« AnteriorContinuar »
Jewish year of the World 5656, cor-||Jewish year of the World 5657, cor-Jewish year of the World 5658, cor-| Jewish year of the World 5659, cor-| Jewish year of the World 5660, cor-|Jewish year of the World 5661, corresponding to A. D. 1895-1896. responding to A. D. 1896-1897. responding to A. D. 1897-1898. responding to A. D. 1898-1899. responding to A. D. 1899-1900. responding to A. D. 1900-1901. Sabbaths Saturdays Pareshjoth Sabbaths Saturdays Pareshioth Sabbaths Saturdays Fareshioth Sabbaths Saturdays Pareshioth Sabbaths Saturdays Pareshioth Sabbaths Saturdays Pareshioth
of the of the Gre- and Haph- of the of the Gre- and Haph- of the of the Gre- and Haph- of the of the Gre- and Haph- of the of the Gre- and Haph- of the of the Gre- and HaphJewish year. gorian yr. taroth. Jewish year. gorian yr. taroth. Jewish year. gorian yr. taroth. Jewish year. gorian yr.
taroth. Jewish year. gorian yr.
taroth. Jewish year. gorian yr. taroth.
3 C 1898
2 E 1899
52 6 Tisri 2 Oct.
52 1 Tisri 17 Sept. New yrs. 5 Tisri 9 Sept. 52
6 Tisri 29 Sept. 52 10
28 Chippur 12
19 53 13
9 53 8 24
53 (day) 12
16 53 13
23 Succoth 20
8 Sab.p.Suc.|| 23+
27+ 54, B.L.
54, B. L. 24 12
26 3 Oct.
9* 54, B.L. 26 30
20 1 Marches. 19 3 Marches. 10 4 Marches. 30
3 Nov. 3 15 2 Nov 17
20 5 Nov.
2 Cisleu 6 Cisleu 23
4 Dec. 7 5 Cisleu 19
5 Dec. 10 30
10 7 Tebet 9
8 12 18
5 Jan, 12
30 14 21
14 25 7 Jan. 13
15 6 Sebat 29
15 3 Sebat 14 6 Sebat 6 Jan. 15
6 Sebat 26
15 10 25
5 Feb. 16 10
21 15 13
13 16 13
28 16 20
20 17 20
17 8 18 27
19 18, s 24
4 Feb. 17
27 18 27
4 Adar 26
19 1 Adar 11 18, S 4 Adar 3 Feb. 19
4 Adar 23
18 19, Z 11
2 March 20, Z
20 21 18
12 21, P 15
25 20 18
17 21 18
21, P 22 7 March
27 22, S 25
19 22, 23, H | 22 4 March 21, P 25
24 22, S 25
22, 23, H
11 22, 23, H 2 Veadar 3 March 23
3 Nisan 23
2 April 25 7 Nisan 18
24 9 10 Z 10
25 25 16 17
6 April 1 Pas.
16 26 21 1 April 1 Pas. 23
24 P 24
27, 28 28
8 20 1 Nisan 31
28 7 April 28
29, 30 12 25
15 17 1 Pas.
7 May 31 12 30 15
1 Pas. 15
4 May 31
22 21 2 Pas.
21 34 26 32, 33 29 28
4 June 35
12 31 14
1 June 35 18
27 36 20
19 32 21
36 25 6 June 37
27 29 33 28
18 37 25 3 June 37
27 26 33 28
5 Tammuz 25
38 2 Tammuz 10
38 5 Sivan 2 June 34
5 Tammuz 22
9 35 12
19 36 19 9
6 July 41
16 42, 43
26 23 37 26
4 Ab 23
8 42, 43 3 Tammuz 30
4 Ab 20 8
18 44 10
10 39 11
30 45 8 15
10 7 July
17 40 18
46 15 22
1 Aug. 46 24 24
25 13 29
14 45 16 3 Sept. 50
21 46 23
10 51, 52 20 26
7 Sept. 51, 52
2 Sept. 51 30
47 7 Elu 4 Sept. 48
7 Elul 1 Sept. 48 11 49
50 28 51
EXPLANATION OF THE PRECEDING TABLES.
