« AnteriorContinuar »
B. C. 1451.
B. C. 1451.
I when many
The Lord appears and
converses with Moses. A. M. 2553. nacle in a pillar of a cloud :.and / waxen fat; ? then will they turn A. M. 2553. An. Ex. Isr. 40. the pillar of the cloud stood over unto other gods, and serve them, An. Ex. Isr. 40.
the door of the tabernacle. and provoke me, and break my 16 And the LORD said unto Moses, Behold, covenant.
i thou shalt • sleep with thy fathers ; and this 21 And it shall come to pass, people will d rise up, and go a whoring after evils and troubles are befăllen them, that this the gods of the strangers of the land, whither song shall testify-s against them as a witness; they go'to be among them; and will f forsake for it shall not be forgotten out of the mouths me, and break my covenant which I have of their seed : for I know their imagination made with them.
u which v they go about, even now, before I 17 Then my anger shall be kindled against have brought them into the land which I them in that day, and h I will forsake them, sware. and I will i hide my face from them; and they 22 Moses therefore wrote this song the same shall be devoured, and many evils and troubles day, and taught it the children of Israel. shall k befall them; so that they will say in 23.". And he gave Joshua the son of Nun a that day, ? Are not these evils come upon us charge, and said, * Be strong, and of a good because our God is m not among us ? courage , for thou shalt bring the children of
18 And " I will surely hide my face in that Israel into the land which I sware unto them; day for all the evils which they shall have and I will be with thee. wrought, in that they are turned unto other 24 And it came to pass, when Moses had gods.
made an end of writing the words of this 19 Now therefore write ye this song for you, law in a book, until they were finished, and teach it the children of Israel: put it in 25 That Moses commanded the Levites
, their mouths, that this song may be o á wit- which bare the ark of the covenant of the ness for me against the children of Israel. LORD, saying
20 For when I shall have brought them into 26 Take this book of the law, ? and put it the land which I sware unto their fathers, in the side of the ark of the covenant of the that floweth with milk and honcy; and they LORD your God, that it may be there a for a shall have eaten and filled themselves, Þand witness against thee. c Heb. lie down ; 2 Sam. vii. 12.
m Num. xiv. 42.
-P Chap. Axil. xxxiv. 15; Judg. ii. 17. - Chap. xxxii. 15; Judg. ii. 12 ; x. 6, 15; Neh. ix. 25, 26; Hos. xiii. 6.-19 Verse 16.-Verse 17, 13.-Judg. ii: 20. Lh 2 Chron. xv. 2. Chap. xxxii. 20; * Heb before.- Hos. v. 3; xiii. 5, 6.- Amos v. 25, 26. Psa. civ. 29; Isa. viii. 17; lxiv. 7; Ezek. xxxix. 23.
* Ver. 7; Josh. i, 6. - Verse 9. find them ; Neh. ix. 32. — Judg. vi. 13.
2 See 2 Kings xxii. 9:viii. 2. Nor is there any other on record from that prose was 'sometimes sung. The history of Herotime to the destruction of Jerusalem. See Dodd. dotus was divided into NINE books, and each inscribed
Verse 16. Behold, thou shalt sleep with thy fathers] with the name of one of the Nine Muses, because these 30 shocheb, thou shalt lie down ; it signifies to rest, books were anciently sung. Homer is reported to take rest in sleep, and, metaphorically, to die. Much have sung his poems through different Greek cities. stress cannot be safely laid on this expression to prove Aristotle observes that anciently the people sung their the immortality of the soul, or that the people in the laws. And Cicero observes that it was a custom time of Moses had a distinct notion of its separate among the ancient Romans to,sing the praises of their existence. It was, however, understood in this sense heroes at the public festivals. This was the case by Jonathan ben Uzziel, who in his Targum para- among the northern inhabitants of Europe, particularly phrases the word thus : “ Thou shalt lie down in the in Ireland and Scotland ; hence the Gaelic poetry of dust with thy fathers; and thy soul (770vi nishme- Ossian and others. See Dodd ; and see the note on thach) shall be laid up in the treasury of the life to Exod. xv. 1, where the subject is largely treated. come with thy fathers.”
