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B. C. 1451.

40.

40.

Of the daughters
: NUMBERS.

of Zelophehad. Á. M. 2553. and my lord was commanded one of the children of Israel A. M. 2553

B. C. 1451. An. Exod. Isr. by the LORD to give the inherit- shall keep himself to the in- An. Exod. Isr.

ance of Zelophehad our brother heritance of the tribe of his unto his daughters.

fathers. .3 And if they be married to any of the sons 8 And every daughter, that possesseth an of the other tribes of the children of Israel, inheritance in any tribe of the children of then shall their inheritance be taken from the Israel, shall be wife unto one of the family of inheritance of our fathers, and shall be put to the tribe of her father, that the children of the inheritance of the tribe d whereunto they Israel may enjoy every man the inheritance are received; so shall it be taken from the of his fathers. lot of our inheritance.

9 Neither 'shall the inheritance remove from 4. And when the jubilee of the children of one tribe to another tribe; but every one of Israel shall be, then shall their inheritance be the tribes of the children of Israel shall keep put unto the inheritance of the tribe where himself to his own inheritance. unto they are received : so shall their işherit- 10 Even as the LORD commanded Moses, ance be taken away from the inheritance of so did the daughters of Zelophebad : the tribe of our fathers.

:11 m For Mahlah, Tirzah, and Hoglah, and 5 And Moses commanded the children of Milcah, cand Noah, the daughters-of ZelophieIsrael according to the word of the Lord, had, were married unto their father's brother's saying, The tribe of the sons of Joseph hath sons : said well.

12 And they were married 'n into the families 6 - This is the thing which the Lord doth of the sons of Manasseh the son of Joseph, command concerning the daughters of Zelo- and their inheritance remained in the tribe of phehad, saying, Let them 8 marry to whom the family of their father. they think best; honly to the family of the 13. These are the ".commandments and the tribe of their father shall they marry.

judgments, which the LORD commanded by 7 So shall not the inheritance of the children the hand of Moses unto the children of Israel of Israel remove from tribe to tribe : for every P in the plains of Moab, by Jordan near Jericho.

Chap. xxvii. 1,7; Josh. xvii. 3, 4. - Heb. unto whom they * 1 Kings xxi. 3. di Cbron. xxii. 22. Chap. rivii. I. shall be. e Lev. xxv. 10. Chap. xxvii. 7.—6 Heb. be Heb. to some that were of the families.- Chrap. xxxv. 20. wives.- Ch Ver. 12; Tob. 1. 9.-i Heb. cleave to thee, &c. p Chap. xxvi. 3; xxxiii. 50.

Here Moses determines that heiresses should marry worth, are taught to hold fast their inheritance in his in their own tribe, that: no part of the ancient inherit- promises, and their right in Christ, which they hold ance might be alienated from the original family. by faith ; that as the Father hath made them meet to

Verse 6. Let them marry to whom they think best) be partåkers of the inheritance among the saints in Here was latitude sufficient, and yet a salutary and light, Col. i. 1%, so they may keep the faith and grace reasonable restraint, which prevented a vexațious mix- which they have received to the end." ture of property and possession.

Verse 13. These are the commandments, fc.) See Verse 8. Every daughter that possesseth an inherit these different terms analyzed and explained, Ler. ance] This law affected none but heiresses; all others xxv. 5. were at liberty to marry into any of the other tribes. The priests and Levites, who could have no inherit- Thus.ends the book of Numbers, containing a series ançe, were exempt from the operation of this law. Je- of astonishing providences and events. Scarcely any hoiada had the king of Judah's daughter to wife, piece of history in the sacred writings is better calcu2 Chron. xxii. 11. And another priest had for wife lated to impress the mind of a serious reader with a one of the daughters of Barzillai the Gileadite, Ezra sense of the goodness and severity of God. In every ii. 61. By reason of such marriages,” says Mr. transaction his holiness and justice appear in closest Ainsworth," there might be kindred between Elizabeth, union with his benevolence and mercy. From such a the mother of John the Baptist, who was of the daugh- Being what have the wicked not to fear! From such ters of Aaron, and Mary the virgin, the mother of our a Father and Friend what have the upright not to hope ! Lord, who was of the lineage of David, and tribe of His justice requires him to punish iniquity, but his Judah ;" Luke i. 5, 36 ; iii. 23–31.

mercy inclines him to pardon all who truly repent and Verse 11. Mahlah, Tirzah, fc.] For a curious ac- believe in the Son of his love. count of these names, see the notes on chap. xxvii. 7. The journeyings of this people, from the time they

Verse 12. And their inherilance remained inthe left Egypt, ehxibit a 'series of providential wonders. family] “By this example, and the law of inherit- Every where, and in every circumstance, God appears: ances in the Holy Land, the people of God," says Ains-1 and yet there is no circumstance or occasion that does

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Concluding observations.

