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A. M. 2553.
A. M. 2553.
Moses reasons with
and exhorts the people. 15 But with him that standeth stranger that shall come from a An. Ex. Isr. 40. here with us this day before the far land, shall say, when they see' an. Ex: Isr. 40.
LORD our God, and also with the plagues of that land, and the him that is not here with us this day : sicknesses k which the Lord hath laid upon it ;
16 (For ye know how we have dwelt in the 23 And that the whole land thereof is brimland of Egypt; and how we came through stone, land salt, and burning, that it is not the nations which ye passed by;
sown, nor beareth, nor any grass groweth 17 And ye have seen their abominations, and therein, m like the overthrow of Sodom, and their u idols, wood and stone, silver and gold, Gomorrah, Admah, and Zeboim, which the which were among them :)
LORD overthrew in his anger, and in his 18. Lest there should be among you man, wrath :
woman, or family, or tribe, 'whose heart 24 Even all nations shall say, "Wherefore uneth
away this day from the Lord our God, hath the Lord done thus unto this land ? what : go and serve the gods of these nations; meaneth the heat of this great anger ?
lest there should be among you a root that - 25 Then men shall say, Because they have peareth * gall y and wormwood ;
forsaken the covenant of the LORD God of 19 And it come to pass, when he heareth their fathers, which he made with them when the words of this curse, that he bless himself he brought them forth out of the land of in his heart, saying, I shall have peace, though Egypt : I walk ? in the imagination of mine heart, 26 For they went and served other gods, and b to add c drunkenness to thirst:
worshipped them, gods whom they knew not, 20 « The Lord will not spare him, but then, and whom he had not given unto them : • the anger of the Lord and his jealousy | 27. And the anger of the LORD was kindled shall smoke against that man, and all the against this land, ? to bring upon it all the curses that are written in this book shall lie curses that are written in this book : upon him, and the LORD & shall blot out his 28 And the LORD 'rooted them out of their name from under heaven.
land in anger, and in wrath, and in great in21 And the LORD h shall separate him unto dignation, and cast them into another land, as evil out of all the tribes of Israel, aceording it is this day. to all the curses of the covenant that are 29 The secret things belong unto the Lord written in this book of the law ;
our God: but those things which are revealed 22 So that the generation to come of your belong unto us and to our children for ever, children that shall rise up after you, and the that we may do all the words of this law.
See Acts ii. 39; 1 Cor. vii. 14. Lu Heb. dungy gods.
h Matt. xxiv. 51. i Heb. is written. k Heb. wherewith the xi. 16. w Acts viii. 23; Heb. xii. 15.—- -> Or, a poisonful LORD hath made it sick, Psa. cvii. 34; Jer. xvii. 6; Zeph.
0.-y Heb. rosh.- 2 Num. xv. 39; Eccles. xi. 9. - Or, ii. 9. m Gen. xix. 24, 25; Jer. xx. 16.—1 Kings ix. 8, 9; bbornness ; Jer. iii. 17; vii. 21.
_b Isa. xxx. 1.
- Heb. the Jer. xxii. 8, 9.- Lo Or, who had not given to them any portion. unken to the thirsty.- d Ezek. xiv. 7, 8. - Psa. Ixxiv. I. pHeb. divided. -9 Dan. ix: 11, 13, 14. * Kings xiv. 15; Psa. lxxix. 5; Ezek. xxiii. 25. Chap. ix. 14.
