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CONTAINING A CONCISE DESCRIPTION OF

SOME OF THE PRINCIPAL PLACES IN
IRELAND; WITE THE ANTIQUITIES,
CESTOMS, CHARACTER, AND MANNERS
OF THAT COUNTRY.

BY DR. SAMUEL FOLEY.

IRISH EXTRACTS.

surfaces; for when you force one off the other, one of them is always concave in the middle, the other convex. There are many of these kind of joints, which lie loose upon some part of the causeway, and on the strand, which

were blown or washed off the pillars. BY THOMAS STRINGER, M.D. These joints are not always placed (Continued from page 36.)

alike, for in some pillars the convexity

is always upwards, and in others it THE GIANT'S CAUSEWAY, stands always downwards. When you

force them asunder, both the concave

and convex surfaces are very smooth, (From an Anlient Nalural Hislory of Ireland, by Wm. Molyneux, about touch another, being of a whitish free,

as are also the sides of the pillars which 1694.)

stone colour, but of a finer grit and T! WHE Giant's Causeway is somewhat closer; whereas when we broke some

more than eight English niles pieces off them, the inside appeared from the town of Coleraine, and three like a dark marble. The pillars stand from the Bush Mills, almost directly very close together, and though some North. It runs from the bottom of a of them have five sides, and others of high hill into the sea, no man can tell them six, yet the contextures of them how far; but at low water the length are so adapted, that there is no vacuity of it is about six hundred foet, and between them; the inequality of the the breadth of it, in the broadest place, wumbers of the sides of the pillars, two hundred and forty feet; in the being ofteu in a surprising, and a very narrowest, one hundred and twenty wonderful manner, throughout the feet. It is very unequal likewise in whole causeway, compensated by the the height: in some places it is about inequality of the breadihs and angles of thirty-six feet high from the level of those sides; so that the whole, at a the strand, and in other places about little distance, looks very regular; and fifteen feet. It consists of many thou every single pillar does retain its own sand pillars, which stand most of them thickuess, and angles and sides from perpendicular to the plain of the hori- top to bottom. zon close to one another, but we could Those pillars that seem to be entire not discern whether they do run down as they were originally, are at the top under ground like a quarry or flat and rough, without any graving or Some of them are very long and higher striate linies; those which lie towards than the rest, others short and broke: the sea are washed, smooth; and others some for a pretty large space of an that seem to have their natural tops equal height, so that their tops make blown or washed off, are some coucave, an equal plain surface, many of thein others convex. imperfect, cracked, and irregular; others The high bank hanging over the entire uniform and handsome, and these causeway on that side which lies next of different shapes and sizes. We found to it, and towards the sea, scems to be them almost all pentagonal or hexago. for the most part composed of the nal, only we observed that a few had common sort of craggy rock, only we seven sides, and many more pentagonis saw a few irregular pillars on the east than hexagons, but they were all irre side, and some farther on the north, gular: for none that we could observe which they call the Looms or Organs, had their sides of equal breadth: the standing on the side of a hill; the pilpillars are soine of thew fifteen, some Jars in the middle being longest, and eighteen inches, some two feet in dia. those on each side of the still shorter meter, none of there are one entire and shorter; but just over the causeway stone, but every pillar consists of seve we saw as it were the tops of some pilo ral joints or pieces, as we may call lars appearing out of the sides of The them, of which some are six, some bill, not standing, nor isiog Hat, but twelve, some eighteen inches, some two sloping: We suppose each pillar, feet deep.

throughout the causeway, to continue These pillars lie as close upon one the same to the very bottom, because another as it is possible for one stone to all that we saw on the side were so. lie upon another, not joiniug with fiat N.B. The several sides of une and Europ. Mag. l'ol. LXXII. Aug. 1817.

S

no.

the same pillar are as in the planes of other, exhibiting an appearance not chrystals, of very unequal breadths or much unlike a solid boneycomb. The Jengths, call it either, when you mea. pillars are irregular prisms of various sure them horizontally; and that in denominations, from four to eight such as are hexagonal, a broader side sides; but the hexagonal columns are always subtends, or is opposite to a as numerous as all the others together. narrower; which sort of geometry na On a minute inspection, each pil. ture likewise always observes in the lar is found to be separable into several formation of chrystals.

joints, whose articulation is neat and compact beyond expression: the con

vex termination of one joint always DESCRIPTION OF THE GIANT'S CAUSEWAY.

meeting a concave socket in the next; (From Lelters concerning the Northern besides which, the angles of one fre.