CHAP. XXXVI.

Masoretic notes.

JUSTICE.

not justify those signal displays of his grace and his The THIRTY-NINTH, called npn chukkath; begins

The genuine history of God's providence chap. xix. I, and ends chap. xxii! 1. must be sought for in this book alone ; and as every The PORTETH, called psa balak, begins chap. xxii. occurrence happened as an example, we have authority 2, and ends chap. xxv. 9. to conclude that in every case where his own glory The FORTY-FIRST, called onI'd pinechas, begins and the salvation of man are interested, he will inter- chap. xxv. 10, and ends chap. xxx. 1. fere and give the fullest proofs that he is the same 10- The FORTY-SECOND, called nibns. mattoth, begins day that he was yesterday, and will continue, unchange - chap. xxx. 2, and ends chap. xxxii. 42. able for ever and ever. Reader, are these matters The FORTY-ÍHİRD, called 'yoo masey, begins chap. ersamples to thee? Art thou, like the Israelites, come xxxiii. 1, and ends chap. xxxvi. 13. into the plains of Moab, on the very verge of the pro

MASORETIC Notes on NUMBERS. mised land? Jordan alone separates thee from the promised inheritance. O, watch and pray, that thou The number of verses in this book is 1,288, of come not short of the glory of God. The last enemy which nonx is the symbol : for. x aleph stands for thạt shall be destroyed is death; see then that the 1000, 1 resh for 200, 5 phe for 80, and n cheth for 8. sting of death, which is sin, be extracted from thy The middle verse is the 20th of chap. xvii. And soul, that, being justified by Christ's blood, thou mayest the man's rod whom I shall choose shall blossom. be made an heir according to the hope of an eternal (N. B. In our English Bibles this is ver. 5 of chap. xvii.) life. Amen, amen...

Its pareshioth, or larger sections, are 10, expressed “ I will bring you into the WILDERNESS-of the peo- by the letters of the word 172 badad, alone: The Lord ple, and there will I plead with you face to face, like Alone did lead him, Deut. xxxii. 12. 7 daleth stands as I pleaded with your fathers in the WILDERNESS of- for 4, repeated here, 8, and 3 beth for 2. the land of Egypt. And I will cause you to pass under Its sedarim, or Masoretic "sections, are 32, exthe rod, and bring you into the bond of the covenant,” pressed by the word ab deb, heart, Psa. li. 12 : Create Ezek. xx. 35-37.

in me a clean HEART, Q God; in which word a beth " He (Christ). is the Mediator of the New Testa- stands for 2, and 5 lamed for 30. ment, that by means of death, for the redemption of the Its chapters are 36, expressed by the word 35 tu, transgressions that were under the first testament, 0! Deut. xxxii. 29: O that they were wise ! in they which are called might receive the promise of which word 5 lamed stands for 30, and i vau fór 6. eternal inheritance," Heb. ix. 15.

The number of its open sections is 92 ; its close or SECTIONS in the Book of Numbers, carried on shut sections, 66; together 158; expressed in the from Leviticus, which ends with the thirty-THIRD. memorial word 7pm chelkecha : I am THY PORTION;

The THIRTY-FOURTH, called 3379a bemidbar, begins in which word p'koph stands for 100, 5 lamed for 30, chap. i. 1, and ends chap. iv. 20.

a caph for 20, 'and cheth for 8. The ȚHIRTY-FIFTH, called *vnasa, begins chap. Though this sort of notations may appear trifling to iv. 21, and ends chap. vii. 89.

some, yet to an upright Jew they were of much conThe Thirty-SIXTH, called, 9789073 behaalothecha, sequence. The very technical words used in such begins chap. viij. 1, and ends chap. xii. 16. :- cases put him always in mind of something in which

The THIRTY-SEVENTH, called nhw. shielach, begins the glory of God and the happiness and salvation of chap. xiii. 1, and ends chap. xv. 41.

his own soul were concerned. See the note at the The THIRTY-EIGHTH, called in, korach, begins end of Genesis, and see the concluding notes on the chap, xvi. 'l, and ends chap. xviii. 32.

Revised and corrected for a new edition, Aug, 4th, 1827.-A, CLARKE.

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WE

E have borrowed the name of this book, as in former cases, from the Vulgate Latini,

Deuteronomium, as the Vulgate has done from the Greek version of the Septuagint, Sevrepovolov, which is a compound term literally signifying the second law, because it seems to contain a repetition of the preceding laws, from which circumstance it has been termed by the rabbins njuna mishneh, the iteration or doubling.