2 Chron, vii. 20; Psa. lii. 5; Prov. ii. 22.
5. The victim is separated exactly into two equal parts, evil heart of unbelief departing from the living God; for
because he had translated it, From whom they had reVerse 15. Him that standeth here] The present ceived no benefits. I must differ from both these great generation. Him that is not here-all future genera- men, because I think they differ from the text.sn tions of this people.
chalak signifies a portion, lot, inheritance, and God is Verse 18. A root that beareth gall and wormwood] frequently represented in Scripture as the portion or That is, as the 'apostle expresses it, Heb. iii. 13, An inheritance of his people. Here, therefore, I think
Gracious promises to the
faithful and obedient. the original should be rendered, And there was no por- | revealed concern not man but God alone, and are theretion to them, that is, the gods they served could neither fore not to be inquired after.” Thus, then, the things supply their wants nor save their souls—they were no that are hidden belong unto the Lord, those that are portion.
revealed belong unto us and our children. But possiVerse 29. The secret things belong unto the Lord, bly the words here refer to the subjects of these chap&c.] This verse has been variously translated. Hou- ters, as if he had said, “ Apostasy from God and his bigant renders it thus : Quæ apud Dominum nostrum truth is possible. When a national apostasy among us abscondita sunt, nobis ea filiisque nostris palam facta may take place, is known only to God; but he has resunt ad multas ætates, “ The things which were hid- vealed himself to us and our children that we may do den with the Lord our God, are made manifest to us all the words of this law, and so prevent the dreadful and our children for many generations.” I am not evils that shall fall on the disobedient.”. satisfied with this interpretation, and find that the passage was not so understood by any of the ancient ver
· The Jews have always considered these verses as sions.
The simple general meaning seems to be this : containing subjects of the highest importance to them, “What God has thought proper to reveal, he has re- and have affixed marks to the original, 13'3351 35 lanu vealed; what he has revealed is essential to the well- ulebaneynu, "tò us and to our CHILDREN," in order to being of man, and this revelation is intended not 'for fix the attention of the reader on truths which affect the present time merely, nor for one people, but for all them individually, and not them only, but the whole succeeding generations. The things which he has not of theịr posterity.
· A. M. 2553. B. C. 1451.
Gracious promises are given to the penitent, 1–6. The Lord will circumcise their heart, and put all these
curses on their enemies, if they hearken to his voice and keep his testimonies, 7-10. · The word is near to them, and easy to be understood, 11-14. Life and death, a blessing and a curse, are sét before them : and they are exhorted to love the Lord, obey his voice, and cleave unto him, that they may inherit the land promised to Abraham, 15-20. a it shall come to pass, and will return and gather thee A. M. 2553.
B. C. 1451. An. Ex. Isr. 40. when all these things are from all the nations, whither the An. Ex. Isr. 40.
Sebat. come upon thee, the blessing and LORD thy God hath scattered thee. the curse, which I have set before thee, and 4 6. If any of thine be driven out unto the c thou shalt call them to mind among all the outmost parts of heaven, from thence will the nations, whither the Lord thy God hath driven LORD thy God gather thee, and from thence thee,
will he fetch thee: 2 And shalt d return unto the LORD thy God, 5 And the LORD thy God will bring thee and shalt obey his voice, according to all that into the land which thy fathers possessed, and I command thee this day, thou and thy chil thou shalt possess it; and he will do thee good, dren, with all thine heart, and with all thy soul ; and multiply thee above thy fathers.
3 • That then the Lord thy God will turn 6 And I the Lord thy God will circumcise thy captivity, and have .compassion upon thee, thine heart, and the heart of thy seed, to love
a Lev. xxvi. 40. Chap. xxviii. Chap. iv. 29, 30; | iii. 22, 32.- - Psa. exlvii. 2 ; Jer. xxxii. 37; Ezek. xxxiv. 13; 1 Kings viii. 47, 48.- - Neh. i. 9; Isa. lv. 7; Lam. ju: 40 ; Joel xxxvi, 24. - Chap. xxvii. 64 ; Neh. i. 9. ch Chap. x. 16; ii. 12, 13. - Psa. cvi. 45 ; cxxvi. 1, 4 ; Jer. xxix. 14; Lam. Jer. xxxii. 39; Ezek. xi. 19; xxxvi. 26.
