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Noah and his sons. • A. M. 997. 23 And all the days of Enoch and two years, and begata
A. M. 1056 B. C. 3017.
B. C. 2948. were three hundred sixty and five son: years :
29 And he called his name "Noah, saying, 24 And P Enoch walked with God : and be This same shall comfort us concerning our was not; for God took him.
work and toil of our hands, because of the A. M. 874. 25 And Methuselah lived a ground + which the Lord hath cursed. B. C. 3130.
hundred eighty and seven years, 30 And Lamech lived after he begat Noah and begat Lamech:
five hundred ninety and five years, and begat 26 And Methuselah lived after he begat sons and daughters : Lamech seven hundred eighty and two years, 31 And all the days of Lamech 4. M. 1651 and begat sons and daughters :
were seven hundred seventy and A. M. 1656. 27 And all the days of Methu- seven years : and he died.
selah were nine hundred sixty and 32 And Noah was five hundred A. M. 1556. nine years : and he died.
years old : and Noah begat Shem, 28 And Lamech lived a hundred eighty Ham, ' and Japheth.
B. C. 2348.
B. C. 2448.
P2 Kings ii. 11: Ecclus. xliv. 16; xlix. 14; Heb. xi. 5; i. 20. That is, rest or comfort.-Chap. iii. 17; iv. 11. 9 Heb. Lemech. — Gr. Noe; Luke iii. 36; Heb. xi. 7; 1 Pet. Chap. vi. 10. — Chap. X. 21.
may we not expect in these times, in which the Son Verse 29. This same shall comfort us] This is an of God tabernacles among men, in which God gives allusion, as some think, to the name of Noah, which the Holy Spirit to them who ask him, in which all they derive from ons nacham, to comfort ; but it is things are possible to him who believes ? No man can much more likely that it comes from nach or nia prove that Enoch had greater spiritual advantages nuach, to rest, to settle, &c. And what is more comthan any of the other patriarchs, though it seems fortable than rest after toil and labour? These words pretty evident that he made a better use of those that seem to have been spoken prophetically concerning were common to all than any of the rest did ; and it Noah, who built the ark for the preservation of the would be absurd to say that he had greater spiritual human race, and who seems to have been a typical helps and advantages than Christians can now expect, person ; for when he offered his sacrifice after the dryfor he lived under a dispensation much less perfect ing up of the waters, it is said that God smelled a than that of the law, and yet the law itself was only savour of rest, and said he would not curse the ground the shadow of the glorious substance of Gospel bless- any more for man's sake, chap. viii. 21; and from ings and Gospel privileges.
that time the earth seems to have had upon an average 7. It is said that Enoch not only walked with God, the same degree of fertility; and the life of man, in a setting him always before his eyes, beginning, conti- few generations after, was settled in the mean at threenuing, and ending every work to his glory, but also score years and ten. See chap. ix. 3. that he pleased God, and had the testimony that he did Verse 32. Noah begat Shem, Ham, and Japheth.] please God, Heb. xi. 5. Hence we learn that it was From chap. x. 21; 1 Chron. i. 5, &c., we learn that then possible to live so as not to offend God, conse- Japheth was the eldest son of Noah, but Shem is menquently so as not to commit sin against him; and to tioned first, because it was from him, in a direct line, have the continual evidence or testimony that all that that the Messiah came. Ham was certainly the a man did and purposed was pleasing in the sight of youngest of Noah's sons, and from what we read, chap. Him who searches the heart, and by whom devices ix. 22, the worst of them; and how he comes to be are weighed : and if it was possible then, it is surely, mentioned out of his natural order is not easy to be through the same grace, possible now ; for God, and accounted for. When the Scriptures design to mark Christ, and faith, are still the same.