Before the reader enters upon the particular uses of each ofthe pre- from the circumstance of never beginning the year on the first, fourth, ceding tables, it will be necessary to give a detailed account of the or sixth day of the week. Hence, if the new moon, which regulates rabbinical computation of time upon which they have been
constructed. the commencement of the year, should happen on the 1st day of the The year used by the Jews contains twelve or thirteen lunations, week, the year does not begin till the following day; and is on the which are so artificially disposed that its commencement constantly 4th or 6th, the commencement of the year is dated from the 5th or happens about the time of the autunnal equinos. In order to effect | Sabbath. The reason why the Jews never begin their year on the this, they have been obliged to have recourse to the sun's revolution i first day of the week, is to prevent the occurrence of the celebration through the twelve signs of the zodiac, or, to speak more properly, to of the festival of Hosanna Rabba on the Sabbath day, as some parts of the quantum of time which the earth takes up in making one com- this festival are deemed by them incompatible with the strict obserplete periodic revolution round the sun. This period of time, accord- vance of the Sabbath enjoined on them by the fourth commandment. ing to the rabbins, (which is the same that is used in the construction The reason why the year is never begun on the 4th or 6th days of of their calendar,) is 365 days, 5 hours, 997 chelakim, (points,) and 48 the week, is to prevent the occurrence of the great day of Atonement moments; which, reduced to our time, is equal to 365 days, 5 hours, 55 on the 6th or Lord's day; for as the Jews are bound to keep this fast minutes, and 25 seconds-1080 chelakim being contained in one hour, on the 10th of Tisri, and also to observe it as strictly as they would and 76 moments in a chelek. See Bibl. Rabb., Part II., p. 407. the Sabbath, in this case two Sabbaths as it were would come together
The quantity of the synodical revolution of the moon, according to and produce great inconvenience, as in their estimation it is not lawthe rabbins, is 29 days, 12 hours, and 793 chelakim, which also reduced ful to bury their dead or boil their food on either of these days. to our time, is equal to 29 days, 12 hours, 44 minutes, and 34 seconds ; Hence arises the necessity of adding or subtracting, from time to and twelve times this quantity, or 354 days, 8 hours, 48 minutes, and time, an entire day to or from the mean length of the common or em40 seconds, is equal to the Jewish common year, which is nearly 11 bolismic year, which correction is always made in the month Marchesdays short of the solar revolution ; consequently, to keep the seasons van or Cisleu, just in the same manner as the intercalated day in the or the year in their respective months, the rabbins employ an embo- Gregorian calendar is always attached to the end of February. lismic or leap year of 13 lunar months every second or third year, by From the different varieties in the length of the months Marchervan means of which, with other corrections which will be hereafter noticed, and Cisleu, connected with the day of the week upon which the year their years are found to correspond so exactly with the Gregorian begins, are produced fourteen different kinds of years among the Jews, calendar as not to deviate from it materially through the course of seven of which are common years, and the other seven embolismic; for some centuries.
sometimes these two months have each only 29 days, sometimes they In the lunar cycle of 19 years, which embraces the principal vari- have each 30 days, and at other times Marchesvan has 29, and Crsleu ations in the motion of the moon, they have 12 cominon years of 12 lu- 30 days; and the new year may commence with the Sabbath, or the nar months, and embolismic years of 13 lunar months; and in order that 2d, 3d, or 5th day of the week. all their months may begin as nearly as possible with the day of the The indexes by which these different years are distinguished in the conjunction of the sun and moon, they have alternately, for the most preceding tables are for the common years, 5 P 1,5d 7, 7 D 1, 7P 3. part, 29 and 30 days. Thus Tisri, their first month, contains 30 days ; 2 D 3, 2 P 5, and 3 d5; and for the embolismie, 5 DI, 3 d 7, 2 P. 7, Marchesvan, their second month, 29 or 30 ; Cisleu, 29 or 30 ; Tebet, 29; 5 P 3, 7 D 3, 7 P 5, and 2 D 5. The first figure of the index denotes Sebal, 30; Adar, 29; Nisan, 30 ; Ijar, 29; Sivan, 30; Tammuz, 29; the day of the week upon which the year commences, thus 5 denotes Ab, 30; and Elul, 29. In the embolismic year, Adar always consists the year to begin on the fifth day of the week or Thursday, 3 the third of 30, and the thirteenth month, which is named Veadar, always of 29 day of the week or Tuesday, &c., &c.; the letter of the index deterdays.