NOTES ON CHAP. XXX.
quently it is not the Babylonish captivity which is inVerse 1. When all these things are come upon thee, tended; and the repossession of their land must be the blessing and the curse] So fully did God foresee different from that which was consequent on their rethe bad use these people would make of their free turn from Chaldea. agency in resisting the Holy Ghost, that he speaks of Verse 6. God will circumcise thine heart] This their sin and punishment as certain ; yet, at the same promise remains yet to be fulfilled. Their heart, as a time, shows how they might turn to himself and live, people, has never yet been circumcised ; nor have the even while he was pouring out his indignation upon various promises in this chapter been ever yet fulfilled. them because of their transgressions,
There remaineth, therefore, a rest for this people of Verse 3. Gather thee from all the nations] This God. Now, as the law, properly speaking, made no must refer to a more extensive captivity than that provision for the circumcision of the heart, which imwhich they suffered in Babylon.
plies the remission of sins, and purification of the soul Verse 5. Will bring thee into the land] As this from all unrighteousness; and as circumcision itself promise refers to a return from a captivity in which was only a sign of spiritual good, consequently the they had been scattered among all nations, conse- promise here refers to the days of the Messiah, and to
Life and death are
set before the people A. M. 2553. the LORD thy God with all thine say, Who shall go up for us to A. M. 2553. B. C. 1451.
B. C. 1451. An. Ex. Isr. 40. heart, and with all thy soul, that heaven, and bring it unto us, that An. Ex. Isr. 40. thou mayest live.
we may hear it, and do it? 7 And the LORD thy God will put, all these 13 Neither is it beyond the sea, that thou curses upon thine enemies, and on them that shouldest say, Who shall go over the sea for hate thee, which persecuted thee.
and bring it unto us, that we may hear it, 8 And thou shalt return and obey the voice and do it? of the LORD, and do all his commandments 14 But the word is very nigh' unto thee, in which I command thee this day.
thy mouth, and in thy heart, that thou mayest 9 i And the LORD thy God will make thee do it. plenteous in every work of thine hand, in the 15 See, "I have set before thee this day life fruit of thy body, and in the fruit of thy catile, and good, and death and evil; and in the fruit of thy land, for good : for the 16. In that I command thee this day to love Lord will again " rejoice over thee for good, the LORD thy God, to walk in his ways, and as he rejoiced over thy fathers :
to keep his commandments and his statutes 10 If thou shalt hearken unto the voice of and his judgments, that thou mayest live and the Lord thy God, to keep his. command- multiply: and the LORD thy God shall bless ments and his statutes which are written in thee in the land whither thou goest to possess it. this book of the law, and if thou turn unto 17 But if thine heart: turn, away, so that the LORD thy God with all thine heart, and thou wilt not hear, but shall be drawn away, with all thy soul.
and worship other gods, and serve them; 11 For this commandment which I command 18 : I denounce unto you this day, that ye thee this day, ? it is not hidden from thee, neither shall surely perish, and that ye shall not prois it far off.
long your days upon the land, whither thou 12 m It is not in heaven, that thou shouldest passest over Jordan to go to possess it. i Chap. xxvii. 11. Chap. xxxviii. 63; Jer. xxii. 41. m Rom. x. 6, &c.- -- Ver. 1, 19; chap. xi. 26.
Lo Chap. Isa. xlv.:19.
iv. 26; viii. 19. this all the prophets and all the apostles give witness : eousness, that the tongue may make confession unto “ for circumcision is that of the heart, in the spirit, salvation. In this way, it is evident; St. Paul underand not in the letter," Rom, ii. 29; and the genuine stood these passages; see Rom. x. 6, &c. followers of God “are circumcised with the circumci- Verse 15. Life and good] Present and future sion made without hands—by the circumcision of blessings. Christ,” Col. ii. 11, 12. · Hence we see these pro- Death and evil] Present and future miseries : termmises cannot be fulfilled to the Jews but in their em-ed, ver. 19, Life and death, blessing and cursing. And bracing the Gospel of Christ. To look, therefore, for why were these set before them? 1. That they might their restoration is idle and nugatory, while their ob- comprehend their import. 2. That they might feel stinacy and unbelief remain.