Coast of the County of Antrim. By quently shoot over those of the other, The Rev. Wm. Humilton.)

so that they are completely locked The native inbabitants of the coast, together, and can scarcely be separated as they were the earliest observers of without a fracture of some of their this wonder, so were they the first to parts. Tbe sides of each column are account for the production ; and, how unequal among themselves, but the ever rude and simple their theory may contiguous sides of adjoining columns be, yet a little consideration will satisfy are always of equal dimensions, so as us that it does not deserve the ignomi. to touch in all their parts. nious appellation of being grossly igno. Though the angles be of various magrant and absurd.. The Causeway was nitudes, yet the sum of the contiguons observed by the fishermen, whose daily angles of adjoining pillars always makes necessities led them thither for subsis. up four right ones. Hence there are tence, to be a regular mole, projecting po void spaces among the basaltes, the into the sea, which answered for several surface of the Causeway exhibiting to convenient purposes; on closer inspec. view a regular and compact pavement tion it was discovered to be built with of polygon stones. The outside cover an appearance of art and regularity ing is soft, and of a brown colour, somewhat resembling the works of men, being the carthy parts of the stone but at the same time exceeding every nearly deprived of its metallic principle thing of the like kind which had been by the action of the air, and of the seen; and it was found that human marine acid which it receives from the sagacity, ingenuity, and experience, if sea. supporied by perseverance and great These are the obvious external cha. power, might be abundantly adequate racters of this extraordinary pile of to its production.

basaltes, observed and described with The chief defect in this simple ana wonder by every one who has seen it. logy, seems to bave been the want of But it is not here our admiration should strength equal to the effect ; but this cease : --wbatever the process was by was soon supplied in the traditions of a which Nature produced that beautiful fanciful people, and Fin Ma Cool, the and curious arrangement of pillars of celebrated hero of ancient Ireland, he. the Giant's Causeway, the cause, far came the giant under whose forming from being limited to that spot alone, hand this curious structure wis erected. appears to bave extended ihrough a

It was afterwards discovered, that a large tract of country in every direcpile of similar pillars was placed some. tiou; inson uch, that many of the comwhere on the opposite coast of Scotland, mon quarries for several miles round, and as the business of latitudes and seem to be only abortive attempts tolongitudes was not at that time accu wards the production of a Giant's rately ascertained, a general confused Causeway. From want of attention to notion prevailed that this mole was this circumstance, a vast deal of time continued across the sea, and connected and labour has been idly spent in mi. the Scullish and Irish coasts together. nute examinations of the Causeway

The Causeway itself is generally des. itself; in lracing its course under the cribed as a mole or quay projecting occan, pursuing ils columns into the from the base of a steep promontory, ground, determining its length and its some hundred fect into the sea, and is breadth, and the number of its pillars. formed of perpendicular piliars of ba With numerous wild conjectures consaltes, which stand in contact with each ceruing its original; all of wbich cease

to be of any importance when this spot between forty and fifty feet in height, is considerded only as

small corner

less gross, and more sharply defined of an immense basalt quarry, extend than those of the upper story, many of ing widely over the neighbourhood. them, on a close view, emulating even

The leading features of this whole the neatness of the columns in the coast, are the two great promontories Giant's Causeway. This lower range of Bepgore and Fairhead, which stand is borne on a layer of red ochre stone, at the distance of eight miles from cach which serves as a relief to show it to other. Both founded on a great and great advantage. These two admirable extensive scale; both abrupt towards natural galleries, together with the ad. the sea, and abundantly exposed to obe jacent mass of irregular rock, form á servation; and each in its kind exhi- perpendicular height of one hundred biting noble arrangements of the dif- and seventy feet; from the base of ferent species of columnar basaltes. which, the promontory covered over The former of these lies seven miles with rock and grass, slopes down to the west of Ballycastle, and is generally sea for the space of two hundred feet described by seamen, who see it at a more, making in all a mass of pear four distance and in profile, as an extensive hundred feet in beight, which in beauty bead-land, running out from the coast and variety of its colouring, in elegance a considerable length into the sea; but and novelty of arrangement, and iu the strictly speaking, it is made up of a extraordinary magnificence of its obe number of lesser capes and bays, each jects, cannot readily be rivalled bg any with its own proper name, the toul en thing of the kind at present known. semble of which, forms what the seamen Though there are but two complete denominate the bead-land of Bengore. ranges of pillars which appear in any of These capes are coinposed of a variety the promontories, yet it is not improof differeot ranges of pillars and a great bable there may be many more in suce bumber of strata, which from the cession at various depths under ground; abruptness of the coast, are extremely and this opinion is confirmed by columconspicuous, and form an unrivalled par marks, which may be traced in se. pile of natural architecture, in which veral rocks that lie in the sea. The all the neat regularity and elegance Causeway itself, which is situated at of art, is united to the wild magnifi. the base of one of those promontories cence of nature.