Verse 21. This song shall testify against them] Verse 18. I will surely hide my face] Withdraw Because in it their general defection is predicted, but my approbation and my protection. This is a general in such a way as to show them how to avoid the evil ; meaning of the word in Scripture.
and if they did not avoid the evil, and the threatened Verse 19. Write ye this song] The song which punishment should come upon them, then the song follows in the next chapter. Things which were of should testify against them, by. "showing that they had great importance and of common concern were, among been sufficiently warned, and might have lived to God, the ancients, put into verse, as this was found the best and so escaped those disasters, method of keeping them in remembrance, especially in Verse 26. Take this book of the law] The standard those times when writing was little practised. Even copy to which all transcripts must ultimately refer :
Ld Exod. xxxii. 6.
n Ver. 17.
Lo Ver. 26.
w Ver. 14.
La Ver. 19.
A. M. 2553.
A. M. 2553.
Moses predicts the
defection of the people. 27 b For I know thy rebellion, | utterly corrupt yourselves, and An. Ex. Isr. 40, and thy • stiff neck : behold, turn aside from the way which I An. Ex. Isr. 40.
while I am yet alive with you have commanded you; and evil this day, ye have been rebellious against the will befall you 8 in the latter days; because LORD; and how much more after my death? ye will do evil in the sight of the LORD, to
28 Gather unto me all the elders of your provoke him to anger through the work of tribes, and your officers, that I may speak these your hands. words in their ears, I and call heaven and earth 30 And Moses spake in the ears of all the to record against them.
congregation of Israel the words of this song, 29 For I know that after my death ye will until they were ended.
6 Chap. ix. 24 ; xxxii. 20. - Exod. xxxii.9 ; chap. ix. 6.
Chap. xxx. 19; xxxii. 1.
Chap. xxxii. 5; Judg. ii. 19; Hos. ix. 9. Chap. xxiii. 15.
& Gen. xlix. l; chap. iv. 30.
another copy was put into the hands of the priests. scendants of Jacob! Let them take heed, for if God See the note on ver. 9.
spared not the natural branches, he will not spare Verse 27. While I am yet alive-ye have been re- them. If they sin after the manner of the Jews, they bellious] Such was the disposition of this people to may expect to be partakers with them in their punishact contrary to moral goodness that Moses felt himself ments. What God does to nalions he will do to indijustified in inferring what would take place from what viduals who reject his mercy, or trample under foot had already happened..
his grace; the soul that sinneth, and returns not to
God by repentance and faith, shall die. This is a de 1.1: Never was a people more fully and faithfully cree of God that shall never be reversed, and every day warned, and from this very circumstance we may see bears witness how strictly he keeps it in view, that they were under no fatal constraining necessity 3. The ode composed by Moses for this occasion to commit sin against God; they might have avoided was probably set to some lively and affecting air, and it, but they would not. · God was present to help sung by the people. It would be much easier to keep them, till by their repeated provocations they forced such a song in remembrance, than an equal quantity him to depart: wrath therefore came upon them to of prose. The whole would have the additional cirthe uttermost because they sinned when they might cumstances of cadence and lune to cause it to be often have lived to the glory of God. Those who abuse repeated ; and thus insure its being kept in memory. God's grace shall not only have that grace taken away Poetry, though often, nay, generally abused, is neverfrom them, but shall be punished for the abuse of it, 'theless a gift from . God, and may be employed with as well as for the transgression. Every sin is double, the best effect in his service. A very considerable and must have a twofold punishment; for i. Grace part of the Old Testament is written in poetry; parti is resisted ; 2. Transgression is committed ; and God cularly the whole book of Psalms, great part of the will visit for both.
prophet Isaiah, the Lamentations, and much of the 2. How astonishing it is that, with such examples minor prophets. Those who speak against poetic of God's justice before their eyes, the Jews should be compositions in the service of God, speak against what so little affected ; and that the Gentiles, who have re- they do not understand. All that a man hath should ceived the Gospel of God, should act as if God would be consecrated to his Maker, and employed in his serno more punish transgression, or that he must be so vice; not only the energy of his heart and mind, the partial to them as to pass by iniquities for which the physical force of his body, but also the musical tones hand of his justice still contiņues heavý upon the de- and modulations of his voice.