precedency, though the subject be a younger son or Verse 27. The days of Methuselah were nine hun- brother, he is always mentioned first ; so Jacob is dred sixty and nine years] This is the longest life named before Esau, his elder brother, and Ephraim mentioned in Scripture, and probably the longest ever before Manasses. See chap. xxviii. 5 ; xlviii. 20. lived; but we have not authority to say positively that it was the longest. Before the flood, and before arti- AMONG many important things presented to our view ficial refinements were much known and cultivated, the in this chapter, several of which have been already life of man was greatly protracted, and yet of him who noticed, we may observe that, of all the antediluvian lived within thirty-one years of a thousand it is said patriarchs, Enoch, who was probably the best man, was he died; and the longest life is but as a moment when the shortest time upon earth; his years were exactly it is past . Though life is uncertain, precarious
, and as the days in a solar revolution, viz., three hundred full of natural evils, yet it is a blessing in all its periods and sixty-five; and like the sun he fulfilled a glorious if devoted to the glory of God and the interest of the course, shining more and more unto the perfect day, soul; for while it lasts we may more and more acquaint and was taken, when in his meridian splendour, to ourselves with God and be at peace, and thereby good l shine like the sun in the kingdom of his Father for ever. shall come unto us; Job xxii. 21.
| From computation it appears, 1. That Adam lived VOL. I.
The multiplication and
wickedness of man. to see Lamech, the ninth generation, in the fifty-sixth | life. 4. That Methuselah lived till the very year in year of whose life he died ; and as he was the first which the flood came, of which his name is supposed who lived, and the first that sinned, so he was the first to have been prophetical; ino methu," he dieth,” and who tasted death in a natural way. Abel's was not nho shalach," he sendeth out;" as if God had dea natural but a violent death. 2. That Enoch was signed to teach men that as soon as Methuselah died taken away next after Adam, seven patriarchs remain the flood should be sent forth to drown an ungodly ing witness of his translation. 3. That all the nine world. If this were then so understood, even the first patriarchs were taken away before the flood came, name of this patriarch contained in it a gracious warnwhich happened in the sixth hundredth year of Noah's | ing. See the genealogical plate after chap. xi.
The children of God, among whom the true religion was at first preserved, corrupt it by forming matrimonial
connections with irreligious women, 1, 2. God, displeased with these connections and their consequences, limits the continuance of the old world to one hundred and twenty years, 3. The issue of those improper connections termed giants, 4. An affecting description of the depravity of the world, 5, 6. God threalens the destruction of every living creature, 7. Noah and his family find grace in his sight, 8. The character and family of Noah, 9, 10. And a farther description of the corruption of man, 11, 12. Noah is forewarned of the approaching destruction of the human race, 13; and is ordered to build an ark for the safety of himself and household, the form and dimensions of which are particularly described, 14-16.
The deluge threatened, 17. The covenant of God's mercy is to be established between him and the family of Noah, 18. A male and female of all kinds of animals that could not live in the waters to be brought into the ark, 19, 20. Noah is commanded to provide food for their sustenance, 21; and punctually follows all these directions, 22.
4 There were giants in the earth in those 2 That the sons of God saw the daughters days; and also after that, when the sons of of men that they were fair ; and they b took God came in unto the daughters of men, and them wives of all which they chose.
they bare children to them, the same became 3 And the Lord said, - My Spirit shall not mighty men which were of old, men of renown.
A. M. 1536.
a Chap. i. 28 ; 2 Esdr. ii. 7.- Deut. vij. 3, 4.
c Gal. v. 16, 17; 1 Pet. iii. 19, 20.
_d Psa. Ixxviii. 39.
NOTES ON CHAP. VI.
nections with the inferior women, and the children Verse 1. When men began to multiply] It was not which sprang from this illicit commerce were the at this time that men began to multiply, but the inspired renowned heroes of antiquity, of whom the heathens penman speaks now of a fact which had taken place made their gods." long before. As there is a distinction made here be- Verse 3. My spirit shall not always strive] It is tween men and those called the sons of God, it is only by the influence of the Spirit of God that the generally supposed that the immediate posterity of carnal mind can be subdued and destroyed ; but those Cain and that of Seth are intended. The first were who wilfully resist and grieve that Spirit must be ultimere men, such as fallen nature may produce, degene-mately left to the hardness and blindness of their own rate sons of a degenerate father, governed by the de- hearts, if they do not repent and turn to God. God sire of the flesh, the desire of the eye, and the pride delights in mercy, and therefore a gracious warning is of life. The others were sons of God, not angels, as given. Even at this time the earth was ripe for desome have dreamed, but such as were, according to struction ; but God promised them one hundred and our Lord's doctrine, born again, born from above, John twenty years' respite : if they repented in that interim, iii. 3, 5, 6, &c., and made children of God by the in- well; if not, they should be destroyed by a flood. fluence of the Holy Spirit, Gal. v. 6. The former See on ver. 5. were apostates from the true religion, the latter were Verse 4. There were giants in the earth) d'903 those among whom it was preserved and cultivated. nephilim, from 593 naphal," he fell.” Those who had
Dr. Wall supposes the first verses of this chapter apostatized or fallen from the true religion. The Sepshould be paraphrased thus : “When men began to tuagint translate the original word by yıyavtes, which inultiply on the earth, the chief men took wives of all literally signifies earth-born, and which we, following the handsome poor women they chose. There were them, term giants, without having any reference to the tyrants in the earth in those days; and also after the meaning of the word, which we generally conceive to antediluvian days powerful men had unlawful con- signify persons of enormous slalure. But the word
a. M. 1536. B. C. 2468.