on the level of the beach, is one of The most perfect of these Capes is those columnar beds that has been accalled Pleaskin, of wbich I shall attempt cidentally stripped, and washed by a description.

length of time and storms. - The summit of Pleaskin is covered The pillars of this whole head-land with a tbin grassy sod, under which appear naturally to affect a perpendicu. lies the natural rock, having generally lar situation, and in the few places an uniform hard surface, somewhat where they lie in an inclined posture, cracked and shivered. At the depth of it seems to be the effect of some interten or twelve feet from the summit, nal cause, which has deranged them this rock begins to assume a columnar from their original disposition Indeed tendency, and forms a range of massy where the forms of chrystallization are pillars of basaltes, which stand perpen- imperfect, they may be seen to shoot dicular to the horizontal; presenting, in various directions, and sometimes in in the sharp face of the promontory, irregular curves, but in most of these the appearance of a magnificent gallery instances, the columnar outline is very or colongade, upward of sixty feet in rude and irregular and unfioished. height.

It is worth remarking, that the This colonnade is supported on ranges of the pillars are more perfect solid base of coarse black irregular in proportion as they lie deeper under rock, near sixty feet thick, abounding in ground; the second range in Pleaskin blebs or air-holes; though comparatively is evidently belter finished than the irregular, it may be evideutly observed upper one, and contains much fewer to affect a peculiar figure, iending in irregularities in the grain of its stone; many places to run into regular forms, while the pillars of the Causeway, resembling the shooting of salts and which runs into the sea itself, have many other substances during a hasty still a greater sharpness in their figure, chrystallization. Under this great bed and are more close and uniform jo their of stone stauds a second range of pillars, texture.

a

TO

Such is the general outline of this faults; the result was, that there subgreat headland, which affords objects sisted between the friends the warmest extremely interesting to every one who sentiments of affection and esteem; may wish to study nature in her bold the passions of schoolboys are stronger and uncommon works.

than those of men, they know less of (To be continued.)

the world, and have not arrived at the period of thinking most men knaves,

and knowing many to be so when THE WANDERER.

looking with cooloess on the occurChapter II.

rences of life, and profiting by their 10 witness the separation of the experience, (often dearly boughi) their

body and its immaterial essence, attachments become rather subservient even when the process is accompanied to their interests, thao the results of by all the forms attendant on dissolu. their feelings. tion, when the quackeries of mourning From the sombre reflections which and medicine through a loog illness had occupied his mind during the night, have marked the gradual approach of Maurice rose as soon as the day apdeath, and by distracting the reflexions peared, and after visiting his friend's have blunted the feclings and relicved lifeless corse, and giving directions the intensity of grief-even then 'tis a about his fuveral, which he learned most painful spectacle; one which, from the land lady Wharton bad desired striking at the root of our self-conceit, to be as plain as possible, and not at convinces as of our insignificance, and all differing from those of the villagers, proclaims aloud that man is but “the he proceeded to his home, where he child of dust, the brother of the worm.” found his friends as well as he could But this, painful as it is, cannot be com- wish, and received a most ardent wel. pared with the acute feelings of grief ex. come-the joy of the meeting was perienced at beholding the sudden death somewhat checked by his melancholy of a beloved friend; the unexpectedness account of the death of his uofortunate of the occurrence stems, as it were, the friend. usual feeling of unmixed sorrow, and A week from the day on which produces in its stead a dull depression Wharton had died, Maurice followed of soul, a sullen silent grief too heavy his bier to the grave, it was a most for utterance, and which seems as if to romantic spot in which he bad desired express it would increase its weight. to be buried, upon a small eminence

Maurice beheld his friend's death with in the village church-yard ; an immense the keenest emotion, his feelings overa yew-tree overshadowed the grave, and powered him, he sank on a chair near the wind rustliog through its thick the lifeless body, and for some moments branches made a sigbing sound at every was overcome by the violence of his blast. Without any very great effort of emotions; be was soon howerer roused the imagination, ii might have seemed by the people in the room, and stifling to be perforining a requiem over the his feelings he gave some necessary or. dead. In this spot, which commanded ders, and retired to the bed prepared a view of the village school and the for bim.