The prophetical and historical song of Moses, showing forth the nature of God's doctrine, 1-3.. The cha
racter of God, 4. The corruption of the people, 5,6. They are called to remember God's kindness, 7, and his dealings with them during their travels in the wilderness, 8–14. Their ingratitude and iniquity, 15–18. They are threatened with his judgments, 19-28. A pathetic lamentation over them because of their sins, 29–35. Gracious purposes in their behalf, mired with reproaches for their manifold idolatries, and threatenings against his enemies, 36-42. A promise of salvation to the Gentiles, 43. Moses, having finished the song, warmly exhorts the people lo obedience, 44-47, God calls him up to the mount, that he may see the good land and then die, 48–52.
The song taught by Moses DEUTERONOMY.
to the children of Israel. A. M. 2553.
GIVE - ear, Oye heavens, and 3 Because I will publish the A. M. 2553. B. C. 1451.
B. C. 1451. An. Ex. Isr. 40. I will speak; and hear, 0 name of the Lord: d ascribe ye An. Ex. Isr. 40.
Sebat. earth, the words of my mouth. greatness unto our God. 2 My doctrine shall drop as the rain, my 4 He is the Rock, f his work is perfect : speech shall distil as the dew, o as the small for 8 all his ways are judgment : a
God of rain upon the tender herb, and as the showers truth and i without iniquity, just and right upon the
is he. a Chap. iv. 26 ; xxx. 19 ; xxxi. 28; Pșa. i. 4, Isa. i. 2; Jer. ii. e 2 Sam. xxii. 3; xxiii. 3 ; Psa. xvii: 2, 31, 46; Hab. i. 12. 12; vi. 19. -b Isa. Iv. 10, 11; 1 Cor. ii. 6, 7, 3. Psa. Ixxii. ' 2 Sam. xxii. 31.- 5 Dan. iv. 37; Rev. xv, 3.- Ch Jer. 2. 10. 6; Mic. v. 7.-di Chron. xxix. 11.
i Job. xxxiv. 10; Psa. xcii. 15. NOTES ON CHAP. XXXII.
On the manner in which dew is produced, philosoVerse 1.- On the inimitable excellence of this ode' phers are not yet agreed. It was long supposed to much has been written by commentators, critics, and descend, and to differ only from rain as less from more'; poets; and it is allowed by the best judges to contain but the experiments of a French chemist seemed to a specimen of almost every species of excellence in prove that dew ascended in light thin vapours, and that, composition. It is so thoroughly poetic that even the meeting with a colder région of the air, it became condull Jews themselves found they could not write it in densed and fell down upon the earth. Other recent the prose form; and hence it is distinguished as poetry experiments, though they have not entirely invalidated in every Hebrew Bible by being written in its own the former, have rendered the doctrine of the ascent hemistiche or short half lines, which is the general of dew doubtful. Though we know nothing certain form of the Hebrew poetry; and were it translated in as to the manner of its produetion, yet we know that the same way it would be more easily understood. the thing exists, and that it is essentially useful. So The song itself has suffered both by transcribers and much we know of the sayings of our God, and the translators, the former having mistaken some letters blessed effects produced by them: God hath spoken, in different places, and made wrong combinations of and the entering in of his words gives light and life. them in others. As to the translators, most of them See the note on Gen. ij. 6. have followed their own fancy, from good Mr. Ains
As the small rain] Onyu seirim, from wo saar, worth, who ruined it by the most inanimate-rhyming to be rough or tempestuous ; sweeping showers, acversion, to certain later poets, who have cast it unhal companied with a strong gale of wind. lowedly into a European mould. See the observations And as the showers) d'I'I5 rebibim, from 1737 rabah, at the end of the chapter.
to multiply, to increase greatly; shower after shower, Give ear, O ye heavens] Let angels and men hear, or rather a continual rain, whose drops are multiplied and let this testimony of God be registered both in beyond calculation, upon the earth ; alluding perhaps heaven and earth. Heaven and earth are appealed to to the rainy seasons in the East, or to those early and as permanent witnesses.
latter rains so essentially necessary for the vegetation Verse 2. My doctrine] mps likchi, from nph la- and perfection of the grain. kach, to take, carry away ; to attract or gain over the
No doubt these various expressions point out that heart by eloquence or persuasive speech. Hence the great variety in the word or revelation of God whereSeptuagint translate the word arodbeyua, an apoph- by it is suited to every place, occasion, person, and thegm, a sententious and weighty saying, for the regu- state ; being a profitable for doetrine, reproof, and edilation of the moral conduct. Such, properly, are the fication in righteousness.” Hence the apostle says that sayings in this inimitable ode.
