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Who are excluded from the

CHAP. XXIII.

congregation of the Lord. vered up to his former master, 15, 16. There shall be no prostitutes nor sodomites in the land, 17. The hire of a prostitute or the price of a dog is not to be brought into the house of God, 18. The Israel ites shall not lend on usury to each other, 19; but they may take usury from strangers, 20. Vows must be diligently paid, 21-23. In passing through a vineyard or field a man may eal of the grapes or corn, but must carry away none with him, 24, 25. B: : 252. HE that is a wounded in the 9 When the host goeth forth An. Ex. Isr. 40. stones, or hath his privy against thine enemies, then keep An. Ex. Isr. 40.

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10 i If there be among you any man, that is 2 A bastard shall not enter into the congre- not clean, by reason of uncleanness that gation of the LORD; even to his tenth gene- chanceth him by night, then shall he go abroad ration shall he not enter into the congregation out of the camp, he shall not come within of the LORD.

the camp: 3 6 An Ammonite or Moabite shall not enter 11 But it shall be, when evening * cometh into the congregation of the LORD; even to on," he shall wash himself with water : and their tenth generation, shall they not enter when the sun is down, he shall come into into the congregation of the Lord for ever : the camp again.

4 . Because they met you not with bread 12 Thou shalt have a place also without and with water in the way, when ye came the camp, whither thou shalt go forth forth out of Egypt; and d because they hired abroad : against thee Balaam the son of Beor, of Pethor 13 And thou shalt have a paddle upon thy of Mesopotamia, to curse thee.

'weapon ; and it shall be, when thou m wilt 5 Nevertheless the LORD thy God would ease thyself abroad, thou shalt dig therewith, not hearken unto Balaam ; but the Lord thy and shalt turn back and cover that which God turned the curse into a blessing unto cometh from thee : thee, because the LORD thy God loved thee. 14 For the LORD thy God n walketh in the

6 • Thou shalt not seek their peace nor their midst of thy camp, to deliver thee, and to give f prosperity all thy days for ever.

up thine enemies before thee; therefore shall 7 Thou shalt not abhor an Edomite; & for thy camp be holy: that he see no ° unclean he is thy brother: thou shalt not abhor an thing in thee, and turn away from thee : Egyptian; because hthou wast a stranger in 15 P Thou shalt not deliver unto his master his land.

the servant which is escaped from his master 8 The children that are begotten of them unto thee : shall enter into the congregation of the LORD 16 He shall dwell with thee, even among in their third generation.

you, in that place which he shall choose in

a Lev. xxi. 17-21 ; xxii. 22–24. b Neh. xiii. 1, 2. - See xxiii. 9; Lev. xix. 34; chap. x. 19. i Lev. xy.-16.-k Heb. chap. ii. 29. Num. xxii. 5, 6. — Ezra ix. 12. Heb. turneth toward. - Lev. xv.5.—Heb. sittest down. Lev. good. Gen. xxv. 24, 25, 26 ; Obad. x. 12.- - Exod. xxii. 21; xxvi. 12. - Heb. nakedness of any thing.- -P 1 Sam. xxx. 15.

NOTES ON CHAP. XXIII.

Verse 3. An Ammonite or Moabite) These nations Verse 1. Shall not enter into the congregation, fc.] were subjected for their impiety and wickedness, (see If by entering into the congregation be meant the ver. 4 and 5,) to peculiar disgrace, and on this account bearing a civil office among the people, such as ma- were not permitted to hold any office among the Isgistrate, judge, &c., then the reason of the law is very raelites. But this did not disqualify them from being plain ; no man with any such personal defect as might proselytes : Ruth, who was a Moabitess, was married render him contemptible in the sight of others should to Boaz, and she became one of the progenitors of our bear rule among the people, lest the contempt felt for Lord. his personal defects might be transferred to his impor- Even to their tenth generation] That is, for ever, tant office, and thus his thority be disregarded. The as the next clause explains ; 'see Neh. xiii. 1. general meaning of these words is, simply, that the Verse 12, 8c.) These directions may appear trifling persons here designated should not be so incorporated to some, but they were essentially necessary to this with the Jews as to partake of their civil privileges. people in their present circumstances. Decency and

Verse 2. A bastard shall not enter] o mamzer, cleanliness promote health, and prevent many diseases. which is here rendered bastard, should be understood Verse 15. Thou shalt not deliver the servant which as implying the offspring of an illegitimate or inces- is escapedunto thee] That is, a servant who left an tuous mixture.

idolatrous master that he might join himself to God press him.

