- Ainsworth.
sons, 5-10. They are taken in the place of the first-born, 11-13. Moses is commanded to number them,
A. M. 2514. 1. M. 1994. THESE also are the genera- spake with Moses in Mount An. Exod. Isr. 2. tions of Aaron and Moses Sinai.
An. Exod.Isr. 2. Ijar or Zif. in the day that the Lord 2 And these are the names of
ljar or Zif.
B. C. 1490.
NOTES ON CHAP. III.
hence some have thought that the word Moses was Verse 1. The generations of Aaron and Moses) not originally in the text.' Others think that the words Though Aaron and Moses ate both mentioned here, nityn.bai veelleh-toledoth, these are the generations, yet the family of Aaron alone appears in the list ; 'should be rendered these are the acts, or transactions,
The Levites are to minister
under Aaron and his sons. A.M. 2514. the sons of Aaron ; Nadab the 8 And they shall keep all the A. M. 2514 B. C. 1490.
. An. Exod. Isr. 2. first-born, and Abihu, Eleazar, instruments of the tabernacle of An. Exod. Isr. 2. Ijar or Zif. and Ithamar. the congregation, and the charge
Ijar or Zif. 3 These are the names of the sons of Aaron, of the children of Israel, to do the service of \ the priests which were anointed, c whom he the tabernacle.
9 4 d And Nadab and Abihu died before the Aaron and to his sons: they are wholly given LORD, when they offered strange fire before unto him out of the children of Israel. ihe Lord, in the wilderness of Sinai, and they 10 .And thou shalt appoint Aaron and his had no children: and Eleazar and Ithamar sons, and they shall wait on their priest's ministered in the priest's office, in the sight office: i and the stranger that cometh nigh of Aaron their father..
shall be put to death. 5 And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, 11 And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying,
6 . Bring the tribe of Levi near, and present 12 And I, behold, I have taken the Levites them before Aaron the priest, that they may from among the children of Israel instead of minister unto him.
all the first-born that openeth the matrix among 7 And they shall keep his charge, and the the children of Israel : therefore the Levites charge of the whole congregation before the shall be mine : .' tabernacle of the congregation, to do the 13 Because l all the first-born are mine : service of the tabernacle.
m for on the day that I smote all the first-born a Exod. vi. 23. Exod. xxviii. 41; Lev: viii.- -c Hebrew 8 Chap. viii. 19; xviii. 6. Ch Chap. xviii. 7.
-i Verse 38; whose hand he filled.- _ Lev. x. 1; chap. xxvi. 61; 1 Chron. chap. i. 51 ; xvi. 40.- Lk Verse 41 ; chapter viü. 16; rruf xxiv. 2.-e Chap. viii. 6; xviii. 2.- See chap. i. 50 ; viii. Exod. xiu. 2; Lev.xxvii. 26; chapter viii. 16; Luke ii. 23. 11, 15, 24, 26.
m Exod. xiii. 12, 15, chap. viii. 17. or the history of the lives, as the same phrase may be itself and all its contents : see all described, ver. 25, understood in Gen. ii. 4; vi. 9. However this may 26, 31, 36, 37. The Levites were to perform the be, it is evident that in this genealogy the family of most common and laborious offices. It was their Aaron are alone mentioned, probably because these business to take down, put up, and carry, the taberbelonged to the priesthood. Moses passes by his own nacle and its utensils; for it was the object of their family, or immediate descendants; he gave no rank peculiar care. In a word, they were the servants of or privilege to them during his life, and left nothing the priests. to them at his death. They became incorporated with Verse 10. Aaron and his sons shall wait on their the Levites, from or amongst whom they are never priest's office] It was the business of the priests to offer distinguished. . What a strong proof is this of the the different sacrifices to God; to consecrate the shewcelestial origin of his religion! Had it been of man, bread, pour out the libations, burn the incense, sprinkle it must have had the gratification of some impure pas- the blood of the victims, and bless the people. In : sion for its object; lust, ambition, or avarice : but word, they were the servants of God alone. none of these ever appear during the whole of his ad- Verse 12. I have taken the Levites instead of all ministration ainongst the Israelites, though he had it the first-born] The Levites are taken for the service constantly in his power to have gratified each. What of the sanctuary in place of the first-born. The firstan essential difference between the religion of the Pen- born were dedicated to God in commemoration of his tateuch and that of the Koran! The former is God's slaying the first-born of the Egyptians, and preserving workmanship; the latter is a motley mixture of all those of the Israelitès. Even the cattle of the Lerites bad crafts, with here and there a portion of heavenly were taken in place of the first-born of the cattle of the fire, stolen from the Divine altar in the Old and New rest of the tribes. See ver. 45. Testaments, to give some vitality to the otherwise Several reasons have been assigned why God should inert mass.
give this honour to the tribe of Levi in preference to Verse 4. Nadab and Abihu died] See the notes on all the others, but they do not seem to me to be conLev. chap. x.
clusive. Their zeal in destroying those who had corVerse 6. Bring the tribe of Levi near] The origi- rupted the worship of God in the business of the golden nal word hakreb is properly a sacrificial word, calf, Exod. xxxii. 28, has been thought a sufficient and signifies the presenting of a sacrifice or offering to reason. A better reason is, that this was the smalles! the Lord. As an offering, the tribe of Levi was given tribe, and they were quite enough for the service. To up entirely to the service of the sanctuary, to be no have had a more numerous tribe at this time would longer their own, but the Lord's property.
have been very inconvenient. Verse 7. The charge of the whole congregation] Aaron, says Mr. Ainsworth, being in his priesthood They shall work for the whole congregation; and in- a type of Christ, all these rites are fulfilled in him. stead of the first-born.
