« AnteriorContinuar »
Observations on the
preceding chapter. rians, including all the people of Syria, Mesopotamia, 1 9. That he did seek to find out the will of the true &c.; but Calmet strongly contends that by Chittim God, by using those means which God himself had Macedonia is meant, and that the prophecy refers to prescribed, viz., supplication and prayer, and the sacrithe conquests of Alexander. Chittim was one of the fice of clean béasts. sons of Javan, the son of Japheth, tle son of Noah, 10. That though he knew it would greatly displease Gen. x. 4; and his posterity, according to Josephus, Balak, yet he most faithfully and firmly told him all Antiq., 1. ij., c. 22, settled in Cilicia, Macedonia, Cy- that God said on every occasion. prus, and Italy also ; and therefore, says Mr. Ains- 11. That notwithstanding his allowed covetous disworth, the prophecy may imply both the troubles that position, yet he refused all promised honours and profbefell the Assyrians and Jews by the Greeks and Se-fered rewards, even of the most extensive kind, to leucidæ, in the troublous days of Antiochus.
induce him to act in any respect contrary to the deAnd shall afflict Eber] Probably not the Hebrews, clared will of God. as some think, but the people on the other side the 12. That God on this occasion communicated to Euphrates, from ny abar, to pass over, go beyond ; him some of the most extraordinary prophetic influall which people were discomfited, and their empire ences ever conferred on man. destroyed by Alexander the Great.
13. That his prophecies are, upon the whole, clear Verse 25. And Balaam-returned to his place) and pointed, and have been fulfilled in the most reIntended to have gone to Mesopotamia, his native markable manner, and furnish a very strong argument country, (see Deut. xxiii. 4,) but seems to have seuiled in proof of Divine revelation. among the Midianites, where he was slain by the Is- 14. That notwithstanding the wicked counsel given raelites; see chap. xxxi. 8.
to the Midianites, the effects of which are mentioned
in the following chapter, on which account he probably Though the notes in the preceding chapters have lost his life, (chap. xxxi. 8,) the badness of this man's been extended to a considerable length, yet a few character has been very far overrated ; and that it additional remarks may be necessary : the reader's does not appear that he was either a hypocrite, false aitention is earnestly requested to the following pro- prophet; or a sorcerer in the common acceptatior of the positions :
term, and that he risked even life itself in following 1. It appears. sufficiently evident from the preced- and fulfilling the will of the Lord ! "ing account that Balaam knew and worshipped the 15. That though it is expressly asserted, chap. true God.
xxxi. 16, and Rev. ii. 14, that Israel's committing 2. That he had been a true prophet, and appears to whoredom with the daughters of Moab was brought have been in the habit of receiving oracles from God. about by the evil counsel given by Balaam to cast this
3. That he'practised some illicit branches of know- stumbling-block in their way, yet it does not appear ledge, or was reputed by the Moabites as a sórcerer, from the text that he had those most criminal intenprobably because of the high reputation he had for tions which are generally attributed to him; sor as wisdom; and we know that even in our own country, we have already seen so much good in this man's chain the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, persons who racter, and that this, and his love of money (and who excelled their contemporaries in wisdom were reputed thinks this a sin ?) are almost the only blots in it, it as magicians.
must certainly be consistent with candour and charity 4. That though he was a believer in the true God, to suggest a method of removing at least some part yet he was covetous; he loved the wages of unright of this blame.
16. I would therefore simply say that the counsel 5. That it does not appear that in the case before given by Balaam to Balak might have been * to form us he wished to curse Israel when he found they were alliances with this people, especially through the methe servants of the true God.
dium of matrimonial connections; and seeing they 6. That it is possible he did not know this at first. could not conquer them, to endeavour to make them Balak told him that there was a numerous people come their friends." Now, though this might not be deout of Egypt; and as marauders, wandering hordes, signed by Balaam to bring them into a snare, yet it freebooters, &c., were frequent in those days, he was a bad doctrine, as it led to the corruption of the might take them at first for such spoilers, and the holy seed, and to an unequal yoking with unbelievers ; more readily go at Balak's request to consult God which, though even in a matrimonial way, is as conconcerning them..