God, at sundry times and in divers manners, spake in Shall drop as the rain] It shall come drop by drop time past unto the fathers by the prophets; and in these as the shower, beginning slowly and distinctly, but in- last times has spoken unto us by his Son; Heb. i. 1, creasing more and more till the plenitude of righteous- 2. . By every prophet, evangelist, and apostle, God ness is poured down, and the whole canon of Divine speaks a particular language ; all-'is his doctrine, his revelation completed.
great system of instruction, for the information and My speech shall distil as the dew] ix imrathi ; salvation of the souls of men. But some portions are my familiar, friendly, and affectionate speeches shall like the sweeping showers, in which the tempest of descend gently and softly, on the ear and the heart, as God's wrath appears against sinners. Others are like the dew, moistening and refreshing all around. In hot the incessant showers of gentle rain, preparing the soil regions dew is often a substitute for rain, without it for the germination of the grain, and causing it to take there could be no fertility, especially in those places root, And others still are like the dev, mildly and where rain seldom falls. And it. such places only can gently insinuating convictions, persuasions, reproofs, the metaphor here used be felt in its perfection. Ho- and consolations. The preacher of righteousness who mer uses a similar figure when speaking of the elo: wishes to handle this word profitably, must attend quence of Ulysses ; he says, Il. iii., ver. 221:- closely to those distinetions, that he may rightly divide
the word of truth, and give each of his hearers his Αλλ' ότε δη ροπα τε μεγαλην εκ στηθεος ιει, Και επεα νιφαδεσσιν εoικοτα χειμερινσιν
portion of the bread of life in due season.
Verse 4. He is the Rock] The word 718 isur is ren“ But when he speaks what elocution flows ! dered Creator by some eminent critics ; and üle Soft, as the fleeces of descending snows." khalyk is the reading in the Arabic Version. Rab,
A. M. 2003.
A. M. 2553.
to the children of Israel. 5 k They have corrupted them- years of $ many generations : 'ask An. Ex. Isr. 40. selves, m their spot is not the spot thy father, and he will show thee; an. Ex. Ist. 40.
- of his children ; they are a " per- thy elders, and they will tell thee. verse and crooked generation.
8 When the Most High divided to the 6 Do ye thus requite the Lord, O foolish nations their inheritance, when he separated people and unwise ? is not he P thy father that the sons of Adam, he set the bounds of the hath bought thee? hath he not made thee, people according to the number of the children and established thee?
of Israel, 7 Remember the days of old, consider the 9 For w the Lord's portion is his people ;
Heb. he hath corrupted to himself.
:- Chap. xxxi. 29.- Or, Ver. 15; Isa. xxvii. 11; xliv. 2.—Heb. generation and that they are not his children, that is, their blot. Matt. xvii. generation.- Exodus xii. 14; Psa. xliv. 1; Ixviii. 3, 4. 17; Luke ix. 41; Phil. ii. 15. - Psa. cxvi. 12. -P Isa. lxiii. u Zech. ix. 2; Acts xvii. 26. —Gen. xi. 8. w Exod. xv. 16; 16. -9 Psa. lxxiv, 2.
xix. 5; 1 Sam. X. 1; Psa. lxvili. 71. .