God purposes to
destroy the earth. 5 And God saw that the wicked-penteth me that I have made 4. M: 1536.
ness of man was great in the earth, them. and that every fimagination of the thoughts 8 But Noah ? found grace in the eyes of the of his heart was only evil 6 continually. LORD.
6 And it hrepented the LORD that he had 9 These are the generations of Noah : made man on the earth, and it grieved him Noah was a just man, and perfect in his at his heart.
generations, and Noah walked with God : 7 And the LORD said, I will destroy man 10 And Noah begat three sons, A. M. cir. 1556. whom I have created from the face of the Shem, Ham, and Japheth. earth; * both man and beast, and the creep- 11 The earth also was corrupt before ing thing, and the fowls of the air ; for it re-God, and the earth was filled with violence.
B. C. cir. 24-18.
• Or, the whole imagination. The Hebrew word signifieth, not | 19; Exod. xxxiii. 12, 13, 16, 17; Luke i. 30; Acts vii. 46. only the imagination, but also the purposes and desires. Chap · Chap. vii. 1 ; Ezek. xiv. 14, 20; Ecclus. xliv. 17; Rom. i. 17, viii. 21 ; Deut. xxix. 19; Prov. vi. 18; 2 Esdr. iii. 8; Matt. xv. Heb. xi. 7; 2 Pet. ii. 5. - Or, upright.
:-_. Chap. v. 22. 19. ~ Heb. every day. See Num. xxiii. 19; 1 Sam. xv. p Chap. v. 32. Chap. vii. 1; x. 9; xiii. 13; 2 Chron. xxxiv 11, 29; 2 Sam. xxiv. 16; Mal, ini. 6; James i. 17.- Li Isa. Ixiii. 27; Luke i. 6; Rom. ii. 13; ii. 19. Ezek. vii. 17; xxviii 10; Eph. iv. 30. _k Heb. from man unto beast. Chap. xix. 16; Hab. ii. 8, 17.
when properly understood makes a very just distinction and cruelty and oppression among the higher classes, between the sons of men and the sons of God; those being only predominant. 4. All the imaginations of were the nephilim, the fallen earth-born men, with the their thoughts were evil--the very first embryo of animal and devilish mind. These were the sons of every idea, the figment of every thought, the very God, who were born from above; children of the king- materials out of which perception, conception, and dom, because children of God. Hence we may sup- ideas were formed, were all evil; the fountain which pose originated the different appellatives given to sin- produced them, with every thought, purpose, wish, ners and saints; the former were termed ylyavtes, desire, and motive, was incurably poisoned. 5. All earth-born, and the latter, úyloi, i. e. saints, persons not these were evil without any mixture of good—the of the earth, or separated from the earth.
Spirit of God which strove with them was continually The same became mighly-men-men of renown.] resisted, so that evil had its sovereign sway. 6. They Ding9 gibborim, which we render mighty men, signifies were evil continually—there was no interval of good, properly conquerors, heroes, from 100 gabar, “ he pre- no moment allowed for serious reflection, no holy purvailed, was victorious," and DVN 'VIX anshey hashshem, pose, no righteous act. What a finished picture of “men of the name,” avoputol ovoLaotoi, Septuagint; a fallen soul ! Such a picture as God alone, who the same as we render men of renown, renominati, searches the heart and tries the spirit, could possibly twice named, as the word implies, having one name give. 7. To complete the whole, God represents which they derived from their fathers, and another which himself as repenting because he had made them, and they acquired by their daring exploits and enterprises. as grieved at the heart because of their iniquities !