trary to sound policy as to the word of God. See the 7. That so conscientiously did he act in the whole notes on chap. xxv. 3, 6. business, that as soon as he found it displeased God 17. That it was the Moabitish women, not Balaam, he cheerfully offered to return ; and did not advance that called the people to the sacrifice of their gods; till he had not only the permission, but the authority and it argued great degeneracy and iniquity in the of God to proceed.
hearts of the people on so slight an invitation to join 8. That when he came in view of the Israelitish so suddenly so impure a worship, and so speedily to camp he did not attempt to make use of any means of cast off the whole form of godliness, with every porsorcery, evocation of spirits, necromantic spells, &c., ţion of the fear of the Almighty ; therefore the high to accomplish the wish of Balak.
blame rests ultimately with themselves.
The people commit whoredom,
and join themselves to Baal-peor
CHAPTER XXV. ·
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B. C. 1451.
While Israel abode in Shittim the people commit whoredom with the daughters of Moab, 1. They become
idolaters, 2. The anger of the Lord is kindled against them, and he commands the ringleaders to be hanged, 3, 4. Moses causes the judges to slay the transgressors, 5. Zimri, one of the Israelilish princes of the tribe of Simeon, brings a Midianilish princess, named Cozbi, into his tent, while the people are deploring their iniquity before the tabernacle, 6. Phinehas, the son of Eleazar, incensed by this insult to the laws and worship of God, runs after them and pierces them both with a javelin, 7, 8. Twenty-four thousand die of the plague, sent as a punishment for their iniquity, 9. The Lord grants to Phinchas a covenant of peace and an everlasting priesthood, 10-13. The name and quality of the Israelitish man and Midianitish woman, 14, 15. God commands the Israclites to ver and smite the Midianites, icho had seduced them to the worship of Baal-peor, 16–18. A. M. 2553. ND Israel abode in Shittim, , 5 And Moses said unto
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and the people began to judges of Israel, " Slay ye every An. Exod. Isr. 40.
commit whoredom with the one his men that were joined unto daughters of Moab.
Baal-peor. 2 And they called the people unto d the 6 And, behold, one of the children of Israel sacrifices of their gods : and the people did came and brought unto his brethren a Midianeat, and e bowed down to their gods. itish woman in the sight of Moses, and in the
3 And Israel joined himself unto Baal-peor: sight of all the congregation of the children of and the anger of the LORD was kindled against Israel, who were weeping before the door of Israel.
the tabernacle of the congregation. 4 And the LORD said unto Moses, & Take all 7 And m when Phinehas the son of Eleazar, the heads of the people, and hang them up the son of Aaror the priest, saw it, he rose up before the Lord against the sun, 5 that the from among the congregation, and took a jarefierce anger of the Lord may be turned away lin in his hand; from Israel.
8 And he went after the man of Israel into Chap. xxxiii. 49; Josh. ii. 1 ; Mic. vi. 5.—_. Chap. xxxi. 16 ; & Deut. iv. 3 ; Josh. xxii. 17.-- Ver. ll; Deut' n. 17. 1 Cor. x. 8.
-C Joshua xxii. 17; Psa. cvi. 28; Hoss ix. 10. Exod. xviii. 21, 25.- * Exod. xxxii. 27; Deut. xn. 6. 9, 13, Exodus xxxiv. 15, 16; 1 Cor. x. 20. — Exodus. xx. 5. Joel ü. 17. -m Psa. cvi. 30; Ecclus. xlv. 23; I Mac. i Psa. cvi. 29:
ii. 51. — Exod. vi. 25. NOTES ON CHAP. XXV.
Verse 5. Slay ye every one his men in the difVerse 3. Israel joined himself unto Baal-peor] The ferent departments where you preside over thousands, same as the Priapus of the Romans, and worshipped hundreds, fifties, and tens, slay all the culprits that with the same obscene rites as we have frequently had shall be found. occasion to remark.