For unto Christ God gave children, Heb. ii. 13. And Verse 8. All the instruments] The' tabernacle they are a congregation of first-born, whose names
A. M. 2514.
Enumeration of the
Levitical families. A. M. 2514. in the land of Egypt, I hallowed 24 And the chief of the house
B. C. 1490.
Ijar or Zif. they be : I am the LORD.
Lael. 14 And the LORD spake unto Moses in the 35° And the charge of the sons of Gershon wilderness of Sinai, saying,
in the tabernacle of the congregation shall be 15 Number the children of Levi after the the tabernacle, and w the tent, * the covering house of their fathers, by their families : thereof, and y the hanging for the door of the n every male, from a month old and upward, tabernacle of the congregation, shalt thou number them.
26 And ? the hangings of the court, and the 16 And Moses numbered them according to curtain for the door of the court, which is by the word of the LORD, as he was com- the tabernacle, and by the altar round about, manded.
and the cords of it for all the service thereof. 17 P And these were the sons of Levi by 27 C And of Kohath was the family of the their names ; Gershon, and Kohath, and Me- Amramites, and the family of the Izeharites, rari.
and the family of the Hebronites, and the fa18 And these are the names of the sons mily of the Uzžielites : these are the families of Gershon by their families ; 9 Libni, and of the Kohathites.., Shimei.
28 In the number of all the males, from a 19 And the sons of Kohath by their families; month old and upward, were eight thousand * Amråm, and Izehar, Hebron, and Uzziel. and six hundred, keeping the charge of the
20 • And the sons of Merari by their fami- sanctuary. lies; Mahli, and Mushi. These are the fami- 29,4 The families of the sons of Kohath lies of the Levites, according to the house of shall pitch on the side of the tabernacle their fathers.
southward. : 21 Of Gershon was the family of the Lib- 30 And the chief of the house of the father nites, and the family of the Shimites: these of the families of the Kohathites shall be are the families of the Gershonites.
Elizaphan the son of Uzziel.
according to the number of all the males, from a the table, and the candlestick, and the month old and upward, even those that were altars, and the vessels of the sanctuary wherenumbered of them were seven thousand and with they minister, and the hanging, and all five hundred.
the service thereof. 23 . The families of the Gershwhites shall 32 And Eleazar the son of Aaron the priest pitch behind the tabernacle westward. shall be chief over the chief of the Levites,
Ver. 39; chap. xxvi. 62.- _ Heb. mouth. p Gen. xlvi. . Exod. xxvi. 7, 14.-y Exod. xxvi, 36. Exod. xxvii. 9. 11; Exod. vi. 16; chap. xxvi. 57; 1 Chron. vi. 1. 16; xxiii. 6. a Exod. xxvii. 16. b Exod. xxxv. 18. C1 Chron. xxvi. 23. 9 Exod. vi. 17. Exod. vi. 18. - Exod. vi. 19.- -Chap. Chap. i. 53. Chap. iv. 15.
. Exod. xxv. 10. -5 Exod. i. 53. — Chap. iv. 24, 25, 26.- Exod. xxv. 9. Exod. xxv. 23.- h Exod. xxv. 31.-i Exod. xxvii. 1, xxx. 1. xxvi. 1.
* Exod. xxvi. 32. are written in heaven, Heb. xii. 23, being of God's who were to be their substitutes, should be also of all own will begotten by the word of truth, that they should ages ; and it appears to have been on this ground, at be a kind of first-fruits of his creatures, James i. 18, least partly, that the Levites were numbered from four to whom he also gives the first-fruits of his Spirit, weeks old and upward. Rom. viii. 23. These wait on and follow the Lamb, Verse 16. Moses numbered them] Though Moses being first-fruits unto God and to the Lamb, Rev. xiv. and Aaron conjointly numbered the twelve tribes, yet 4; and Christ hath made us kings and priests unto Moses alone numbered the Levites ; "for as the money God and his Father, that we may serve him day and with which the first-born of Israel, who exceeded the night in his temple, Rev. i: 6 ; vii. 15.
number of Levites, were redeemed, was to be paid to Verse 15. A month old and upward] The males Aaron and his sons, ver. 48, it was decent that he, of all the other tribes were numbered, from twenty whose advantage it was that the number of the first-born years and upward; had the Levites been numbered of Israel should exceed, should not be authorized to take in this way, they would not have been nearly equal in that number himself.”—Dodd, from Bishop Kidder. number to the first-born of the twelve tribes. Add to Verse 22. Seven thousand and five hundred] Perthis, that as there must have been first-born of all ages haps originally a resh, 200, instead of 7 caph, 500: in the other tribes, it was necessary that the Levites, see the following note.'