It appears that both these names are borrowed from chap. xvii. 18, where the king is commanded to write him a copy of this law; the original is nina nya mishneh hattorah, a repetition or doubling of the law, which the Septuagint have translated to devtipovoulov, this second law, which we, properly enough, translate a copy of the law : but in Hebrew, like the preceding books, it takes its name from its commencement, d'mann 58 ELLEH HADDEBARIM, these are the words; and in the best rabbinical. Bibles its running title is d'727730 SEPHER DEBARIM, the book of dębarim, or the book of the words. · Our Saxon ancestors termed it Beoʻæptes e, the after law.

The Book of Deuteronomy contains an account of what passed in the wilderness from the first day of the eleventh month of the fortieth year after the departure of the Israelites from Egypt to the seventh day of the twelfth month of the same ; making in the whole a history of the transactions of exactly five weeks; the months of the Jews being lunar.

The history is continued about seven days after the death of Moses ; for he began to deliver his first dis course to the people in the plains of Moab the first day of the eleventh month of the fortieth year, chap. i. 3, and died on the first day of the twelfth month of the same year, aged 120 years.

As the Israelites were now about fo enter into the promised land, and many of them bad not witnessed the different transactions in the wilderness, the former generation having been all destroyed except Joshua and Caleb; to impress their hearts with a deep sense of their obligation to God, and to prepare them for the inheritance which God had prepared for them, Moses here repeats the principal occurrences of the forty years, now almost elapsed'; shows them the absolute necessity of fearing, loving, and obeying God; repeats the ten commandments, and particularly explains each, and the ordinances belonging to them, adding others which he had not delivered before ; confirms the whole law in a most solemn manner, with exceeding great and precious promises tò them that keep it, and a denunciation of the most awful judgments against those who should break it; renews the covenant between God and the people; prophesies of things which should come to pass in the latter days; blesses each of the tribes, prophetically, with the choicest spiritual and temporal blessings; and then, having viewed the whole extent of the land, from the top of Mount Nebo or Pisgah, he yielded up the ghost, and was privately buried by God, leaving Joshua the son of Nun for his successor.

The Book of Deuteronomy and the Epistle to the Hebrews contain the best comment on the nature, design, and use of the law; the former may be considered as an evangelical commentary on the four preceding books, in which the spiritual reference and signification of the different parts of the law are given, and given in such a manner as none could give who had not a clear discovery of the glory which was to be revealed. It may be safely asserted that very few parts of the Old Testament Scriptures can be read with greater profit by the genuine Christian than the Book of Deuteronomy.

PREFACE TO DEUTERONOMY.

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The contents of the different chapters may be thus briefly summed up =

On the first day of the eleventh month of the fortieth year, after the departure from Egypt, the Israelites being then on the east side of Jordan, in the land of the Moabites, Moses gives them a brief recapitulation of what took place in the wilderness, from their leaving Mount Horeb till they came to Kudesh; chap. i.

Their travels from Kadesh till they come to the country of the Amorites, with the defeat of Sihon their king; chap. ii.

The war with Og, king of Bashan, with the dividing his land and that of Sihon among the tribes of Reuben and Gad, and the half tribe of Manasseh , chap. iii.

Moses exhorts them to observe the Divine precepts; threatens those who should violate them; and appoints Bezer, Ramoth, and Golan, to be the cities of refuge on the east side of Jordan; chap. iv.

Repeats the decalogue, and tells the people what effect the publication of it had on their fathers, when God spoke to them from the mount; chap. v.

Exhorts them to love God with all their heart, and promises them an abundance of good things; chap. vi.

Repeats the command to exterminate the Canaanites, and all- vestiges of their idolatry; chap. vii.

Recites the many interpositions of God's kindness which they had received during their forty years' travel in the wilderness, and strongly exhorts them to remember those mercies, and not to forfeit a continuance of his favours by ingratitude and disobedience; chap. viii. ,

Shows them that they were to pass Jordan in a short time, and that God was about to bring them int, not on account of their goodness, brit of his mercy; chap. ix. inces

Gives an account of the second tables of the law, which he made at the command of God; mentions their journey from Beeroth to Jotbath, the choosing of the Levites, and the necessity of having the heart circumcised; chap: x.

Continues an account of God's mighty acts in their behalf, and shows the blessings which should come on them who kept his law, and the curse on those who were disobedient. The blessings to be pronounced on Mount Gerizim, and the curses on Mount Ebal ; chap. xi.

Commands them to destroy all monuments of idolatry in the land, to offer the different offerings and sacrifices, and to avoid eating of blood; chap. xii.

Ordinances against false prophets, idolatrous cities, &c.; chap. xii.

Forbids their cutting themselves at funerals, recapitulates the law concerning clean and unclean animals, and exhorts them to remember the Levites ;'chap. xiv.

Every seventh year shall be a year of release for the poor of usury; first-born, &c.; chap.xv.