Concerning the
DEUTERONOMY.

divorced wife. A. M. 2553. one of thy gates, where it a liketh LORD thy God, thou shalt not A M. 2552 B. C. 1451.

B. C. 1451. An. Ex. Is. 40. him best : * thou shalt not op- slack to pay it : for the Lord thy An Ex Isr. $0. Sebat.

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God will surely require it of thee; 17 There shall be no S whore t of the daugh- and it would be sin in thee. ters of Israel, nor a u sodomite of the sons of 22 But if thou shalt forbear to vow, it shall Israel.

be no sin in thee. 18 Thou shalt not bring the hire of a whore, 23 z That which is gone out of thy lips thou or the price of a dog, into the house of the shalt keep and perform; even a freewill-offerLord thy God for any vow: for even both ing, according as thou hast vowed unto the these are abomination unto the Lord thy God. LORD thy God, which thou hast promised

19 Thou shalt not lend upon usury to thy with thy mouth. brother: usury of money, usury of victuals, 24 When thou comest into thy neighbour's usury of any thing that is lent upon usury : vineyard, " then thou mayest eat grapes thy

20 "Unto a stranger thou mayest lend upon fill at thine own pleasure; but thou shalt usury ; but unto thy brother thou shalt not not put any in thy vessel. lend upon usury: that the LORD thy God 25 When thou comest into the standing may bless thee in all that thou settest thine corn of thy neighbour, then thou mayest band to in the land whither thou goest to pos- pluck the ears with thine hand; but thou sess it.

shalt not move a sickle unto thy neighbour's 21 y When thou shalt vow a vow unto the standing corn.

4 Heb. is good for him.-- Exod. xxii. 21.- Or, sodomitess. w See Lev. xix. 34; chap. xv. 3. - Chap. xv. 10.- Num. Lev. xix. 29 ; see Prov. ii. 16.—Gen. xix. 5; 2 Kings xxiii. 7. xxx. 2; Eccles. v. 4, 5. - Num. XXX. 2; Psa lui. 13, 14.

Exod. xxii. 25; Lev. xxv. 36, 37; Neh. v. 2, 7; Psa. xv. 5; 21 Cor. x. 26; Heb. xiii. 5.—Matt. xii. 1; Mark in 23; Luke vi. 34, 35.

Luke vi. 1.

and to his people. In any other case, it would have Verse 21. When thou shalt vow, $c.) See on Nam. been injustice to have harboured the runaway.

xxx. 1, &c. Verse 17. There shall be no whore] See on Gen. Verse 24. Thou shalt not put any in thy vessel.) xxxvii. 15–21.

Thou shalt carry none away with thee. The old Verse 18. The hire of a whore, or the price of a dog] English proverb, Eat thy fill, but pockel none, seems Many public prostitutes dedicated to their gods a part to have been founded on this law. of their impure earnings, and some of these prosti- Verse 25. Thou mayest pluck the ears with thi tutes were publicly kept in the temple of Venus Me- hand] It was on the permission granted by this law lytta, whose gains were applied to the support of her that the disciples plucked the ears of corn, as related abominable worship.

Matt. xii. 1. This was both a considerate and huVerse 19. Usury] See on Lev. xxv. 36. mane law, and is no dishonour to the Jewish code.

CHAPTER XXIV.