Moses ben Maimon, in his valuable work, Moreh Ne- culary on the forehead, amount to nearly one hundred bochim, observes that the word 718 tsur, which is or- among the Hindoos, and especially among the two sects, dinarily translated rock, signifies origin, fountain, first the worshippers of Seeva, and the worshippers of Vishcause, &c., and in this way it should be translated noo. In many cases these marks are renewed daily, here : “ He is the first principle, his work is perfect.” for they account it irreligious to perform any sacred As he is the cause of all things, he must be infinitely rite to their god without his mark on the forehead; the perfect; and consequently all his works must be per- marks are generally horizontal and perpendicular. lines, fect in their' respective kinds. As is the cause, so crescents, circles, leaves, eyes, 8c., in red, black, white, must the effect be. Some think the word rock gives and yellow. This very custom is referred to in Rev. a very good sense ; for, as in those lands, rocks were XX. 4, where the beast gives his mark to his followers, the ordinary places of defence and security, God may and it is very likely that Moses refers to such a cusbe metaphorically represented thus, to signify his pro- tom among the idolatrous of his own day. This resection of his followers. I prefer the opinion of Maimon. moves all the difficulty of the text. God's children
Verse 5. Their spot is not the spot of his children). have no sinful spots, because Christ saves them from This verse is variously translated and variously under their sins; and their motto, or mark is, Holiness to the stood. They are corrupted, not his, children of pollu-, Lord. tion.-KENNICOTT. They are corrupt, they are not his
Verse 8. When the Most High divided to the nations, children, they are blotted. — HOUBIGANT. This is ac- $c.). Verses 8 and 9, says Dr. Kennicott, give us cording to the Samaritan. The interpretation commonly express authority for believing that the earth was very given to these words is as unfounded as it is excep- early divided in consequence of a Divine command, tionable : "God's children have their spots, i. e., their and probably by lot, (see Acts xvii. 26.;) and as Africa sins, but sin in them is not like sin in others ; in others is called the land of Ham, (Psa. lxxviii. 51; cv. 23, 27; sin is exceedingly sinful, but God does not see the sins cvi. 22,) probably that country fell to him and to his of his children as he sees the sins of his enemies," descendants, at the same time that Europe fell to &c. Unfortunately for this bad doctrine, there is no Japheth, and Asia to Shem, with a particular reserve foundation for it in the sacred text, which, though very of Palestine to be the Lord's portion, for some one obscure, may be thus translated : He (Israel) hath cor- peculiar people. And this separation of mankind into rupted himself. They (the Israelites) are not his chil three bodies, called the general migration, was comdren : they are spotted. Coverdale renders the whole manded to Noah, and by him to his sons, so as to take passage thus : “ The froward and overthwart genera- place in the days of Peleg, about two hundred years tion have marred themselves to himward, and are not afterwards, This general migration was prior to the his children because of their deformity." This is the partial dispersion from Babel by about five hundred sense of the verse. Let it be observed that the word years. spot, which is repeated in our translation, occurs but He set the bounds of the people according to the once in the original, and the marginal reading is greatly number of the children of. Israel.] The Septuagint to be preferred : He hath corrupted, to himself, that is very curious, Eornoev, opia eôvwv kata aplopov ayyethey are not his children; that is their blot. And be-awy Pov Ocov, ." He established the bounds of the cause they had the blot of sin on them, because they nations according to the nutnber of the angels of God.” weře spotted with iniquity and marked idolaters, there. The meaning of the passage seems to be, that when 'fore God renounces them. There may be here an al-|God divided the earth among mankind, he reserved lusion to the marks which the worshippers of particu- | twelve lots, according to the number of the sons of lar idols had on different parts of their bodies, espe- Jacob, which he was now about to give to their de. cially on their foreheads; and as idolatry is the crime scendants, according to his promise, with which they are here charged, the spot or mark Verse 9. The Lord's portion is his people) What mentioned may refer to the mark or stigma of their an astonishing saying! As holy souls take GOD for idol. The different sects of idolaters in the East are their portion, so GOD takes them for his portion. He distinguished by their sectarian marks, the stigma of represents himself as happy in his followers; and they their respective idols. These sectarian marks, parti- | are infinitely happy in, and satisfied with, God as their How God led Israel
in the wilderness.
A. M. 2553. Jacob is the * lot of his inherit- land, and in the waste howl- A. M. 2553, B. C. 1451.
B. C. 1451. An. Ex. Isr. 40. ance.
ing wilderness; he ? led him An. Ex. Isr. 40. Sebat.
Sebal. 10 He found him y in a desert about, hé * instructed him, he
* Heb. cord.—y Chap. viii. 15; Jer. ij. 6; Hos. xii. 5.