their importance. 3. That they might choose life, and Verse 11. This commandment—is not hidden] Not the path of believing, loving obedience, that led to it. too wonderful or difficult for thee to comprehend or 4. That they and their posterity, thus choosing life perform, as the word nxo) niphleth implies. Neither and refusing evil, might be the favourites of God in is it far off--the word or doctrine of salvation shall time and eternity. be proelaimed in your own land ; for He is to be born Were there no such thing as free will in man, who in Bethlehem af Judah, who is to feed and save Israel; could reconcile these sayings either with sincerity or and the PROPHET who is to teach them is to be raised common sense ? God has made the human will free, up from among their brethren.
and there is no power or influence either in heaven, Verse 12. It is not in heaven] Shall not be coin earth, or hell, except the power of God, that can demunicated in that way in which the prophets received prive it of its free volitions ; of its power to will and the living oracles; but the woRD shall be made flesh, nill, to choose and refuse, to act or not act; or force it and dwell among you. :
to sin against God. Hence man is-accountable for his Verse 13. Neilher is it beyond the sea] Ye shall actions, because they are his; were he necessitated not be obliged to travel for it to distant nations, be- by fate, or sovereign constraint, they could not be his. cause salvation is of the Jews.
Hence he is rewardable, hence he is punishable. God, Verse 14. But the word is very nigh unto thee] in his ereation, willed that the human creature should The doctrine of salvation preached by the apostles; be free, and he formed his soul accordingly; and the in thy mouth, the promises of redemption made by the Law and Gospel, the promise and precept, the denunprophets forming a part of every Jew's creed; in thy ciation of wo and the doctrine of eternal life, are all heart—the power to believe with the heart unto right-constructed on this ground ; that is, they all necessarily Vol. I. ( 53 ).
Moses delivers the Divine
message to the people. A. M. 2553. 19 PI call heaven and earth God, and that thou mayest obey A. M. 2553. B. C. 1451.
B. C. 1451. An. Ex. Isr. 40. to record 'this day against you, his voice, and that thou mayest An. Ex. Isı. 40.
that ! I have set before you cleave unto him: for he is thy life and death, blessing and cursing : therefore " life, and the length of thy days : that thou choose life, that both thou and thy seed may mayest dwell in the land which the Lord live.
sware unto thy fathers, to Abraham, to Isaac, 20 That thou mayest love the Lord thy and to Jacob, to give them.
pChap. iv. 26 ; xxxi. 28. -9 Ver. 15. -Psa. xxvii. 1 ; lxvi. 9; John xi. 25. Chap. iv. 40; xi. 9; xii. 10. suppose the freedom of the human will: nor could it energetic, and pure while it lasts—will be ultimately be will if it were not free, because the principle of ineffectual. He alone who endures to the end, skall freedom or liberty is necessarily implied in the idea be saved. Reader, how do matters stand between God of volition. See on the fifth chapter and 29th and thy soul ? He cannot persevere in the grace of
God whose soul is not yet made à partaker of that Verse 19. See the note on the preceding verse. grace. Many talk strenuously on the impossibility of
Verse 20. That thou mayest love the Lord] With- falling from grace, who have not yet tasted that the out love there can be no obedience:
Lord is gracious.. How absurd to talk and dispute Obey his voice) Without obedience love is fruitless about the infallibility of arriving safely at the end of a and dead.
way in which a man has never yet taken one hearty And-cleave unto him] Without close attachment step! It is never among those that have the grace of and perseverance, temporary love, however sincere and God, but among those that have it not, that we find fervent-temporary obedience, however disinterested, I an overweening confidence:
B. C. 1451.
CHAPTER XXXI. Moses, being one hundred and twenty years old and about to die, calls the people together, and exhorts them
to courage and obedience, 1-6. Delivers a charge to Joshua, 7, 8. Delivers the laro' which he had writ. ten to the priests, with a solemn charge that they should read it every seventh year, publicly to all the people, 9-13. The Lord calls Moses and Joshua to the tabernacle, 14. He appears to them, informs Moses of his approaching death, and delivers to him a prophetical and historical song, or poem, which he is to leave with Israel, for their instruction and reproof, 15–21. Moses writes the song the same day, and teaches it to the Israelites, 22 ; gives Joshua a charge, 23; finishes writing the book of the law, 24. Commands the Levites to lay it up in the side of the ark, 25, 26. Predicts their rebellions, 27. Ordets the elders to be gathered together, and shows them what evils would befall the people in the latter days, 28, 29, and repeats the song to them, 30. A. M. 2553. AND Moses went and spake before thee, as the Lord hath A. M. 2553.
B. C. 1451. An. Ex. Isr. 40. these words unto all Israel. 'said.
An. Ex. Isr. 40. 2 And he said unto them, I a am 4 f And the LORD shall do unto
Sebai. a hundred and twenty years old this day; I them 6 as he did to Sihon and to Og, kings can no more bgo out and come in : also the of the Amorites; and unto the land of them Lord hath said unto me, Thou shalt not go whom he destroyed. over this Jordan.
5 And the LORD shall give them up before 3 The LORD thy God, d he will go over your face, that ye may do unto them accordbefore thee, and he will destroy these na- ing unto all the commandments which I have tions from before thee, and thou shalt pos- commanded you. sess them: and Joshữa, he shall go over 6
a Exodus vii. 7; chap. xxxiv. 7.— Numbers xxvii. 17; • Num. xxvii. 21; chap. iii. 28. Chap. iii. 21.-_ Num. 1 Kings iii. 7.— Numbers xx. 12; xxvii. 13; chap. iii. 27. xxi. 24, 33. th Chap. vii. 2.- Li Josh. x. 25; 1 Chron. Kii. 13. « Chap. ix. 3.
☆ Chap. i., 29; vii. 18. NOTES ON CHAP. XXXI.
Egyptians ;. (see Acts vii. 20,23 ;) forty years he soVerse 2. I am a hundred and twenty years old) journed in the land of Midian in a state of preparation The life of Moses, the great prophet of God and law- for his great and important mission ; (Acts vii. 29, 30;) giver of the Jews, was exactly the same in length as and forty years he guided, led, and governed the Israelthe time Noah employed in preaching righteousness ites under the express direction and authority of God: to the antediluvian world. These one hundred and in all, one hundred and twenty years. twenty years were divided into three remarkable pe- Verse 3. Joshua, he shall go over before theel See riods : forty years he lived in Egypt, in Pharaoh's on Num: xxvii. 17, &c. court, acquiring all the learning and wisdom of the Verse 6. Be strong] pin chizku, the same word 818
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B. C. 1451.
The law to be read publicly CHAP. XXXI.
every seventh year. A.M. 2553. not, nor be afraid of them : for 11 When all Israel is come to A. M. 2553.
B. C. 1451.
doth go with thee; m he will not in the place which he shall choose, fail thee, nor forsake thee.
'thou shalt read this law before all Israel in 7 And Moses called unto Joshua, and said their hearing. unto him in the sight of all Israel, Be strong 12 w Gather the people together, men, and and of a good courage : for thou must go with women, and children, and thy stranger that is this people unto the land which the Lord within thy gates, that they may hear, and that hath sworn unto their fathers to give them; they may learn, and fear the LORD your God, and thou shalt cause them to inherit it. and observe to do all the words of this law :
8 And the LORD, he it is that doth go be- 13 And that their children, which have not fore thee; P he will be with thee, he will not known any thing, y may hear, and learn to fear fail thee, neither forsake thee : fear not, neither the Lord your God, as long as ye live in the be dismayed.
land whither ye go over Jordan to possess it. 9 And Moses wrote this law, 9 and delivered 14 And the LORD said unto Moses, 2 Beit unto the priests the sons of Levi, ' which hold, thy days approach that thou must die : bare the ark of the covenant of the LORD, and call Joshua, and present yourselves in the taunto all the elders of Israel.