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The case of a divorced wife, 1-4. No man shall be obliged to undertake any public service for the first

year of his marriage, 5. The mill-stones shall not be taken as a pledge, 6. The man-stealer shall be put to death, 7. Concerning cases of leprosy, 8, 9. Of receiving pledges, and returning those of the poor before bed-time, 10-13. Of servants and their hire, 14, 15. Parents and children shall not be put to death for each other, 16. Of humanity to the stranger, fatherless, widow, and bondman, 17, 18. Gleanings of the harvest, fc., to be left for the poor, stranger, widow, fatherless, fc., 19–22.

WHEN man hath taken a favour in his eyes, because he A. M. 2553 B. C. 1451. An. Ex. Isr. 40. wife, and married her, and hath found some uncleanness in An. Ex. Isr. 40.

it come to pass that she find no her : then let him write her a bill a Matt. v. 31; xix. 7; Mark x. 4.

• Heb. matter of nakedness. NOTES ON CHAP. XXIV.

suffered this; and we find they continued this pracVerse 1. Some uncleanness] Any cause of dislike, tice even to the time of our Lord, who strongly reprefor this great latitude of meaning the fact itself autho- hended them on the account, and showed that such rizes us to adopt, for it is certain that a Jew might license was wholly inconsistent with the original deput away his wife for any cause that seemed good to sign of marriage ; see Matt. v. 31, &c.; xix. 3, &c.; himself; and so hard were their hearts, that Moses, and the notes there.

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The man-stealer shall die.

CHAP. XXIV.

Concerning the leprosy of divorcement, and give it in 6 No man shall take the nether An. Ex. Isr. 40. her hand, and send her out of his or the upper mill-stone to pledge: An. Ex. Isr. 40. house.

for he taketh a man's life to 2 And when she is departed out of his pledge. house, d she may go and be another man's wife. 7 i If a man be found stealing any of his

3 And if the latter husband hate her, and brethren of the children of Israel, and maketh write her a bill of divorcement, and giveth it merchandise of him, or selleth him ; then that in her hand, and sendeth her out of his house; thief shall die ; and thou shalt put evil away or if the latter husband die, which took her to from among you. be his wife;

8 Take heed in the plague of leprosy, that 4. Her former husband, which sent her away, thou observe diligently, and do according to may not take her again to be his wife, after all, that the priests the Levites shall teach that she is defiled; for that is abomination you : as I commanded them, so ye shall: obbefore the LORD: and thou shalt not cause serve to do. the land to sin, which the LORD thy God 9.m Remember what the LORD thy God did giveth thee for an inheritance.

o unto Miriam by the way, after that ye were 5 When a man hath taken a new wife, he come forth out of Egypt. shall not go out to war, 8 neither shall he be 10 When thou dost lend thy brother any charged with any business : but he shall be thing, thou shalt not go into his house to fetch : free at home one year, and shall h cheer up his pledge. his wife which he hath taken.

11 Thou shalt stand abroad, and the man to

c Heb. cutting off d Lev. xxi. 7, 14 ; xxii. 13; Num. xxx. 9. e Jer. ii. l. Chap. xx. 7.—Heb. not any thing shall pass

h Prov. v. 18.

i Exod. xxi. 16. -k Chap. xix. 19. — Lev. xvi. 2; xiv. 2. m See Luke xvii. 32; 1 Cor. x. 6. n Num. xii. 10. Heb. lend the loan of any thing to, &c.

upon him.

struments.

Verse 3. And write her a bill of divorcement] These another? Though God, for the hardness of their hearts, bills, though varying in expression, are the same in suffered them to put away their wives, yet he consisubstance among the Jews in all places. The follow- dered all after-marriages in that case to be pollution ing, collected from Maimonides and others, is a genes, and defilement; and it is on this ground that our Lord ral form, and contains all the particulars of such in argues, in the places referred to above, that whoever

The reader who is curious may find a full marries the woman that is put away is an adulterer : account of divorces in the Biblioth. Rab. of Bartolocci, now this could not have been the case if God had and the following form in that work, vol. iv., p: 550. allowed the divorce to be a legal and proper separation