mines the length of the months Marchesvan and Cisleu ; thus P stands The reason why an embolismic year for the most part succeeds two for perfect, i. e., these two months are both perfect, each containing common years, is evident from the circumstance of the lunar year 30 days ; D stands for defective, i. e., each of these months contains being nearly 11 days shorter than the solar, so that in three years the only 29 days; and a small d denotes that one of these months is de. latter gains from the former not fewer than about 32 days, and as only fective, which in this case is always Marchesvan. The last figure of a month of 30 days is intercalated in that time, at the commencement the index shows the day of the week upon which the passover happens, of the lunar cycle, it is manifest that two intercalary years must some- just in the same manner as the first figure denotes the day of the times happen with only one common year between. Accordingly, the week upon which the year begins. 3d, 6th, 8th, Ilth, 14th, 17th, and 19th years of every lunar cycle For a farther explanation of the index, let it be required to find upon are denominated embolismic; see Table 1. If the lunar synodic revo- what day of the week the rabbinical year of the world 5570 begins ; lution consisted precisely of 29 days, 12 hours, the assigning to the upon what day of the week the passover is held in that year; and Jewish months 29 and 30 days alternately, would be sufficient to fix also the length of the months Marchesvan and Cisleu. To solve this the commencement of the different months about the day of the con- 1 question, we have only to refer to Table I., where we find the index junction, ad infinitum; but as the synodic revolution, according to of the year to be 2 D 5, i. e., the year commences on Tuesday, the Rabbi Adda, contains 44 minutes 3 seconds more than 294 days, it passover is held upon Thursday, and the months Marchesvan and Cis. is demonstrable that the assignment of 29 and 30 days alternately to leu are both delcctive, i. e., have only 29 days each. the months must be insufficient, and in the course of a few years Having premised thus much respecting the mode of constructing must produce very sensible error.
the Jewish calendar, we now come to explain the chief object of the Thus, in order to make this circumstance obvious to the lowest preceding tables, which is to determine the order of reading the capacity, let the first paschal full moon in the lunar cycle be supposed Pareshioth and Haphtaroth, or Sections of the Law and the Prophets to commence precisely at mid-day, then it is evident, from the quan- for any given year. For this purpose Tables I., II., and V. are chiefly tity of a synodic revolution, as ascertained by the rabbins, that the constructed. In Table I. the index for every Jewish year of the world nineteen paschal full moons which are contained in every cycle will, from 5568 to 5814 (both inclusive) is given : and as these years corin this case, happen as in the following table ; where the first column respond to all the years of our Lord from 1807 to 2054, both inclusive, points out the year of the cycle ; the second, the precise point of it will be 242 years before this table, in its present form, will be entime in the lunar cycle of the respective paschal full moons; the tirely antiquated ; and it may be rendered perpetual by affixing the third, the nearest corresponding day, omitting the fractional parts ; same routine of indexes to the 247 years, beginning with A. D. 2055 and and the fourth, the differences of the numbers in the third column, ending with A. D. 2301 ; and to the 247 years subsequent to A. D or in other words, the interval of time, expressed in whole members, 2301, &c., &c., ad infinitum. Table II. contains a calendar of Sabbaths which elapses between each successive paschal full moon.
for the 14 different kinds of years made use of by the Jews, together
with the Pareshah or Pareshioth read on the different Sabbaths of each, 0 days 0 hours 0 min. 0 sec.
In the first column of the months the black circle or astronomical 354
354 sign of the conjunction of the sun and moon points out the figure an. 3 E 738
738 394 nexed to it to be the day of the week upon which the month begins, 4 1092 15
1093 355 and when two numbers are affixed, it is to show that the conjunction 5 1446 23 58 43
1447 354 of the luminaries corresponds to both days ; the latter of which is al. 1830 21 31 26
1831 394 ways taken for the commencement of the month. All the other num7 2185
2185 354 bers in this column are the days of the month upon which the Sabbaths BE 2569
2569 384 happen, except soinetimes in the month Tisri, where two numbers 9 2923 12 41
2924 355 occur together, the first of which is the day of the week and the latter 10 3277 21
3278 354 the corresponding day of the month. In order therefore to find what 11 E 3661 19
Pareshah or Pareshioth are read on any given Sabbath, nothing more 12 4016
is necessary than to look into Table 1. for the index of the given year, 13 4370 12 40 12
and with it to enter Table II., where against the given Sabbath, in 14 E 4754 10
4754 383 the column of Parcshioth, will be found the given Pareshah or Par. 15 5108 19
5109 355 eshioth required.