It may be necessary to remark here that our trans- Had not these been voluntary transgressions, crimes lators have rendered seven different Hebrew words by which they might have avoided, had they not grieved the one term giants, viz., nephilim, gibborim, enachim, and quenched the Spirit of God, could he speak of rephaim, emim, and zamzummim; by which appella- them in the manner he does here? 8. So incensed tives are probably meant in general persons of great is the most holy and the most merciful God, that he is knowledge, piety, courage, wickedness, &c., and not determined to destroy the work of his hands : And the men of enormous stature, as is generally conjectured. Lord said, I will destroy man whom I have created ;
Verse 5. The wickedness of man was great] What ver. 7. How great must the evil have been, and how an awful character does God give of the inhabitants provoking the transgressions, which obliged the most of the antediluvian world! 1. They were flesh, (ver. 3,) compassionate God, for the vindication of his own wholly sensual, the desires of the mind overwhelmed glory, to form this awful purpose! Fools make a mock and lost in the desires of the flesh, their souls no longer at sin, but none except fools. discerning their high destiny, but ever minding earthly Verse 8. Noah found grace in the eyes of the Lord.] things, so that they were sensualized, brutalized, and Why? Because he was, 1. A just man, p'iy v'N ish become flesh; incarnated so as not to retain God in tsaddik, a man who gave to all their due'; for this is their knowledge, and they lived, seeking their portion the ideal meaning of the original word. 2. He was in this life. 2. They were in a state of wickedness. perfect in his generation he was in all things a conAll was corrupt within, and all unrighteous without; sistent character, never departing from the truth in neither the science nor practice of religion existed. principle or practice. He walked with God he Piety was gone, and every form of sound words had was not only righteous in his conduct, but he was disappeared. 3. This wickedness was great 7737 pious, and had continual communion with God. The rabbah, was multiplied;" it was continually increas- same word is used here as before in the case of Enoch. ing, and multiplying increase by increase, so that the See chap. v. 22. whole earth was corrupt before God, and was filled Verse 11. The earth also was corrupt] See on with violence, (ver. 11;) profligacy among the lower, ) verse 5.
God instructs Noah
how to make the ark
A. M. cir. 1556.
12 And God s looked upon 14 Make thee an ark of gopher AM. 1536
the earth, and, behold, it was wood; "rooms shalt thou make in corrupt ; for all flesh had corrupted his way the ark, and shalt pitch it * within and withupon the earth.
out with pitch. 13 And God said unto Noah, · The end of 15 And this is the fashion which thou shalt all flesh is come before me; for the earth is make it of: The length of the ark shall be filled with violence through them: "and, be three hundred cubits, y the breadth of it fifty hold, I will destroy them with the earth. cubits, and the height of it thirty cubits.
• Chap. xviii. 21; Psa. xiv. 2 ; xxxii. 13, 14 ; lui. 2, 3.- - Jer.
u Ver. 17. --Or, from the earth. -" Heb. nests.- Exod. li. 13; Ezek. vij. 2, 3, 6; Amos viii. 2; 1 Pet. iv. 7.
ii. 3. —y Chap. vii. 20; Deut. ii. ll. Verse 13. I will destroy them with the earth.) Not measured the pyramids in Egypt, and comparing the only the human race was to be destroyed, but all ter- accounts which Herodotus, Strabo, and others, give of restrial animals, i. e. those which could not live in the their size, he found the length of a cubit to be twentywaters. These must necessarily be destroyed when one inches and eight hundred and eighty-eight decimal the whole surface of the earth was drowned. But de- parts out of a thousand, or nearly twenty-two inches. stroying the earth may probably mean the alteration Hence the cube of a cubit is evidently ten thousand of its constitution. Dr. Woodward, in his natural his four hundred and eighty-six inches. And from this tory of the earth, has rendered it exceedingly probable it will appear that the three hundred cubits of the ark's that the whole terrestrial substance was amalgamated length make five hundred and forty-seven feet; the with the waters, after which the different materials of fifty for its breadth, ninety-one feet two inches; and its composition settled in beds or strata according to the thirty for its height, fifty-four feet eight inches their respective gravities. This theory, however, is When these dimensions are examined, the ark will be disputed by others.