2 Or, compassed him about.
a Deut. iv. 36.
portion. This is what is implied in being a saint. before ; but what rendered the access more difficult, He who is seeking for an earthly portion, has little the path which we were to tread was nearly right up commerce with the Most High.
and down. The captain of the robbers seeing the Verse 10. He--the Lord, found him—Jacob, in his obstacles we had to overcome, wisely sent all his ca descendants, in a desert land—the wilderness. He mels round the mountain where he knew there was a led him about forty years in this wilderness, Deut. viii. defile, and only accompanied us with the beast he rode. 2, or 107333D' yesobebenhu," he compassed him about, We luckily met with no accident in climbing this i. e., God defended them on all hands, and in all places. height.' p. 325. They afterwards descended, he tells He instructed him—taught them that astonishing law us, into a valley, by a passage easy enough, and stopthrough which we have now almost passed, giving them ping to dine at half past five o'clock, they were joined statutes and judgments which, for depth of wisdom, by the Arabs, who had made an astonishing march to and correct political adaptation to times, places, and overtake them, p. 326. "We soon quitted the dale, circumstances, are so wondrously constructed, as es- and ascended the high ground by the side of a mounsentially to secure the comfort, peace, and happiness tain that overlooks it in this part. The path was narof the individual, and the prosperity and permanency row and perpendicular, and much resembled a ladder. of the moral system. Laws so excellent that they To make it worse, we preceded the robbers, and an have met with the approbation of the wise and good in ignorant guide among our people led us astray. Here all countries, and formed the basis of the political in- we found ourselves in a pretty situation : we had kept stitutions of all the civilized nations in the universe. the lower road on the side of the hill, instead of that
Notwithstanding the above gives the passagé a good towards the summit, until we could proceed no farther; sense, yet probably the whole verse should be con- we were now obliged to gain the heights, in order to sidered more literally. It is certain that in the same recover the road, in performing which we drove our country travellers are often obliged to go about in order to poor camels up such steeps that we had the greatest find proper passes between the mountains, and the follow- difficulty to climb after them. We were under the ing extracts from Mr. Harmer well illustrate this point. necessity of leaving them to themselves, as the danger
“ Irwin farther describes the mountains of the de- of leading them through places where the least false Bert of Thebais (Upper Egypt) as sometimes so steep step would have precipitated both mán and beast to and dangerous as to induce even very bold and hardy the unfathomable abyss below, was too critical to hatravellers to avoid them by taking a large circuit ; and zard. We hit át length upon the proper path, and that for want of proper knowledge of the way, such a were glad to find ourselves in the road of our unerring wrong path may be taken as may on a sudden bring guides the robbers, after having won every foot of the them into the greatest dangers, while at other times a ground with real peril and fatigue.' p. 324. Again dreary waste may extend itself so prodigiously as to Our road after leaving the valley lay over level make it difficult, without assistance, to find the way to ground. As it would be next to an impossibility to find a proper outlet.
All which show us the meaning of the way over these stony flats, where the heavy foot those words of the song of Moses, Deut. xxxii. 10 : of a camel leaves no impression, the different bands of He led him aboul, he instructed him, he kept him as robbers have heaped up stones at unequal distances for the apple of his eye.
their direction through this desert. We have derived “ Jehovah certainly instructed Israel in religion by great assistance from the robbers in this respect, who delivering to him his law in this wilderness ; but it is are our guides when the marks either fail, or are unnot, I presume, of this kind of teaching Moses speaks, intelligible to us.' "The predatory Arabs were more as Bishop Patrick supposes, but God's instructing Is- successful guides to Mr. Irwin and his companions, rael how to avoid the dangers of the journey, by lead-than those hc brought with him from Ghinpah ; but ing the people about this and that dangerous, precipi- the march of Israel through deserts of the like nature, tous hill, directing them to proper passes through the was through such an extent and variety of country, mountains, and guiding them through the intricacies of and in such circumstances as to multitudes and incumthat difficult journey which might, and probably would, brances, 'as to make Divine interposition necessary. have confounded the most consummate Arab guides. The openings through the rocks seem to have been They that could have safely enough conducted a small prepared by Him to whom all things from the begincaravan of travellers through this desert, might have ning of the world were foreknown, with great wisdom been very unequal to the task of directing such an and goodness, to enable them to accomplish this stuenormous multitude, encumbered with cattle, women, pendous march.” See Harmer's Observat., vol.iv.p.125. children, and utensils. The passages of Irwin, that He kept him as the apple of his eye.] Nothing can establish the observation I have been making, follow exceed the force and delicacy of 'this expression. As here : At half past eleven we resumed our march, and deeply concerned and as carefully attentive as man can soon came to the foot of a prodigious hill, which we be for the safety of his eyesight, so was God for the unexpectedly found we were to ascend. It was per- protection and welfare of this people. How amazing pendicular, like the one we had passed some hours this condescension !