" In day of the week, or day of the of the man from his wife ; but in the sight of God month A., in year from the ereation of the world, nothing can be a legal cause of separation but adulor from the supputation (of Alexander) after the ac- tery on either side. In such a case, according to the count that we are accustomed to count by, here, in the law of God, a man may put away his wife, and a wife place B., I, C., the son of D., of the place B.,:(or if. may put away her husband ; (see Matt. xix. 9 ;) for it there be any other name which I have, or my father appears that the wife had as much right to put away hath had, or which my place or my father's place hath her husband, as the husband had to put away his wife, had,) have voluntarily, and with the willingness of my see Mark x. 12. soul, without constraint, dismissed, and left, and put Verse 5. When a man hath taken a new wife] Other away thee, even thee, E., the daughter of F., of the people made a similar provision for such circumcity G., (or if thou have any other name or surname, stances. Alexander ordered those of his soldiers who thou or thy father, or thy place or thy father's place,) had married that year to spend the winter with their who hast been my wife heretofore ; but now I dismiss wives, while the army was in winter quarters. See thee, and leave thee, and put thee away, that thou Arrian, lib. i. ; mayest be free, and have power over thy own life, to Verse 6. The nether or the upper mill-stone) Small go away to be married to any man whom thou wilt; hand-mills which can be worked by a single person and that no man be refused of thine hand, for my were formerly in use among the Jews, and are still name, from this day and for ever. And thus thou art used in many parts of the East. As therefore the day's lawful for any man; and this is unto thee, from me, a meal was generally ground for each day, they keeping writing of divorcement, and book (instrument) of dis- no stock beforehand, hence they were forbidden to mission, and an epistle of putting away; according to take either of the stones to pledge, because in the Law of Moses and Israel.

such a case the family must be without bread. On A., son of B., witness. this account the text terms the mill-stone the

C., son of D., witness." man's life. Verse 4. She is defiled] Does not this refer to her Verses 8, 9. The plague of leprosy) See on Lev. having been divorced, and married in consequence to / xiü. and xiv.

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C Laws against oppression,

DEUTERONOMY.

unkindness, cruelty, fc. whom thou dost lend shall bring | nor take the widow's raiment to An. Ex. Isr. 40. out the pledge abroad unto thee. pledge : 12 And if the man be poor,

18 But - thou shalt remember thou shalt not sleep with his pledge : that thou wast a bondman in Egypt, and the

13 In any case thou shalt deliver him the LORD thy God redeemed thee thence : thèrepledge again when the sun goeth down, that fore I command thee to do this thing. he may sleep in his own raiment, and a bless 19 a When thou cuttest down thine harvest thee : and it shall be righteousness unto thee in thy field, and hast forgot a sheaf in the before the LORD thy God.

field, thou shalt not go again to fetch it: it 14. Thou shalt not soppress-a hired servant shall be for the stranger, for the fatherless, that is poor and needy, whether he be of thy and for the widow: that the LORD thy God brethren, or of thy strangers that are in thy may bless thee in all the work of thine land within thy gates :

hands. 15 At his day thou shalt give him his hire, 20 When thou beatest thine olive tree, thou neither shall the sun go down upon it; for he shalt not go over the boughs again : it shall is poor, and setteth his heart upon it : lest be for the stranger, for the fatherless, and for he cry against thee unto the Lord, and it be the widow. sin unto thee.

| 21. When thou gatherest the grapes of thy 16- The fathers shall not be put to death vineyard, thou shalt not glean it d afterward : for the children, neither shall tho children be it shall be for the stranger, for the fatherless, put to death for the fathers

every man shall and for the widow. be put to death for his own sin.

22 And thou shalt remember that thou wast 17 * Thou shalt not pervert the judg- a bondman in the land of Egypt: therefore I ment of the stranger, nor of the fatherless ; command thee to do this thing.