Verse 6. 'One of the children of Israel] Zimri, the The joining to Baal-peor, mentioned here, was pro- son of Salu, a prince of a chief family in the tribe of bably what St. Paul had in view when he said, 2 Cor. Simeon, ver. 14, brought a Midianitish woman, Cozbi, vi. 14 ; Be ye not unequally yoked together with un- daughter of Zur, head over a people of one of the believers. And this joining, though done even in a chief families in Midian, ver. 15. The condition of matrimonial way, was nevertheless fornication, (see these two persons plainly proves it to have been a Rev. ii, 14;) as no marriage between an Israelite and matrimonial alliance, the one was prince, the other a Midianite could be legitimate, according to the law a princess; therefore I must conclude that fornication of God. See the propositions at the close of the pre- or whoredom, in the common sense of the word, was ceding chapter.
not practised on this occasion. The matter was bad Verse 4. Take all the heads of the people, fc.). enough, as the marriage was in flat opposition to the Meaning the chiefs of those who had transgressed; as law of God; and we need not make it worse by repreif he had said, “ Assemble the chiefs and judges, insti- senting the woman as a common prostitute, as the Vultute an inquiry concerning the transgressors, and hang gate and several others have done. In such a case them who shall be found guilty before the Lord, as a this is absolutely, inadmissible. Josephus positively matter required by his justice.” Against the sun—in says that Zimri had married Cozbi, Antiq., l. iv., cap. the most public manner, and in daylight.
6; and if he had not said so, still the thing is nearly Dr. Kennicott has remarked that the Samaritan and self-evident. See the conclusion of chap. xxiv. Hebrew texts must be both taken together, to make The children of Israel, who were weeping] This the sense here complete : And the Lord said unto aggravated the crime, because the people were then in Moses, Speak unto all the heads of the people; AND a state of great humiliation, because of the late impure LET THEM SLAY THE MEN THAT WERE JOINED TO BAAL- and illegal transactions. PEOR; and hang them up before the Lord against the Verse 8. Thrust both of them through] Inspired
undoubtedly by the Spirit of 'the God of just.ce to do
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God's promise to Phinehas.
The Midianites to be smitten the tent, and thrust both of them God, and * made an atonement for An. Exod. Isr. through, the man of Israel, and the children of Israel.
the woman through her belly. 14 Now the name of the IsraelSo o the plague was stayed from the children ite that was slain, even that was slain with the of Israel.
Midianitish woman, was Zimri, the son of Salu, 9 And P those that died in the plague were a prince of ya chief house among the Simeonites. twenty and four thousand.
15 And the name of the Midianitish woman 10 And the Lord. spake unto Moses, saying, that was slain was Cozbi, the daughter of
11 9 Phinehas the son of Eleazar, the son of a Zur; he was head over a people, and of a Aaron the priest, hath turned my wrath away chief house in Midian. from the children of Israel, while he was 16 And the Lord'spake unto Moses, saying, zealous ' for my saké among them, that I con- 17 - Vex the Midianites, and smite them : sumed not the children of Israel in my jealousy. 18 For they vex you with their wiles,
12 Wherefore say, Behold, I give unto him wherewith they have beguiled you in the my covenant of peace :
matter of Peor, and in the matter of Cozbi, 13 And he shall have it, and u his seed after the daughter of a prince of Midian, their sister, him, even the covenant of an everlasting which was slain in the day of the plague for priesthood ; because he was w zealous for his Peor's sake.
. Psa. cvi. 30.- -p Deut. iv.3; 1 Cor. x. 8.-9 Psa. cvi. 30 ; Ecelus. xlv. 24; I Mac. ii. 54. - See 1 Chron. vi. 4, &c. Ecclus. xlv. 23.
—Heb. with my zeal ; see 2 Cor. xi. 2. Exod. xl. 15; Ecclus. xlv. 24. - Acts xxii. 3; Rom. X. 2. • Exod. xx. 5; Deut. xxxii. 16, 21 ; 1 Kings xiv. 22; Psa. Ixxviii. Heb. ii. 17. - Heb. house of a father.