found to be a vessel whose capacity was more than Verse 14. Make thee an ark] non tebath, a word sufficient to contain all persons and animals said 10 which is used only to express this vessel, and that in have been in it, with sufficient food for each for more which Moses was preserved, Exod. ii. 3, 5. It sig- than twelve months. This vessel Dr. Arbuthnot comnifies no more than our word vessel in its common putes to have been eighty-one thousand and sixty-two acceptation—a hollow place capable of containing per- tons in burden. sons, goods, &c., without any particular reference to As
many have supposed the capacity of the ark to shape or form.
have been much too small for the things which were Gopher wood] Some think the cedar is meant ; contained in it, it will be necessary to examine this others, the cypress. Bochart renders this probable, subject thoroughly, that every difficulty may be re1. From the appellation, supposing the Greek word moved. The things contained in the ark, besides the KUTTAPLoooc, cypress, was formed from the Hebrew 101 eight persons of Noah's family, were one pair of all gopher ; for take away the termination cocos, and then unclean animals, and seven pairs of all clean animals, gopher and kurap will have a near resemblance. 2. with provisions for all sufficient for twelve months. Because the cypress is not liable to rot, nor to be in- At the first view the number of animals may appear jured by worms. 3. The cypress was anciently used so immense that no space but the forest could be for ship-building. 4. This wood abounded in Assyria, thought sufficient to contain them. If, however, we where it is probable Noah built the ark. After all, come a calculation, the number of the different the word is of doubtful signitication, and occurs no- genera or kinds of animals will be found much less where else in the Scriptures. The Septuagint render than is generally imagined. It is a question whether the place, εκ ξυλων τετραγωνων, “ of square timber ;" | in this account any but the different genera of animals and the Vulgate, de lignis lævigatis, " of planed tim- necessary to be brought into the ark should be inber;" so it is evident that these translators knew not cluded. Naturalists have divided the whole system of what kind of wood was intended by the original. The zoology into classes and orders, containing genera Syriac and Arabic trifle with the passage, rendering and species. There are six classes thus denominated : it wicker work, as if the ark had been a great basket! 1. Mammalia ; 2. Aves ; 3. Amphibia ; 4. Pisces; Both the Targums render it cedar; and the Persian, 5. Insecte; and 6. Vermes. With the three last of pine or fir.
these, viz., fishes, insects, and worms, the question can Verse 15. Thou shalt make the length of the ark have little to do. -three hundred cubits, the breadth of it fifty cubits, The first class, Mammalia, or animals with teats. and the height of it thirty cubits) Allowing the cubit, contains seven orders, and only forty-three genera if which is the length from the elbow to the tip of the we except the seventh order, cele, i. e. all the whale middle finger, to be eighteen inches, the ark must have kind, which certainly need not come into this account. been four hundred and fifty feet in length, seventy-five The different species in this class amount, the cete exin breadth, and forty-five in height. But that the an- cluded, to five hundred and forty-three. cient cubit was more than eighteen inches has been The second class, Aves, birds, contains six orders, demonstrated by Mr. Greaves, who travelled in Greece, and only seventy-four genera, if we exclude the third Palestine, and Egypt, in order to be able to ascertain order, anseres, or web-footed fowls, all of which could the weights, moneys, and measures of antiquity. He very well live in the water. The different species in
The flood threatened.
The covenant with Noah. A. M. 1536
16 A window 2 shalt thou make wherein is the breath of life, from A. M. 1536. B. C. 2468.
B. C. . to the ark, and in a cubit shalt thou under heaven; and everything finish it above; and the door of the ark shalt that is in the earth shall die. thou set in the side thereof; with lower, 18 But with thee will I d establish
my covesecond, and third stories shalt thou make it. nant; and thou shalt come into the ark,
17 And behold, I, even I, do bring a flood thou, and thy sons, and thy wife, and thy of waters upon the earth, to destroy all flesh, sons' wives with thee.