surrounding country, Wharton had Left to himself, he thought with in- loved to sit for hours together; and creased sorrow of the untimely fate of bere, a short tiine before his deatb, he bis deceased friend, and almost depre. bad requested to be interred. cated the chance which bad brought Maurice stood in a reverie almost in, him at such a moment to witness his sensible to the objects around him, until death. His thoughts then took a re the hollow sound of the heavy earth strika trospective glance to the period at ing on the coffin roused him-il secmu. which he had known bim previously to ed to break, as it were, the last link of his leaving England.

the chain which had connected the They had been together at a public deceased to humanity. He listened de. school, where Wharton, who was by voutly to the remainder of the burial some years Maurice's scoior, had won service, the most sublime of all the his eternal friendship by the numerous offices of the church of England, calkind offices which a bigger boy at a culated at the same time to inspire a public school can render to his ioferior resignation to the will of the Almighty, in size and age; he had fought his bat and to impart consolation to the mind tles, done bis lessons, and scrcened his boruc down wild grief.

I.

Among Wharton's papers was found

THE GLEANER. a note, in which he desired, that after

No. IV. the payment of his funeral, and other expenses, the remainder of the money Nor stony tower, nor walls of beaten be possessed, should be given to his brass, hostess, as some remuneration for the

Nor airless dungeon, nor strong links of

iron, kindnesses he had received from her.

Can be retentive to the strength of spirit, Maurice fulfilled his friend's intentions,

Julius CEASAR, Act l, sc. 2. and retired home with a heavy heart, where,' at the first opportunity, he N estimating the character, and de. opened the manuscript which Wharton ciding upon the disposition of our bad given bim.

companions and associates, we are very On the first leaf, and evidently writ- often led into errors which are the con ten much later than the beginaing of stant attendants upon forming a hasty the book, was written as follows: judgment, and pronouncing sentence be

* When a man's mind has become so fore every circumstance is nicely inves. much estranged from his fellow.men tigated. If we see a man bent upon (no matter whether by his own vices or

the fulfilment of a design which apby those of others) that he feels no pears to us unwise, and indeed impracsocial tie, which causes him to take ticable, and find, that notwithstanding any interest in the affairs of the world the advice which we may have given and its inhabitants ; when bis spirit bas him, he still perseveres in his efforts ; been so much wounded, that the acci we are too apt to stigmatize him with dental collision of his own with the the opprobrious epithets of obstinate, human feelings of others, has no effect self-willed, and self-sufficient; but bebut that of tearing afresh those wounds fore we thus make bim the object of which the hand of tiine may sear into our censure, we should do well to ask forgetfulness, but can never restore to ourselves if we have given that attenhealth; it is some consolation to pour tion to the subject, and if we have so forth on paper the overflowings of his cautiously weighed all the arguments beart-at least I find it so-and as on both for and agaiost it, as he has done; looking back upon the occurrences of and we should also remember, that my life, I see many circumstances there is nothing which throws so unwhich now seem to have been mighty favourable a light over the projects of ridiculous, though they once appeared another, when our opinion concerning of vital importance to me, I have them has been rejected, as that woond determined to put them on paper, in ed pride which very often springs from order, as Montaigne says, “to make slighted advice. them ashamed of themselves.” Some Nor is obstinacy, though it may pero of them are of a more soinbre cast; haps be the most frequent one, the and, perbaps, when the cold, but friend- only charge that is brought against the ly grasp of death shall have ceased the man of decisive character; but, at an throbbing of the heart which now earlier stage of his conduct, he is liable pants from the oppression of the world, to be blamed for what is the very resome congeojal spirit may light upon verse of the subsequent cause of ceo. these pages, written as cursorily as the sure.

None are so apt to detect and feelings which prompted them, occurred find fault with failings in others, as to the mind of tbe writer. Should those persons who possess the very same; such a one meet with them when the and the man of weak mind and waver. eye of the world is not upon him, and ing disposition is the first to charge the band which now traces them shall those with it, whom he has often envied have mouldered into that oblivion for completing what he has been afraid which (but that religion forbids the to commence. There is a period in murmur) bis aching mind wishes it the plans and operations of him who bever woke from, the recital may be possesses the greatest firmness, which guile him of a tear-the sufferance has to the rash judgment of the superficial cost me many—if this should not be observer, appears chargeable with inthe case, they will at all events serve decision. Let us for ouc moment picto light a fire.

ture to ourselves such a man proposing

to himself some new course of life, and (To be corlinued.)

impressed with the idea of its probable advantages, reviewing his former and

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