Chap. xxxi. 8; Ezek. xvi. 38; Zeph. i. 18; 11. 8. Mal, ii. 4,5; 11.1 ; Josh, xiii. 21.- Chap. xxxi. 2.- _b Chap. xxxi. 16; Rev. ii. 14. this act, which can never be a precedent on any com- no more here than the promise of God, to grant him mon occasion. An act something similar ocours in and his family the utmost prosperity in reference to our own history. In 1381, in the minority of Richard both worlds. . The everlasting priesthood refers proII., a most formidable insurrection took place in Kent perly to the priesthood of Christ which was shadowed and Essex; about 100,000 men, chiefly under the out by the priesthood under the law; no matter in direction of Wat Tyler, seized on London, massacred what family. it was continued. Therefore the owning multitudes of innocent people, and were proceeding to kehunnath olam, or eternal priesthood, does not merely the greatest enormities, when the king requiring a con- refer to any sacerdotal ministrations which should be ference in Smithfield with the rebel leader, Sir Wil- continued in the family of Phinehas, during the Mosaic liam Walworth, then mayor of London, provoked at dispensation, but to that priesthood of Christ typified the insolence with which Tyler behaved to his sove- by that of Aaron and his suecessors. The priesthood reign, knocked him off his horse with his mace, after alone is everlasting, and a covenant or grant of that which he was instantly despatched. While his parti- was made to Phinehas, and his descendants. The sans were bending their bows to revenge the death of Jews reckon twelve high priests of the race of Phinetheir leader, Richard, then only sixteen years of age, has, from this time to the days of Solomon, nine more rode up to them, and with great courage and presence from that time to the captivity, (see 1 Chron. vi. 4, 15,} of mind thus addressed them: “What, my people, will and fifteen from their return to the time of Antiochus you kill your king! be not concerned for the death of Eupator, the last of whom was Onias, slain by Lysias. your leader ; follow me, and I will be your general.” Ezra, the great priest and scribe, was of this line, They were suddenly appeased, and the rebellion ter- Ezra vii. 1, 5. The family of Ithamar, uncle of Phiminated. The action of Sir William Walworth was nehas, had the priesthood for about 150 years; but it that of a zealot, of essential benefit at the time, and was restored to the family of Phinehas in the person justified only by the pressing exigencies of the case. of Zadok the priest, 1 Chron. vi. 50, in which it con
Verse 9. Those that died—were twenty and four tiñued in the wholé about 950 years. Probably the thousand.) St. Paul, 1 Cor. x. 8, reckons only twenty- Maccabees were of the same family; but though this three thousand"; though some MSS. and versions, par- is not certain, there is no evidence against it. See ticularly the latter Syriac and the Armenian, have Calmet. God therefore sufficiently fulfilled his protwenty-four thousand, with the Hebrew text. Allow- mise ; he gave to him and his descendants almost the ing the 24,000 to be the genuine reading, and none utmost temporal length that could be given of that of the Hebrew MSS. exhibit any various reading here, priesthood which is, in its own nature, eternal. Here the two places may be reconciled-thus : 1000 men then the word bbw olam means, not a limited time, were slain in consequence of the examination instituted but what is eternal in its duration. See the note on ver. 4, and 23,000 in consequence of the orders given Gen. xxi. 33. ver. 5; making 24,000 in the whole. St. Paul pro- Verse 17. Ver the Midianites, fc.] See this order bably refers only to the latter number.
fulfilled, chap. xxxi. 1-20. Twelve thousand Israelites Verses 12, 13. My covenant of peace of an ever- attacked the Midianites, destroyed all their cities, slew lasting priesthood] As the word peace implied all kinds their five kings, every male, and every grown up woof blessings, both spiritual and temporal, it may mean | man, and took all their spoils.
Moses and Eleazar commanded
to take the sum of the Israelites.
B. C. 1451.
Moses and Eleazar are commanded to take the sum of the Israelites, in the plains of Moab, 1-4. Reuben
and his posterity, 43,730, ver. 5-11. Simeon and his posterity, 22,200, ver. 12-14. Gad and his posterity, 40,500, ver. 15-18. Judah and his posterity, 76,500, ver. 19-22. Issachar and his posterity, 64,300, ver. 23-25. Zebulun and his posterity, 60,500, ver. 26, 27, Manasseh and his posterity, 52,700, ver. 28–34. Ephraim and his posterity, 32,500, ver. 35–37. Benjamin and his posteriiy, 45,600, ver. 38-41. Dan and his posterity, 64,400, ver. 42, 43. Asher and his posterity, 53,400, rer. 44-47. Naphtali and his posterity, 45, 400, ver. 48–50. Total amount of the twelve tribes, 601,730, ver. 51. The land is to be divided by lot, and how, 52–56. The 'Leviles and their families, 57, 58. Their genealogy, 59-61. Their number, 23,000, ver. 62. In this census or enumeralion not one man was found, save Joshya and Caleb, of all who had been reckoned 38 years before, the rest haring died in the wilderness, 63-65. A. M. 2553. AND it came to pass after the 9 And the sons of Eliab; Ne- A. M. 2553. An. Exod. Isr. plague, that the Lord spake muel, and Dathan, and Abiram. An. Exod. Isı.