5163 354 Example I. Required the Pareshah or Pareshioth appointed to be 17 E 5817
5847 384 read in the synagogue on the second Sabbath of the month Sivan, A. 18 6201 10 11 38
M. 5572. In Table 1. the index for the years 5 d 7, from which it ap19 E 6585
6585 384 pears by Table II, that it is the second Jewish common year, and the 1 6939 16
over against which, in the column of Pareshioth, is 35, the number of
the Pareshah required. By a reference to the list of Pareshioth given From the last column of the proceding table, it is evident that tho at the end of the commentary on the last chapter of Deuteronomy, we paschal full moons happen constantly after an interval of 354, 355, 383, find that this section of the law commences with Num. iv. 21, and or 384 days, omitting the fractional parts; but the length of the Jews ends at vii. 89 of the same book. The Haphtara read on the Sabbath ish year may be either 353, 354, 355, 383, 384, or 385 days. The reason appears by the same list to be the xilith chapter of Judges from the of this discordance between the length of the Jewish year, and the 20 to the 25th verse ; in Table V. the 12th of Sivan, A. M. 5572, is the interval between two consecutive paschal full moons, arises chiefly | same with the 23d of May, 1812.
Explanation of the preceding Tables. Erample 2. Required the Pareshah or Pareshioth appointed to be stance is noticed in the third column of Table V. whenever it occurs,) read on the fourth Sabbath of Tammuz, A. M. 5584. In Table I. the Lev. xxiii. 24 and Num. xxix. 1-7 are read. index for the year is 7 D 3, which index corresponds to the fifth em- When the 25th of Cisleu falls on the Sabbath, the contraction En., bolismic year in Table II., consequently the fourth Sabbath of Tam- for Encania, Dedication, is affixed to the number of the Pareskah in muz falls on the 28th of the month, and the Pareshioth for the given Tables II. and V., to show that it is the day to be held in commemora day are the 420 and 43d. The former commences at the second tion of the altar's being dedicated afresh to the service of God, aller verse of the xxxth chapter of Numbers, and the latter is continued its purification from its pollutions by Antiochus. from it to the end of the book. By a reference to Table V., the 28th Tables III. and IV. are constructed to determine the day of the of Tammuz, A. M. 5581, answers to the 24th of July, 1824.
week upon which the principal Jewish Fasts and Feasts are held for N. B. The figure and capital letter found in the first column of any given year. One example will be sufficient to illustrate these Table V. at the beginning of each Jewish year, show to which of the tables. Erample. Required the day of the week upon which the fourteen kinds of years, according to their disposition in Table II., the principal Jewish fasts and feasts happen in the Jewish year of the said year belongs, thus 1 C stands for the first common year; 5 E, world' 5573. By a reference to Table I. this year corresponds to A. D. the fifth embolismic year, &c., &c., &c.
1813 ; and in Table III. in the same square with 1813 is the capital When, in the column of Pareshioth and Hephtaroth in Tables II. and letter C, which shows that the numbers in column C of Table IV., V., the word Chippur is affixed to any particular Sabbath, it points over against the different fasts and festivals, are the days of the week it out to be the great day of ATONEMENT, for which a particular ser required. Thus the commencement of Tisri is on the second and vice is appointed. The portion of the law read on that day begins third days of the week ; the Fast of Gedaliah on the 4th ; the Fast with the 27th verse of the xxiiid chapter of Leviticus, and ends with of ATONEMENT on the 4th ; the Feast of Tabernacles on the 2d; the chapter. The Haphtorah for this day is the book of the prophet Hosanna Rabba on the Ist; the Latitia Legis, or Joy for the Law, on Jonah.
the 3d ; the commencement of Marchesvan on the 3d and 4th; the When the word Succoth is affixed to any particular Sabbath, if it be
commencement of Cisleu on the 5th ; the Enconia on the Ist; the 15th of Tisri, it is the day upon which the Feast of Tabernacles the commencement of Tebet on the 6th ; the Fast of the 10th of commences; the portion of the law for which occasion begins at the
Tebet on the 1st ; the commencement of Sebat on the Sabbath; the 34th verse of the xxid chapter of Leviticus. The Haphtorah is the
commencement of Adar on the 1st and 2d; the commencement of xivth chapter of the prophet Zechariah ; but on the Sabbath which fol
Veadar on the 3d and 4th ; the Fast of Esther on the 2d ; the Feast lows the 13th of Tisti, if it be within the octave of the Feast of Tab.
of Purim on the 3d ; the commencement of Nisan on the 5th ; the ernacles, the portion of the prophets which is read is the xxxviith Feast of the Passover on the 5th ; the commencement of ljer on the chapter of Ezekiel, according to the German Jews, but the other Jews 6th and 7th ; the 33 Omer on the 3d ; the commencement of Siren read from Ezek. xxxviii. 18, to xxxix. 16.