PExod, xxii. 26. -9 Job xxix. 11, 13; xxxi. 20; 2 Cor. ix. * Exodus xxii. 21, 22 ; Prov. xxii. 22 ; Isa. i. 23; Jer. v. 28; 13; 2 Tim. i. 18. - Chap. vi. 25; Psa.cvi. 31 ; cxii. 9; Dan. xxii. 3; Ezek. xxii. 29 ; Zech. vii. 10; Mal. iii. 5.- Exod. iv, 27. Mal. iii. 5. Lev. xix. 13; Jer. xxii. 13; Tob. iv. xxii. 26.- -2 Verse 22; chap. xvi. 12. Lev. xix. 9, 10; 14; James v. 4.- -u Heb. lifteth his soul unto il ; Psa. xxv. 1 ; xxiii. 22. Chapter xv. 10; Psa. xlį. 1; Proverbs xix. 17. Ixxxvi. 4.- James v. 4.- -w 2 Kings xiv. 6; 2 Chron. xxv. 4; Heb. thou shalt not bough it after thee.- _ Hebrew, after thee. Jer. xxxi. 29, 30 ; Ezek. xviij. 20.

e Verse 18.

Verse 12. And if the man be poor, fc.) Did not the children, fc.) - This law is explained and illustrated this law preclude pledging entirely, especially in case in sufficient detail, Ezek. xvii. of the abjectly poor? For who would take a pledge Verse 18. Thou shalt remember that thou wast a in the morning which he knew, if not redeemed, he bondman] Most people who have affluence rose from must restore at night? However, he might resume his comparative penury, for those who are born to estates claim in the morning, and have the pledge daily re- frequently squander them away; such therefore should turned, and thus keep up his property in it till the debt remember what their feelings, their fears, and anxieties was discharged; see the note on Exod. xxii. 26. The were, when they were poor and abject. A want of Jews in several cases did act contrary to this rule, attention to this most wholesome precept is the reason and we find them cuttingly reproved for it by the Pro- why pride and arrogance are the general characterisphet Amos, chap. ii. 8.

tics of those who have risen in the world from poverty Verse 15. He is poor, and selteth his heart upon il] to affluence; and it is the conduct of those men which How exceedingly natural is this ! The poor servant gave rise to the rugged proverb, "Set a beggar on who seldom sees money, yet finds from his master's horseback, and he will ride to the devil." affluence that it procures all the conveniences and Verse 19. When thou cutlest down thine harvest] comforts of life, longs for the time when he shall re- This is an addition to the law, Lev. xix. 9 ; xxiii. 22. ceive his wages; should his pay be delayed after the The corners of the field, the gleanings, and the fortime is expired, he may naturally be expected to cry golten sheaf, were all the property of the poor. This unto God against him who withholds it. See most the Hebrews extended to any part of the fruit of proof these subjects treated at large on Exod. xxii. duce of a field, which had been forgotten in the time 21-27.

of general ingathering, as appears from the concluding Verse 16. The fathers shall not be put-to de 2 for verses of this chapter.

798

Of punishment

CHAP. XXV.

by whipping

CHAPTER XXV.

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Punishment by whipping not to erceed forty stripes, 1-3, The ox that treads out the corn is not to be muz

zled, 4. The ordinance concerning marrying the wife of that brother who has died childless, 5–10. Of the woman who acts indecently in succouring her husband, 11, 12. Of false weighls and measures, 13-16 Amalek is to be destroyed, 17-19. B. M: 2552. If there be a controversy be- | him to lie down,' and to be beaten

tween men, and they come before his face, according to his An. Ex. Isr. 40.

unto judgment, that the judges fault, by a certain number. may judge them; then they b shall justify the 3. Forty stripes he may give him, and not righteous, and condemn the wicked.

exceed : lest, if he should exceed, and beat 2 And it shall be, if the wicked man be him above these, with many stripes, then thy worthy to be beaten, that the judge shall cause brother should seem vile unto thee.

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Chap. xix. 17; Ezek. xliv. 24.

_DSee Prov. xvii. 15.

c Luke xii. 48. Matt. x. 17.-€ 2 Cor. xi. 24.- Job xviii. 3.