unto Moses, and unto Eleazar This is that Dathan and Abiram the son of Aaron the priest, saying, .
which were ! famous in the congregation who 2 - Take the sum of all the congregation of strove against Moses and against Aaron in the the children of Israel, " from twenty years old company of Korah, when they strove against and upward, throughout their fathers' house, the LORD : all that are able to go to war in Israel. 10 And the earth opened her mouth, and
3 And Moses and Eleazar the priest spake swallowed them up together with Korah, when with them in the plains of Moab by Jordan that company died, what time the fire denear Jericho, saying,
voured two hundred and fifty men : band they 4 Take the sum of the people, from twenty became a sign. years old and upward ; as the LORD : com- 11 Notwithstanding i the children of Korah manded Moses and the children of Israel, died not. which went forth out of the land of Egypt. 12 The sons of Simeon after their families :
5 • Reuben, the eldest son of Israel : the of Nemuel, the family of the Nemuelites : children of Reuben; Hanoch, of whom cometh of Jamin, the family of the Jaminites : of the family of the Hanochites :, of Pallu, the Jachin, the family of the Jachinites : family of the Palluites :
13 Of.m Zerah, the family of the Zarhites : 6 Of Hezron, the family of the Hezronites : of Shaul, the family of the Shaulites. of Carmi, the family of the Carmítes.
14 These are the families of the Simeonites, These are the families of the Reubenites : twenty and two thousand and two hundred. and they that were numbered of them were 15 The children of Gad after their families : forty and three thousand and seven hundred of n Zéphon, the family of the Zephonites: of
Haggi, the family of the Haggites: of Shuni, 8 And the sons of Pallu; Eliab.
the family of the Shunites : a Exod. xxx. 12; xxxviii. 25, 26; chap. i. 2. - Chap. i 3. + Chap. xvi. 38 ; see 1 Cor. x.6 ; 2 Pet. ii. 6. Erod. vi. c Ver. 63; chap. xxii. 1;
xxxi. 12 ; xxxii. 48 ; xxxv. 1. Ld Ch. 24; 1 Chron. vi. 22.- k Gen. xlvi. 10; Exod. vi. 15, Jemuel. i. 1. — Gen. xlvi. 8; Exod. vi. 14; 1 Chron. v..).- - Chap. ' Chron. iv, 24, Jarib. Gen. xlvi. 10, Zohar. Gen. xvi. 1, 2. . Chap. xvi. 32, 35.
xlvi. 16, Ziphion. NOTES ON CHAP XXVI.
but that he was burnt, as appears in fact to have been Verse 2. Take the sum of all the congregation) | the case. And the earth swallowed them up, what time After thirty-eight years God commands a second cen- that company died; and the fire devoured Korah sus of the Israelites to be made, to preserve the dis- with the two hundred and fifty men, who became a tinction in families, and to regulate the tribes previously sign. to their entry into the promised Jand, and to ascertain Verse 11. The children of Korah died nol.} It is the proportion of land which should be allowed to each difficult to reconcile this place with chap. xvi. 37, tribe. For though the whole was divided by lot, yet 31–33, where it seems to be intimated that not only the portions were so disposed that a numerous tribe did the men, but the wives, and the sons, and the little ones not draw where the lots assigned small inheritances. of Korah, Dathan, and Abiram, were swallowed up by See verses 53–56, and also the note on chap. i. 1, the earthquake ; see especially ver. 27, collated with
Verse 10. Together with Korah] The Samaritan ver. 33, of chap. xví. But the text here expressly says, text does not intimate that Korah was swallowed up, The children of Korah died not; and on a close in
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The number of
the different families. 16 Of • Ozni, the family of the 31 And of Asriel, the family An. Exod. Isr. Oznites : of Eri, the family of of the Asrielites : and of Shethe Erites :
chem, the family of the She17 Of P Arod, the family of the Arodites : chemites: of Areli, the family of the Arelites.