bernacle of the congregation, that I may give 10 And Moses commanded them, saying, him a charge. And Moses and Joshua went At the end of every seven years, in the solem- and presented themselves in the tabernacle of nity of the year of release, in the feast of the congregation.tabernacles,
15 And b the Lord appeared in the taber1 Chap. xx. 4.- Josh. 1,5; Heb. xiii. 5. _n Ver. 23; chap. s Chap. xv. 1. Lev. xxiii. 34.— Chap. xvi. 16.— Josh. 1.38 ; iii. 28; Josh. i. 6.° Exod. xiii. 21, 22; xxxii. 24; chap. viii. 34, 35; 2 Kings xxiii. 2; Neh. viii. 1, 2, 3, &c.-W Chap jx. 3. - Josh, i. 5, 9; I Chron. xxviii. 20.—Ver. 25; chap. iv. 10.- - Chap. xi. 2.- Psa. Ixxviii. 6, 7.-- Num. xxvii. Ivii. 18.-Num. iv. 15: Josh. in. 3; 1 Chron. xv. 12, 15. 13; xxxiv. 5.- Ver. 23; Num. xxvii. 19. b Exod. xxxiii. 9.
that is used Exod. iv. 21, ix. 15, for hardening Pha- copy for reference, and to be a witness against the raoh's heart. See the notes there. The Septuagint, people should they break it or become idolatrous. in this and the following verse, have, Avdpisov Kai This second copy. is supposed to be intended ver. 26. Loxve, Play the man, and be strong; and from this As the law was properly a covenant or contract beSt. Paul seems to have borrowed his ideas, 1 Cor. tween God and the people, it is natural to suppose xvi. 13: Στηκετε εν τη πιστει ανδριζεσθε, κρατιουσθε : there were two copies of it, that each of the contractStand firm in the faith; play the man--act like he- ing parties might have one : therefore one was laid roes; be vigorous.
up beside the ark, this was the Lord's copy; another Versė 8. The Lord—doth go before thee) To pre- was given to the priests and Levites, this was the pare thy way, and to direct thee.
people's copy. He will be with thee] Accompany thee in all thy
Verse 10, 11. At the end of every seven yearsjourneys, and assist thee in all thy enterprises. thou shalt read this law] Every seventh year was a
He will not fail thee Thy expectation, however year of release, chap. xv. 1, at which time the people's strong and extensive, shall never be disappointed: minds, being under a peculiar degree of solemnity, thou canst not expect too much from him.
were better disposed to hear and profit by the words Neither forsake thee] He knows that without him of God.. I suppose on this ground also that the whole thou canst do nothing, and therefore he will continue book of Deuteronomy is meant, as it alone contains with thee, and in such a manner too that the ex- an epitome of the whole Pentateuch. And in this cellence of the power shall appear to be of him, and way some of the chief Jewish rabbins understand this not of man.
place, Verse 9. Moses wrote this law] Not the whole It is strange that this commandment, relative to a Pentateuch, but either the discourses and precepts public reading of the law every seven years, should mentioned in the preceding chapters, or the book of have been rarely attended tô. It does not appear that Deuteronomy, which is most likely.
from the time mentioned Josh. viii. 30, at which time Some of the rabbins have pretended that Moses this public reading first took place, till the reign of wrote thirteen copies of the whole Pentateuch ; that Jehoshaphat, 2 Chron. xvii. 7, there was any public he gave one to each of the twelve tribes, and the thir- seventh year reading - period of 530 years. The teenth was laid up by the ark. This opinion deserves next seventh year reading was not till the eighteenth little credit. Some think that he wrote two copies, year of the reign of Josiah, 2 Chron. xxxiv. 30, a one of which he gave to the priests and Levites for space of two hundred and eighty-two years. Nor do general usé, according to what is said in this verse, we find any other publicly mentioned from this time the other to be laid up, beside the ark as a standard till the return from the Babylonish captivity, Neh.