on the 1st; the Feast of Pentecost on the 6th ; the commencement The capital letters B. L., which are affixed to the fifty-fourth section
of Tammuz on the 2d and 3d ; the Fast of the 17th of Tomsuz on of the law in the third column of Table V., stand for Book of the Law. the 5th ; the commencement of Ab on the 4th ; the Fast of the 9th This section is read on the 23d of Tisri, which is contrived so as
of Ab on the 5th ; and the commencement of Elul on the 5th and 6th never to happen on the Sabbath, as the day upon which it is read is a
days of the week. time of great festivity among the Jews for their having completed
Table VI. needs little explanation ; the titles of its different columns the reading of the fifty-four Pareshioth, which comprise the whole being sufficient for this purpose. The first column shows the rear of book of the law. The asterisk affixed to the 23d day of Tisri, in Ta. the world according to the Jewish reckoning. The second coluinn, ble V., and its corresponding time in the Gregorian computation, is
the year of our Lord ; the letter B in the same column shows each designed to show thai this day happens on a week day and not on the
Bissertile or Leap-year. The 3d and 4th columns contain the lunar Sabbath, as all the other days in the same coluinns do.
cycle and golden numbers. The fifth column shows the month and day When ! Pas. or 2 Pas. is affixed to any particular Sabbath, it is the
of the month on which the Jewish passover falls, from the year 1812 first or second Sabbath of the passover, upon which, if the 15th of Ni
to the year 1900. The sixth column marks the day on which Easter san be the Sabbath day, the portion of the prophets read on the occa.
falls during the same period. The seventh column shows the year of sion is the vth chapter of Joshua, all but the first verse. If there be our Lord corresponding with the beginning of the Jewish year in the only one Sabbath in the feast of the passover, the Haphtorah is the first column and also on what day of what month the Jewish year, 14 first verses of the xxxviith chapter of Ezekiel, to which some add according to the Gregorian calendar, commences. By the slightest inthe three following. If there be two Sabbaths in the seast of the pass. spection of these tables any person may at once see the day on which over, the latter is termed the octave, upon which they read the whole the Jewish passover and the Christian Easter falls for any year of the of the Canticles, and also the prophet Isaiah, from the 32d verse of above period from 1812 to 1900. the xth chapter to the end of the xlith.
On the subject of the preceding tables there will be doubtless raWhen Pent. is affixed to any particular Sabbath, it is the second day rious opinions among the readers of this work. Some may even think of the Feast of Pentecost, upon which occasion the vid, ivth, vth, and them useless, while others will judge them of considerable importance. vith chapters of the prophei Habakkuk, together with the book of Ruth, The writer has only to say that no other part of the work has occaare read.
sioned so much labour and so much expense. Nothing of this nature, Besides the 54 sections of the law which are regularly read through
on the same plan, has ever before met the eye of the English reader
nor does any other language afford a similar subject at once so czterin the course of a Jewish year, whether it be common or embolismic, there are four minor PARESHIOTH which are generally read in the
sive in the plan, and so concise in the execution. Those who best un
derstand the work will perceive that it required no common industry, month Adar of a common, and in Veadar of an embolismic, year. These
to say nothing of other requisite qualifications, to construct such tables, are 3D Shekalim, 7737 Zachor, 1770 Pare, and winn Hachodesh; even with the extensive work
of Bartolocci's Bibliotheca Rabbinica beand are marked down in Tables II. and V. by their initial letters S, Z, fore him, to which the present collection of tables acknowledges high P, and I. The minor Pareshah, SHEKALI, commences with the 11th obligations. The writer could not consider his cominent on ihe Penverse of the xxxth chapter of Erodus, and ends at the 16th verse of
tateuch as even tolerably complete without such an apparatus as is the same ; Zachor begins with the 17th verse of the xxvth chapter here produced, which it is hoped every minister of the word of God of Deuteronomy, and contains the Divine malediction upon the Ama- will find of the utmost use to him in various matters connected with lekites ; PARA begins with the xixth chapter of Numbers, and ends Jewish affairs ; but on this subject nothing need be added, as the tawith the chapter; and IACHOPESH begins witk the 10th verse of the bles and their uses have been already so largely explained. In his xiith chapter of Exodus, and ends at the 20th verse of the same prospectus the author promised "every requisite table ;" and had he chapter.
not added these, he must have considered the pledge given to the pubWhen the Jewish year commences on the Sabbath, (which circum- / lic not redeemed.