32 And of Shemida, the family of the She18 These are the families of the children midaites: and of Hepher, the family of the of Gad according to those that were numbered Hepherites. of them, forty thousand and five hundred. 33 And ? Zelophehad the son of Hepher had
19 9 The sons of Judah were Er and Onan : no sons, but daughters : and the names of the and Er and Onan died in the land of. Canaan. daughters of Zelophehad were Mahlah, and
20 And the sons of Judah after their fami- Noah, Hoglah, Milcah, and Tirzah. lies were ; of Shelah, the family of the Shela- 34 These are the families of Manasseh, and nites : of Pharez, the family of the Pharezites: those that were numbered of them, fifty and of Zerah, the family of the Zarhites.
two thousand and seven hundred. 21 And the sons of Pharez were ; of Hezron, 35 These are the sons of Ephraim after the family of the Hezronites : of Hamul, the their families : of Shuthelah, the family of the family of the Hamulites.
Shuthalhites :,of a Becher, the family of the 22 These are the families of Judah according Bachrites : of Tahan, the family of the Tato those that were numbered of them, three- hanites. score and sixteen thousand and five hundred. '36 And these are the sons of Shuthelah : of
23. Of the sons of Issachar after their fami- Eran, the family of the Eranites. ies - of Tola, the family of the Tolaites: of 37 These are the families of the sons of Pua, the family of the Punites :
Ephraim according to those that were num= 24 Of u Jashub, the family of the Jashubites : bered of them, thirty and two thousand and of Shimron, the family of the Shimronites. five hundred. These are the sons of Joseph
25 These are the families of Issachar accord- after their families., ing to those that were numbered of them, three- 38. The sons of Benjamin after their famiscore and four thousand and three hundred. lies : of Bela, the family of the Belaites : of
26' Of the sons of Zebulun after their fami- Ashbel; the family of the Ashbelites : of lies: of Sered, the family of the Sardites: of Ahiram, the family of the Ahiramites : Elon, the family of the Elonites : of Jahleel, 39 Of a Shupham, the family of the Shuthe family of the Jahleelites. .
phamites : of Hupham, the family of the 27 These are the families of the Zebulunites Huphamites. according to those that were numbered of them, 40. And the sons of Bela were e Ard and threescore thousand and five hundred. Naaman : of Ard, the family of the Ardites :
28 w The sons of Joseph after their families and of Naaman, the family of the Naamites. were Manasseh and Ephraim.
41 These are the sons of Benjamin after 29 Of the sons of Manasseh : of - Mackir, their families :; and they that were numbered the family of the Machirites : and Machir be- of them were forty and five thousand and six gat Gilead : of Gilead come the family of the hundred. Gileadites.
42 * These are the sons of Dan after their 30 These are the sons of Gilead: of y Jeezer, families : of Shuham, the family of the Shuthe family of the Jeezerites: of Helek, the hamites. These are the families of Dan after family of the Helekites :
their families. • Or, Ezbon, Gen. xlvi. 16.—P Gen. xlvi. 16, Arodi. - Gen. Chap. xxvii. 1; xxxvi. ll.- 1 Chron. vii. 20, Bered. xxxviii. 2, &c. ; xlvi. 12.- - 1 Chron. ii. 3.Gen. xlvi. 13; Gen. xlvi. 21 ; 1 Chron. vii. 6.- -c Gen. xlvi. 21, Ehi; 1 Chron. 1 Chron. vii. 1.- Or, Phwah.- ,-- Or, Job. - Gen. xlvi. viii. 1, Aharah. d Genesis xlvi. 21, Muppim 'and Huppim.
* Josh. xvii. 1; 1 Chron. vii. 14, 15. el Chron. viit. 3, Addar - Genesis xlvi. 23. * Or, y Called Abiezer, Josh. xvii. 2; Judg. vi. 11, 24, 34.
Hushim. spection of ver. 27 of the above-mentioned chapter, we their wives, and their sons, and their little ones. Here shall find that the sons and the little ones of Dathan is no mention of the children of Korah; they therefore and Abiram alone are mentioned. So they gat up escaped, while it appears those of Dathan and Abifrom the tabernacle of Korah, Dathan, and Abiram, on ram perished with their fathers.
See the note on every side: and Daihan and Abiram came out--and lichap. xvi. 30.
14.- Gen. xlvi. 20.