• Chap. viii. 6. — Chap. vii. 16; Luke xiii. 25.- Ver. 3, 4; Amos ix. 6. - Chap. ii. 7; chap. vii. 15.-- Chap. 13; ebap. vu. 4, 21, 22, 23; 2 Pet. ii. 5; Psa. xxix. 10; xciii. ix. 9.- ce Chap. vii. 1, 7, 13; 1 Pet. iii. 20; 2 Pet. ïi. 5.
this class, the anseres excepted, amount to two thou- an objection against Scripture, ought to be esteemed sand three hundred and seventy-two.
a confirmation of its Divine authority; since, in those The third CLASS, Amphibia, contains only two orders, ruder ages men, being less versed in arts and philosoreptiles and serpents; these comprehend ten genera, phy, were more obnoxious to vulgar prejudices than and three hundred and sixty-six species, but of the rep- now, so that had it been a human invention it would tiles many could live in the water, such as the tortoise, have been contrived, according to those wild apprefrog, fc. of the former there are thirty-three spe- hensions which arise from a confused and general view cies, of the latter seventeen, which excluded reduce of things, as much too big as it has been represented the number to three hundred and sixteen. The whole too little." See Bishop Wilkins's Essay towards a of these would occupy but little room in the ark, for Philosophical Character and Language. a small portion of earth, fc., in the hold would be Verse 16. A window shalt thou make] What this sufficient for their accommodation.
was cannot be absolutely ascertained. The original Bishop Wilkins, who has written largely and with word -778 tsohar signifies clear or bright; the Septuahis usual accuracy on this subject, supposes that quad- gint translate it by en lovvaywv, collecting, thou shalt rupeds do not amount to one hundred different kinds, make the ark,” which plainly shows they did not unnor birds which could not live in the water to two hun- derstand the word as signifying any kind of window dred. Of quadrupeds he shows that only seventy-two or light. Symmachus translates it diapaves, transspecies needed a place in the ark, and the birds he parency; and Aquila, pronußpivov, the noon. Jonadivides into nine classes, including in the whole one than ben. Uzziel supposes that it was a precious lumihundred and ninety-five kinds, from which all the web- nous stone which Noah, by Divine command, brought footed should be deducted, as these could live in the from the river Pison. It is probably a word which water.
should be taken in a collective sense, signifying aperHe computes all the carnivorous animals equivalent, tures for air and light. as to the bulk of their bodies and food, to twenty-seven In a cubit shalt thou finish it above) Probably wolves; and all the rest to one hundred and eighty meaning that the roof should be left a cubit broad at oxen. For the former he allows one thousand eight the apex or top, and that it should not terminate in a hundred and lwenty-five sheep for their annual con- sharp ridge. But this place is variously understood. sumption; and for the latter, one hundred and nine Verse 17. 1,-do bring a flood] Sian; mabbul ; a thousand five hundred cubits of hay: these animals word used only to designate the general deluge, being and their food will be easily contained in the two first never applied to signify any other kind of inundation ; stories, and much room to spare ; as to the third story, and does not the Holy Spirit intend to show by this no person can doubt its being sufficient for the fowls, that no other flood was ever like this, and that it should with Noah and his family.
continue to be the sole one of the kind ? There One sheep each day he judges will be sufficient for have been many partial inundations in various counsir wolves; and a square cubit of hay, which contains tries, but never more than one general deluge ; and forty-one pounds, as ordinarily pressed in our ricks, we have God's promise, chap. ix. 15, that there shall will be amply sufficient for one or in the day. When never be another, the quantum of room which these animals and their Verse 18. With thee will I establish my covenant] provender required for one year, is compared with the The word niya berith, from 12 bar, to purify or cleanse, capacity of the ark, we shall be lead to conclude, with signifies properly a purification or purifier, (see on chap. the learned bishop, “ that of the two it is more diffi- xv.,) because in all covenants made between God and cult to assign a number and bulk of necessary things man, sin and sinfulness were ever supposed to be on to answer to the capacity of the ark, than to find man's side, and that God could not enter into any sufficient room for the several species of animals and covenant or engagement with him without a purifier 3 their food already known to have been there.” This hence, in all covenants, a sacrifice was offered for the he attributes to the imperfection of our lists of animals, removal of offences, and the reconciliation of God to especially those of the unknown parts of the earth; the sinner ; and hence the word ning berith signifies and adds, “ that the most expert mathematicians at this not only a covenant, but also the sacrifice offered on day," and he was one of the first in Europe, "could the occasion, Exod. xxiv. 8 ; Psalm 1. 5; and Jesus not assign the proportion of a vessel better accommo- Christ, the great atonement and purifier, has the same dated to the purpose than is here done ;" and concludes word for his title, Isa. xlii. 6; xlix. 8; and Zech, thus : “ The capacity of the ark, which has been made ix. 11.