NOTES ON CHAP. XXV.

culprit, being fastened to one of the pillars of the great Verse 1. They shall justify the righteous) This is portico, received his punishment without mitigation. a very important passage, and is a key to several | The abhorrence excited in the breasts of the Chinese others. The word p73 tsadak is used here precisely at this cruel conduct, as it appeared to them, was dein the same sense in which St. Paul sometimes uses monsirably proved by their words and looks. They the corresponding word dikalow, not to justify or make expressed their astonishment that a people professing just, but to acquit, declare innocent, to remit punish- the mildest, the most benevolent religion on earth, as ment, or give reasons why such a one should not be they wished to have it believed, could be guilty of punished; so here the magistrates P'787 hitsdiku, such flagrant inattention to its merciful dictates. One shall acquit, the righteous declare him innocent, be- of the principal Mandarins, who knew a little English, cause he is found to be righteous and not wicked: so expressed the general sentiment, Englishmen too much the Septuagint : kai dikawaovoiv tov dikalov, they shall cruel, too much bad.”—Accurate account of Lord make righteous the righteous—declare him free from Macartney's Embassy to China, by an attendant on the blame, not liable to punishment, acquitted ; using the embassy, 12mo., 1797, p. 88. same word with St. Paul when he speaks of a sinner's The following is Mr. Ainsworth's note on this verse; justification, i. e., his acquittance from blame and “This number forty the Scripture uses sundry times punishment, because of the death of Christ in his stead. in cases of humiliation, affliction, and punishment. As

Verse 2. The judge shall cause him to lie down, Moses twice humbled himself in fasting and prayer and to be beaten before his face) This precept is lite- forty days and forty nights, Deut. ix. 9, 18. Elijah rally followed in China ; the culprit receives in the pre- fasted forty days, 1 Kings xix. 8; and our Saviour, sence of the magistrate the punishment which the law Matt. iv.-2. Forty years Israel was afflicted in the directs to be inflicted. Thus then justice is done, for wilderness for their sins, Num. xiv. 33, 34. And forty the magistrate sees that the letter of the law is duly years Egypt was desolate for treacherous dealing with fulfilled, and that the officers do not transgress it, either Israel, Ezek. xxix. 11-13. Forty days every woby indulgence on the one hand, or severity on the other. man was in purification from her uncleanness for a The culprit receives nothing more nor less than what man-child that she bare, and twice forty days for a justice requires.

woman-child, Lev. xii. 4, 5. Forty days and forty Verse 3. Forty stripes he may give him, and not nights it rained at Noah's flood, Gen. vii. 12. Forty exceed] According to God's institution a criminal may days did Ezekiel bear the iniquity of the house of Jureceive forly stripes ; not one more! But is the insti. dah, Ezek, iv. 6. Jonah preached, Yet forty days tution from above or not, that for any offence sentences and Nineveh shall be overthrown, Jonah iii. 4. Forty a man to receive three hundred, yea, a thousand years' space the Canaanites had to repent after Israel stripes? What horrible brutality is this ! and what a came out of Egypt, and wandered so many years in reproach to human nature, and to the nation in which the wilderness, Num. xiv, 33. And thrice forty years such shocking barbarities are exercised and tolerated! the old world had Noah preaching unto them repentMost of the inhabitants of Great Britain have heard ance, Gen. vi. 3. It was forty days ere Christ asof Lord Macartney's embassy to the emperor of China, cended into heaven after his resurrection, Acts i. 3, 9, and they have also heard of its complete failure ; but And forty years' space he gave unto the Jews, from they have not heard the cause. It appears to have the time that they killed him, before he destroyed their been partly occasioned by the following circumstance: city and temple by the Romans. A soldier had been convicted of some petty traffic with "By the Hebrews this law is expounded thus : How one of the natives, and he was sentenced by a court-many stripes do they beat (an offender) with? With martial to receive sixty lashes! Hear my author : forty, lacking one: as it is written, (Deut. xxv. 2, 3,)

“The soldiers were drawn up in form in the outer by number forty, that is, the number which is next to court of the palace where we resided ; and the poor forty, Talmud Bab, in Maccoth, chap. iü. This their

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