Concerning the annual feasts, passover, pentecost, and tabernacles; the establishment of judges and officers; no groves to be planted near the altar of God; chap. xvi.

Idolaters are'to be put to death ; difficult čases in equity to be referred to the superior judges; of a king and his duties; chap. xvii.

All divination is prohibited. The grand promise of an EXTRAORDINARY PROPHET. How false prophets are to be distinguished; chap. xviii:

The laws relative to the cities of refuge, and how the intentional murderer is to be treated; chap. xix. · Laws relative to the carrying on of war; who should be sent back from the army,

how they are to treat the Canaanites, and how they are to commence sieges ; chap. XX.

How to make expiation for an uncertain murder; marriages with captives ; rights of the first-born, &c.; chap. xxi.

Things lost or strayed are to be restored to their right owners ; men and women must not interchange apparel ; improper mixtures to be avoided ; of the tokens of virginity ; adulterers and adulteresses to be put to death; chap. xxii.

Eunuchs, bastards, Moabites, and Ammonites, are not to be permitted to enter into the congregation of the Lord. Harlots not to be tolerated ; chap. xxiii:

PREFACE TO DEUTERONOMY. Laws relative to divorce ; privileges of the newly-married man ; concerning pledges, wages, gleanings, &c.; chap. xxiv.

More than forty stripes shall not be given. ff a man die childless, his brother shall take his wife. Of weights, measures, &c.; chap. xxv.

Different ceremonies to be used in offering the first-fruits; tithes. · Of full self-consecration to God; chap. xxvi.

The words of the law to be written on stones, and to be set up on Mount Ebal. The tribes which stand on Mount Gerizim to bless the obedient, and those which should stand Mount Ebal to curse the disobedient. Who they are that are to be cursed; chap. xxvii.

The blessings of those who are faithful ; curses against the disobedient; chap. xxviii,
A recital of the covenant of God, made not only with them, but for their posterity; chap. xxix.
Promises of pardon to the penitent ; good and evil, life and death, are set before them ; ch. xxx.

Moses, being now 120 years old, delivers a copy of the law which he had written into the hands of the priests, to be laid up in the ark, and to be publicly read every seventh year; a charge is given to Joshua; chap. xxxi.

The prophetical and historical song of Moses : he is commanded to go up to Mount Nebo that he may see the promised land; chap. xxxii.

The prophetical blessing of the twelve tribes. The indescribable happiness of Israel ; chap. xxxi..

Moses views the promised land from the top of Mount Nebo, dies, and is privately buried by the Lord. The Israelites mourn for him thirty days. Joshua takes command of the people. The character of Moses; chap: xxxiv.

At the close of this book I have added a number of useful TABLES, such as no edition of the Bible ever could boast, viz. :. Table I. A perpetual table, showing through the course of 13 lunar cycles (which embrace

every possible variation) .the day of the week with which the Jewish year begins, and

on which the passover is held ; äs also the lengths of the months Marchesvan and Cisleu. Table II. Containing the whole variations in the reading of the Pareshioth or sections of the

- law for every year of the Jewish cycle of 247 years. Table III. To find, with the help of Table IV., the day of the week upon which any Jewish

new moon or festival happens. Table IV. To determine upon what day of the week any Jewish month commences for any

given year; as also the day of the week upon which the Jews celebrate their principal

- fasts and festivals. Table V. Containing the order of reading the Pareshioth and Haphtaroth for 90 Jewish

years, i. e. from A. M. 5572 to A. M. 5661, both inclusive, connected with the corre

sponding dates in the CHRISTIAN-ERA, according to the Gregorian or new style. Table VI. Containing the year of the Jewish lunăr cycle, the golden number, the first day

of the Jewish passover, Easter Sunday, and the commencement of each Jewish year according to the Gregorian Calendar, A. D. 1812 to A. D. 1900, both inclusive. All *concluded with an explanation of the preceding tables.. To them succeeds A Chronology of the Pentateuch, with the Book of Joshua; or a Systematic Arrangement of Events from the creation of Adam, A. M. i, to the birth of Peleg, A. M. 1757, and thence to the death of Joshua, A. M. 2561. This chronology includes two tables, viz. : Table I. The birth and death of all the patriarchs, from Adam, A. M. 1, to Rhea, son of Peleg, A. M. 1787. Table II. A chronology of ancient kingdoms synchronized with the sacred history, from A. M. 1757, B. C. 2247, to A. M. 2561, B. C. 1443. The whole so calculated as to prevent the necessity of having recourse to systems of chrono

logy for historic facts in anywise connected with those mentioned in the SACRED WRITINGS. The great utility of these tables will, I think, be at once evident to every Biblical critic, chronologist, and antiquary; and for the immense labour employed-in their construction the editor, no doubt, will have their hearty thanks.

ADAM CLARKE.

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